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Sampling error occurs because only a small proportion of the total population is used to produce estimates that represent the whole population. Sampling error refers to the fact that for a given sample size, each sample will produce different results, which will usually not be equal to the population value. There are two common ways of reducing sampling error - increasing sample size and/or utilising an appropriate selection method (for example, multi-stage sampling would be appropriate for household surveys). Given the large sample size for the ACLD (1 in 20 persons), and simple random selection, sampling error is minimal.
While the 2006, 2011 and 2016 Censuses had predominantly the same questions and were processed in a similar way, there were some differences between them. For example, a number of changes were made to how industry of employment information was collected for the 2016 Census. The ABS advises this data is not directly comparable to the previous Census industry of employment data, and should not be used to measure longitudinal transitions between industries from 2011 to 2016. For further information refer to Industry of Employment (INDP) in Census of Population and Housing: Understanding the Census and Census Data, Australia, 2016 (cat. no. 2900.0).
Notable data items that are different between Census years are personal, family and household income. Income was collected in ranges and these ranges are different in different Census years. The ACLD does not include an adjustment to income data for inflation.
For more information on the differences between the 2006, 2011 and 2016 Census see What's New for 2011? and What's New for 2016?
Estimates derived from the ACLD may differ to those derived from other sources. This is due to a range of factors including:
The ACLD is derived from Census data that is self reported by households across Australia on Census night. This will differ from other ABS collections which may rely on different collection methodologies (e.g. trained interviewers, administrative sources). In addition, the way survey questions are phrased and the answer options available for a given question may affect the information provided by respondents.
The reference periods for the ACLD are the Census nights of each year. Other collections may use different reference periods.
The ACLD uses a 5% sample of Census data as its base population. This will differ from other collections that may collect information from the entire population of Australia (e.g. the Census) or from a sample of dwellings (e.g. Labour Force Survey).
Sampling and non-sampling error
While every effort is made to minimise error, each collection will have some level of error. Survey collections are subject to some level of sampling error, as they are based on information obtained from a sample of dwellings or businesses. The Census is not subject to this type of error, but is subject to some level of undercount. The ACLD is constructed using a sample of records from the Census, and is therefore subject to a level of sampling error of its own.
Scope and coverage
The ACLD weights benchmark the linked records to the longitudinal population that was in scope of consecutive Censuses. This will be different to cross-sectional estimates which may be benchmarked to a point-in-time population, such as the Estimated Resident Population.
The ACLD is subject to linkage error, as records from one Census are linked to corresponding records from the subsequent Census. While every effort is made to minimise false links, they can occur. Linkage error will not be apparent in other collections which are not produced through data integration.
For these reasons, while the results from the ACLD are considered to be broadly representative of the Australian population, they are not strictly comparable with statistics derived from other collections.
For detailed information about the different methodologies for each collection, refer to the Explanatory Notes within each release.
For detailed information regarding the differences between the Census and Labour Force collections, refer to The 2016 Census and the Labour Force Survey in Census of Population and Housing: Understanding the Census and Census Data, Australia, 2016 (cat. no. 2900.0).
For detailed information regarding Census data, including changes to Census questions and data quality statements for each Census data item, refer to Understanding the data in Census of Population and Housing: Understanding the Census and Census Data, Australia, 2016 (cat. no. 2900.0).
Detailed information on methodology, linkage quality and weighting can be found in Information Paper: Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset, Methodology and Quality Assessment (cat. no. 2080.5). The ABS publishes extensive information on historical Census Data Quality, and 2016 Census Data Quality.
The Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset can be accessed through TableBuilder and the DataLab.
Microdata products are available to approved users. Users wishing to access the microdata should read the How to apply for Microdata web page, before applying for access by emailing email@example.com. Users should also familiarise themselves with information available via the Microdata Entry Page.
Any questions regarding access to microdata can be forwarded to firstname.lastname@example.org or phone (02) 6252 7714.
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