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1350.0.55.001 - Australian Economic Indicators Glossary, 2006  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 31/07/2007  Reissue
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Parcel postGoods consigned through the postal system. This term excludes small items transported by private courier companies.
Reference: International Merchandise Trade, Australia, Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 5489.0.

Parity progression ratioParity progression ratio refers to the proportion of females, with a given number of children, who progress to having another child.
Reference: Demographic Estimates and Projections: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 3228.0.

Part of StatePart of State is used to refer to the remainder of a state outside the Capital City Statistical Division (SD). See also Balance of State or Territory.
Reference: Demographic Estimates and Projections: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 3228.0.

Participation rateFor any group, the labour force expressed as a percentage of the civilian population aged 15 years and over in the same group.
Reference: Labour Force, Australia. cat. no. 6202.0.

Partner country For exports, this is the country of last known destination, or country of final destination as far as it is known at the time of exportation. or

Imports and import clearances, this is the country of origin of the goods.
Reference: International Merchandise Trade, Australia, Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 5489.0.

Part-time workersPart-time workers are employed persons who usually worked less than 35 hours a week (in all jobs) and either did so during the reference week, or were not at work in the reference week.
Reference: Labour Force, Australia. cat. no. 6202.0.

Passenger vehiclesIncludes vehicles designed primarily for the carriage of people, such as cars, station wagons and people movers. Also includes four wheel drive passenger vehicles not classified as SUVs. Note that this is not directly comparable to the definition of passenger vehicles in ABS collections (such as the Motor Vehicle Census) which includes SUVs.
Reference: Sales of New Motor Vehicles, (Electronic Publication). cat. no. 9314.0.

Paternity-acknowledged birthA paternity-acknowledged birth refers to an ex-nuptial birth where paternity was acknowledged.
Reference: Demographic Estimates and Projections: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 3228.0.

Perinatal deathA perinatal death is a fetal or a neonatal death.
Reference: Demographic Estimates and Projections: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 3228.0.

Perinatal death rateFor perinatal death rates a birthweight and period of gestation criterion apply:
  • The perinatal death rate is the number of perinatal deaths per 1,000 live births (who weighed at least 500 grams at birth or of at least 22 weeks gestation, if birthweight was unavailable), plus fetal deaths recorded during the calendar year. Applies to data collected prior to 1997.
  • The perinatal death rate is the number of perinatal deaths per 1,000 live births (who weighed at least 400 grams at birth or of at least 20 weeks gestation, if birthweight was unavailable), plus fetal deaths recorded during the calendar year. Applies to data collected from 1997.
Reference: Causes of Death, Australia. cat. no. 3303.0.

Permanent arrivalsPermanent arrivals (settlers) comprise:
  • travellers who hold migrant visas (regardless of stated intended period of stay);
  • New Zealand citizens who indicate an intention to settle; and
  • those who are otherwise eligible to settle (e.g. overseas-born children of Australian citizens).
This definition of settlers is used by the Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (DIMA). Prior to 1985 the definition of settlers used by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) was the stated intention of the traveller only. Numerically the effect of the change in definition is insignificant. The change was made to avoid the confusion caused by minor differences between data on settlers published separately by the ABS and the DIMA.
Reference: Australian Demographic Statistics. cat. no. 3101.0.

Permanent departuresPermanent departures are Australian residents (including former settlers) who on departure state that they are departing permanently.
Reference: Australian Demographic Statistics. cat. no. 3101.0.

Perpetual inventory method (PIM)The PIM is a method of constructing estimates of capital stock and consumption of fixed capital from time series of gross fixed capital formation. It allows an estimate to be made of the stock of fixed assets in existence and in the hands of producers which is generally based on estimating how many of the fixed assets, installed as a result of gross fixed capital formation undertaken in previous years, have survived to the current period.
Reference: Australian National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 5216.0.

PetroleumIs a naturally occurring hydrocarbon or mixture of hydrocarbons. As oil or gas in solution (e.g. Liquid Petroleum Gas), it is widespread in Australian sedimentary rocks.
Reference: Mineral and Petroleum Exploration, Australia. cat. no. 8412.0.

Population growthFor Australia, population growth is the sum of natural increase and net overseas migration. For states and territories, population growth also includes net interstate migration. After the Census, intercensal population growth also includes an allowance for intercensal discrepancy.
Reference: Australian Demographic Statistics. cat. no. 3101.0.

Population turnoverPopulation turnover is the sum of interstate arrivals and departures during a year expressed as a proportion of the resident population of the State or Territory at the beginning, or mid-year, or at the end of the year. Population turnover, however, can also incorporate permanent and long-term arrivals and departures (adjusted for category jumping) to and from each State or Territory during a year.
Reference: Demographic Estimates and Projections: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 3228.0.

Portfolio investmentPortfolio investment consists of international equity and debt securities not classified to either direct investment or reserve assets.
Reference: Australian System of Government Finance Statistics: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 5514.0.55.001.

Portland cementIncludes blended Portland cement. Excludes both Portland cement clinker and Portland cement used to make blended Portland cement in-house.
Reference: Manufacturing Production, Australia. cat. no. 8301.0.55.001.

Preference codeA code used to indicate whether a preferential rate of duty, applying to the import of certain goods from a particular country, has been claimed.
Reference: International Merchandise Trade, Australia, Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 5489.0.

Preferential rate of dutyA reduced rate of duty applied to products that are produced or manufactured in a country which is party to a Trade Agreement with Australia.
Reference: International Merchandise Trade, Australia, Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 5489.0.

Premium supplementsThe value of premium supplements is equal to the total income earned by insurance companies through the investment of their technical reserves.
Reference: Australian Consumer Price Index: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 6461.0.

Pre-mixed concreteExcludes production used or for use within the same business.
Reference: Manufacturing Production, Australia. cat. no. 8301.0.55.001.

Prepayments of premiums and reserves against outstanding claimsPrepayments of premiums and reserves against outstanding claims are reserves in the form of prepayments of premiums which result from the fact that, in general, insurance premiums are paid in advance. Such reserves are assets of the policyholders.
Reference: Australian National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 5216.0.

Previous birthsPrevious births refer to children born alive (who may or may not be living) to a mother prior to the registration of the current birth in the processing period. In some states, legitimised and legally adopted children may also be included.

Due to variation in data collection and processing methods across states and territories, different definitions of the concept of previous births have been applied.

All previous births of the mother includes all births prior to the current confinement, regardless of nuptiality and paternity.

Previous births of the current relationship where paternity was acknowledged includes all births prior to the current confinement where the current confinement relates to a nuptial birth, or an ex-nuptial birth where paternity was acknowledged.
Reference: Demographic Estimates and Projections: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 3228.0.

Previous issueSee Previous births.


Price indexA composite measure of the prices of a predefined set of items expressed relative to a defined base period.
Reference: Australian Consumer Price Index: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 6461.0.

Price levelsActual money values in a particular period of time.
Reference: Australian Consumer Price Index: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 6461.0.

Price movementsChanges in price levels between two or more periods. Movements can be expressed in money values, as price relatives or as percentage changes.
Reference: Australian Consumer Price Index: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 6461.0.

Price relativeA measure of price movements. The ratio of the price level in one period to the price level in another.
Reference: Australian Consumer Price Index: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 6461.0.

Primary incomesConsist of incomes that accrue to institutional units as a consequence of their involvement in processes of production or their ownership of assets that may be needed for the purposes of production.
Reference: Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product. cat. no. 5206.0.

Primary and secondary marketsInvestors which purchase securities from the issuer (or from a member of the issuer’s dealer panel) are said to buy in the primary market. If these securities are subsequently sold by those investors, the sales are said to occur in the secondary market.
Reference: Australian National Accounts: Financial Accounts. cat. no. 5232.0.

Private business investmentPrivate business investment is defined as: non-dwelling construction; plus machinery and equipment; plus livestock; plus intangible fixed assets. Second hand asset sales by the public sector to private corporations are included in private business investment in the components non-dwelling construction and machinery and equipment. As the public sector also sells second-hand assets to the household sector and to the external sector, not all second-hand asset sales by the public sector will be included in private business investment.
Reference: Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product. cat. no. 5206.0.

Private dwellingA private dwelling (PD) in the Census is defined as a house, flat, part of a house, or even a room; but can also be a house attached to, or rooms above shops or offices; an occupied caravan in a caravan park or boat in a marina, a houseboat, or a tent if it is standing on its own block of land. A caravan situated on a residential allotment is also classed as a PD.
Reference: Demographic Estimates and Projections: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 3228.0.

Private householdsHouseholds living in private dwellings. Private dwellings exclude prisons, non- self-care units for the aged, defence establishments, hospitals and other communal dwellings.
Reference: Australian Consumer Price Index: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 6461.0.

Private non-farm inventories to total sales ratioThe denominator - total sales - is defined as: household final consumption expenditure on goods; plus private gross fixed capital formation: dwellings, non-dwelling construction, and machinery and equipment; plus public gross fixed capital formation: dwellings, non-dwelling construction, and machinery and equipment; plus exports of goods. This ratio is calculated using current price estimates.
Reference: Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product. cat. no. 5206.0.

Private non-financial corporationsPrivate enterprises classified to this sector are mainly companies registered under the Corporations Act (or created by other Acts of Parliament) but also include property trusts. As well, large unincorporated businesses which keep complete and independent financial records and therefore qualify as quasi-corporations, are included.

Examples of these unincorporated businesses are unincorporated partnerships of companies and trading trusts, unincorporated enterprises in Australia controlled by non-resident units (e.g. Australian branches of overseas corporations), and unincorporated enterprises assessable for income tax purposes as companies. All these privately owned businesses are grouped together into the sub-sector. private non-financial corporations.
Reference: Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product. cat. no. 5206.0.

Produced assetsProduced assets are non-financial assets that have come into existence as outputs from production processes. Produced assets consist of fixed assets and inventories. See also Fixed assets; Inventories.
Reference: Australian National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 5216.0.

Producer's pricesThe producer's price is the amount receivable by the producer from the purchaser for a unit of a good or service.
Reference: Australian National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 5216.0.

ProductionActivity carried out under the control and responsibility of an institutional unit that uses inputs of labour, capital, and goods and services to produce outputs of goods and services.
Reference: Australian System of Government Finance Statistics: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 5514.0.55.001.

Professional funds managerAn agent which invests monies on behalf of clients in return for fees. The assets managed by a professional funds manager are not on its balance sheet.
Reference: Australian National Accounts: Financial Accounts. cat. no. 5232.0.

PropensitySee Household size propensity.

Property expensesCurrent expenses for the use financial assets or tangible non-produced assets such as land and sub-soil assets (e.g. interest, dividends, land rent).
Reference: Australian System of Government Finance Statistics: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 5514.0.55.001.

Property incomeIs the income receivable by the owner of a financial asset or a tangible non-produced asset in return for providing funds, or putting a tangible non-produced asset at the disposal of another institutional unit.
Reference: Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product. cat. no. 5206.0.

Proprietors’ net equityProprietors’ net equity in quasi-corporate enterprises is one of the components of 'shares and other equity' although it is not distinguished as a separate category in the classification. Shares are subdivided between those listed and those not listed on the Australian Stock Exchange. See also Financial assets.
Reference: Australian National Accounts: Financial Accounts. cat. no. 5232.0.

Public corporationsResident government controlled corporations and quasi-corporations that are created for the purpose of producing goods and services for the market and may be a source of profit or other financial gain to their owner(s).
Reference: Australian System of Government Finance Statistics: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 5514.0.55.001.

Public financial corporationsResident government controlled corporations and quasi-corporations mainly engaged in financial intermediation or provision of auxiliary financial services.
Reference: Australian System of Government Finance Statistics: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 5514.0.55.001.

Public non-financial corporationsThis sector also includes government-owned or controlled enterprises which are mainly engaged in the production of market goods and/or non-financial services and seek to recoup, through their sales, a substantial proportion of their costs of production. This includes enterprises incorporated under the Corporations Act or special statutes as well as unincorporated enterprises. The distinction between private and public non-financial corporations is based on who controls the corporations. Corporations where a government owns more than 50 per cent of the shares in the corporation are classified as public. In addition, in some cases a government may control a corporation when it holds 50 per cent or less of the shares in the corporation. For example, government control can exist where special legislation or regulations empower a government to determine corporate policy or to appoint the directors of a corporation. Corporations controlled by other government-controlled corporations are considered to be government controlled.
Reference: Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product. cat. no. 5206.0.

Public sectorThe combination of the general government sector, the public non-financial corporations and the public financial corporations.
Reference: Australian System of Government Finance Statistics: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 5514.0.55.001.

Public unit trustA trust which issues units to the general public within Australia for the purpose of investing the pooled monies. A public unit trust must have registered a prospectus with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission and be governed by a trust deed between its management company and a trustee company. The units may or may not be listed on the Australian Stock Exchange.
Reference: Australian National Accounts: Financial Accounts. cat. no. 5232.0.

Purchasers’ pricesThe purchaser's price is the amount paid by the purchaser, excluding any deductible tax, in order to take delivery of a unit of a good or service at the time and place required by the purchaser. The purchaser’s price of a good includes any transport charges paid separately by the purchaser to take delivery at the required time and place. See also Basic price; Economically significant prices.
Reference: Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product. cat. no. 5206.0.

Pure price changeA price change unaffected by changes in the quantity and quality of labour services.
Reference: Labour Price Index: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 6351.0.55.001.

Purpose of journeyOn arrival in, or departure from, Australia all overseas visitors and Australian residents are asked to state their main purpose of journey. From September 1994, all statistics relating to purpose of journey have been published using the following categories:
  • convention/conference
  • business
  • visiting friends/relatives
  • holiday
  • employment
  • education
  • other
In tabulations of data collected before September 1994, the 'Other' category includes 'In transit'. The 'Holiday' category includes both 'Student vacation' and 'Accompanying business visitor'.
Reference: Demographic Estimates and Projections: Concepts, Sources and Methods. cat. no. 3228.0.


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