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ANZSCO - Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations

Australian update. For use in the collection, publication and analysis of occupation statistics.

Reference period
2021
Released
23/11/2021

ANZSCO - 2021 Australian update

This release of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO) was limited to a targeted update of occupations relating to agriculture, cyber security and naval ship building. The updates in this release have been made by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in consultation with other Australian Government Agencies.

What's new

The ANZSCO 2021, Australian Update reflects a review of occupations associated with the following four areas:

  • agriculture, forestry and fisheries
  • cyber security
  • naval ship building, and
  • emerging occupations identified by the National Skills Commission¹.

These areas are based on priority areas for the Australian labour market and were chosen to test a new approach to updating this classification. This update represents the first incremental step of a larger program of work to update this classification. Other priority areas are expected to be addressed in future regular updates of the ANZSCO.

This update has been undertaken in respect of the Australian labour market only. It has not considered changes in the New Zealand labour market.

This is the fourth revision since ANZSCO was established in 2006. In addition to the classification, this publication contains a summary of the classification and concordances to the previous revision (Version 1.3).

A complete list of changes (by code number) is available in ANZSCO 2021 in the data downloads.

¹ https://www.nationalskillscommission.gov.au/emerging-occupations

Data downloads

Structure

Index of principal titles, alternative titles and specialisations

What's new

Correspondence to ANZSCO Version 1.3 and ISCO-08

Abbreviations

Show all

The following abbreviations are used in this publication:

ABS Australian Bureau of Statistics
ANZSCO Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations First Edition
ANZSCO Revision 1 Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations First Edition Revision 1
ANZSCO Version 1.2 Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations Version 1.2 (i.e. First Edition Revision 2)
ANZSCO Version 1.3 Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations Version 1.3 (i.e. First Edition Revision 3)
AQF Australian Qualifications Framework
Aus Australia
GIS Geographic Information System
ICT Information and Communication Technology
ILO International Labour Organization
ISCO International Standard Classification of Occupations
nec not elsewhere classified
nfd not further defined
NZ New Zealand
NZQF New Zealand Qualifications Framework
StatsNZ Stats NZ Tatauranga Aotearoa is New Zealand's official data agency

Introduction

Overview

The Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO) was jointly developed by the ABS, Stats NZ and the then Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. It provides a basis for the standardised collection, analysis and dissemination of occupation data for Australia and New Zealand. It was established in 2006 and has been partially revised in 2009, 2013 and 2019 jointly by the Australian and New Zealand statistical offices.  A revision related to selected areas of the Australian labour market has been undertaken by the ABS in 2021. ANZSCO is intended to provide an integrated framework for storing, organising and reporting occupation-related information in both statistical and other analytical applications, such as matching job seekers to job vacancies and providing career information. 

ANZSCO is used in ABS and Stats NZ censuses and surveys where occupation data are collected since it was established in 2006. ANZSCO is also used to measure and understand labour markets. Examples include the development of workforce strategies to support industries such as agriculture, and establishing mechanisms to ensure the availability of skilled job holders via educational pathways. 

Understanding ANZSCO

To assist users to understand the detailed structure and content of ANZSCO, and to assist in interpreting statistics classified to it, the following information has been provided: 

  • explanation of the conceptual basis of ANZSCO
  • description of the comparability between ANZSCO and ISCO-08
  • explanation of the classification structure and codes
  • profile and summary of ANZSCO structure
  • explanation of the format of the ANZSCO occupation and group definitions
  • definitions for all major, sub-major, minor and unit groups and occupations

Revisions to ANZSCO

An important consideration when developing a classification is the need to build in sufficient robustness to allow for long-term usage. This robustness facilitates meaningful time series analysis. This must be balanced against the need for revisions which ensure the classification is contemporary.

Revisions to ANZSCO occur to identify emerging occupations and/or groups, aggregate declining occupations and/or groups, and change titles or descriptions of occupations and/or groups. There have been four revisions to ANZSCO since its establishment in 2006 as shown in the below table.

Revision Year of publication Summary of revision
First Edition 2006 ANZSCO established.
First Edition, Revision 1 2009 Minor changes to the classification structure and definitional changes for some occupations.
Version 1.2 2013 Identifying newly emerging occupations, aggregating declining occupations, changing titles of occupations, amending alternative titles or specialisations for selected occupations. A small set of changes were made for unit groups.
Version 1.3 2019 Revisions to skill level, registration and licensing requirements and example occupation titles for selected not elsewhere classified occupations.
2021 Australian Version 2021 Revisions resulting from a review of selected occupations identified as emerging and/or related to agriculture, forestry, and fisheries; cyber security; naval ship building.

Coding information to ANZSCO occupations

Care needs to be taken when assigning occupation information to ANZSCO occupations because the same job titles can be used in different industries to describe different occupations (e.g. business analyst). Also, the titles used in ANZSCO are not an exhaustive list of all titles used to describe an occupation (e.g. brickie). 

The minimum information required for coding responses in statistical collections to ANZSCO occupations is the occupation’s title and its tasks. The quality can be improved via use of other data items, such as industry of employment and employer information. 

Further information on ANZSCO can be obtained from the ABS National Information and Referral Service (1300 135 070) or client.services@abs.gov.au or Stats NZ Information Centre on 0508 525 525 or info@stats.govt.nz.

Coding queries should be directed to standards@abs.gov.au or standards@stats.govt.nz.

Conceptual basis of ANZSCO

Scope of the Classification

The scope of ANZSCO is all occupations and jobs in the Australian and New Zealand labour markets undertaken for pay or profit, including jobs occupied by people working for themselves.

ANZSCO is not designed to cover work not undertaken for pay or profit, for example voluntary work. However, this does not preclude ANZSCO from describing such activities.

Occupations that are wholly illegal in New Zealand and all States and Territories of Australia are excluded.

Overview of ANZSCO structure

The structure of ANZSCO has five hierarchical levels - major group, sub-major group, minor group, unit group and occupation. The categories at the most detailed level of the classification are termed 'occupations'. These are grouped together to form 'unit groups', which in turn are grouped into 'minor groups'. Minor groups are aggregated to form 'sub-major groups' which in turn are aggregated at the highest level to form 'major groups'.

Conceptual model

ANZSCO is a skill-based classification used to classify all occupations and jobs in the Australian and New Zealand labour markets.

To do this, ANZSCO identifies a set of occupations covering all jobs in the Australian and New Zealand labour markets, defines these occupations according to their attributes and groups them on the basis of their similarity into successively broader categories for statistical and other types of analysis. The individual objects classified in ANZSCO are jobs.

In ANZSCO, occupations are organised into progressively larger groups on the basis of their similarities in terms of both skill level and skill specialisation.

The conceptual model adopted for ANZSCO uses a combination of skill level and skill specialisation as criteria to design major groups which are meaningful and useful for most purposes. The eight major groups are formed by grouping together sub-major groups using aspects of both skill level and skill specialisation. In designing the major groups, intuitive appeal and usefulness in both statistical and administrative applications were also important considerations.

The skill level criterion is applied as rigorously as possible at the second level of the classification, the sub-major group level, together with a finer application of skill specialisation than that applied at the major group level. Each sub-major group is made up of a number of minor groups.

Minor groups are distinguished from each other mainly on the basis of a finer application of skill specialisation than that applied at the sub-major group level. Within minor groups, unit groups are distinguished from each other on the basis of skill specialisation and, where necessary, skill level.

Within unit groups, the distinction between occupations relates to differences between tasks performed in occupations and in most unit groups all occupations are at one skill level.

The distinctions between the various levels of ANZSCO are summarised in the following paragraphs.

Major Group

Major groups are:

  • the broadest level of ANZSCO
  • formed using a combination of skill level and skill specialisation to create groups which are meaningful and useful for most (statistical and administrative) purposes.

Sub-Major Group

Sub-major groups are:

  • subdivisions of the major groups
  • distinguished from other sub-major groups in the same major group on the basis of skill level and a broad application of skill specialisation.

Minor Group

Minor groups are:

  • subdivisions of the sub-major groups
  • distinguished from other minor groups in the same sub-major group mainly on the basis of a less broad application of skill specialisation.

Unit Group

Unit groups are:

  • subdivisions of the minor groups
  • distinguished from other unit groups in the same minor group on the basis of a finer application of skill specialisation and, where necessary, skill level.

Occupation

Occupations are:

  • the most detailed level of ANZSCO
  • subdivisions of the unit groups
  • distinguished from other occupations in the same unit group on the basis of detailed skill specialisation and, occasionally, skill level
  • sets of jobs which involve the performance of a common set of tasks.
 

Underlying concepts

As noted in Conceptual model, the framework adopted for ANZSCO is based on the concepts of 'job' and 'occupation'. The concept of 'occupation' is based on the concepts of 'skill level' and 'skill specialisation'.

Understanding these concepts is fundamental to understanding ANZSCO. These concepts are defined in the following sections.

The concept of job

A 'job' is defined as a set of tasks designed to be performed by one person for an employer (including self-employment) in return for pay or profit. Individual persons are classified by occupation through their relationship to a past, present or future job.

Any particular job will typically involve an individual working for a particular employer and undertaking a particular set of tasks. People working for themselves are considered as having a job and belonging to the labour force.

The concept of occupation

The categories at the most detailed level of the ANZSCO structure are called 'occupations'. An 'occupation' is defined as a set of jobs that require the performance of similar or identical sets of tasks. As it is rare for two actual jobs to have identical sets of tasks, in practical terms, an 'occupation' is a set of jobs whose main tasks are characterised by a high degree of similarity.

The similarity of tasks is defined in ANZSCO as a function of the level and specialisation of skill required to perform those tasks. Skill is defined as the ability to competently perform the tasks associated with an occupation.

It follows that ANZSCO classifies occupations according to two criteria - skill level and skill specialisation.

The concept of skill level

Skill level is defined as a function of the range and complexity of the set of tasks performed in a particular occupation. The greater the range and complexity of the set of tasks, the greater the skill level of an occupation.

Skill level is measured operationally in ANZSCO by:

  • the level or amount of formal education and training
  • the amount of previous experience in a related occupation, and
  • the amount of on-the-job training

required to competently perform the set of tasks required for that occupation.

In general, the greater the range and complexity of the set of tasks involved, the greater the amount of formal education and training, previous experience and on-the-job training required to competently perform the set of tasks for that occupation.

Formal education and training refers to the level and amount of education and training required for competent performance of the tasks required in an occupation. It is measured in terms of educational qualifications as set out in the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) and the New Zealand Qualifications Framework (NZQF). 

Previous experience refers to the time spent gaining work experience in related occupations or activities required for the competent performance of the tasks in an occupation. It is measured in months or years. 

On-the-job training refers to the amount of training required after commencing work in an occupation for competent performance of the tasks in that occupation. It is measured in months or years, and may be undertaken at the same time as formal training. 

ANZSCO does not measure the skill level of an individual, rather it refers to the level of skill that is typically required to competently perform the tasks of a particular occupation. Skill level is an attribute of occupations, not of individuals in the labour force or of particular jobs. It is irrelevant whether a particular individual working in a job in a particular occupation has a certain amount of training or a particular level of competence or not. 

For example, a person who spreads mortar and lays bricks for a living has the occupation Bricklayer, regardless of whether they are an exceptionally competent bricklayer with many years of experience and post-trade qualifications, or an inexperienced bricklayer with no formal qualifications and a low level of competence. The skill level of the occupation Bricklayer is determined on the basis of that typically required for competent performance. 

ANZSCO assigns occupations to one of five skill levels. In determining the skill level of each occupation, advice was sought from employers, industry training bodies, professional organisations and others to ensure that the information is as accurate and meaningful as possible.

The determination of boundaries between skill levels is based on the following definitions. 

Skill Level 1 

Occupations at Skill Level 1 have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances, relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification. 

Skill Level 2

Occupations at Skill Level 2 have a level of skill commensurate with one of the following:

  • NZQF Diploma or
  • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma.

At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualifications listed above. In some instances, relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

Skill Level 3

Occupations at Skill Level 3 have a level of skill commensurate with one of the following: 

  • NZQF Level 4 qualification
  • AQF Certificate IV or
  • AQF Certificate III including at least two years of on-the-job training.

At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualifications listed above. In some instances, relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

Skill Level 4

Occupations at Skill Level 4 have a level of skill commensurate with one of the following:

  • NZQF Level 2 or 3 qualification or
  • AQF Certificate II or III.

At least one year of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualifications listed above. In some instances, relevant experience may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

Skill Level 5

Occupations at Skill Level 5 have a level of skill commensurate with one of the following:

  • NZQF Level 1 qualification
  • AQF Certificate I or
  • compulsory secondary education.

For some occupations a short period of on-the-job training may be required in addition to or instead of the formal qualification.

In some instances, no formal qualification or on-the-job training may be required.

The concept of skill specialisation

Skill specialisation is defined as a function of:

  • field of knowledge required
  • tools and equipment used
  • materials worked on, and
  • goods or services produced or provided.

Field of knowledge required refers to the subject matter knowledge that is essential to competently perform the tasks of an occupation.

Tools and equipment used includes all forms of plant, machinery, computer-based equipment or hand tools used in the performance of the tasks, as well as intellectual tools such as personal interaction, and art or design techniques. 

  • The term plant is used to describe mobile or stationary equipment which is large in size, performs several related functions, and is usually controlled by an internally located operator.
  • The term machinery is used to describe stationary equipment which is not as large as plant, performs one processing function and is usually controlled by an externally located operator.
  • The term hand tools is used to describe equipment which is small enough to be moved by one person.

Materials worked on refers to materials of both a tangible and abstract nature which are extracted, processed, transformed, refined or fabricated as an essential part of the tasks performed. Examples of materials worked on include wood, metal, livestock, accounting data, text, people and organisations.

Goods or services produced or provided refers to the end product of the performance of the tasks of an occupation including physical goods, personal or other services, or other products such as a software application or statistical information. 

Employability skills

In developing the skill specialisation criteria for ANZSCO, employability skills were considered as a possible additional dimension of skill specialisation. There are two facets to employability skills, personal attributes such as loyalty, commitment and motivation, and generic skills, including communication, team-work and problem-solving. Employers are increasingly using employability skills in conjunction with technical or job-specific skills when assessing the suitability of an individual for a particular occupation. Since these employability skills are applicable to most occupations, it was decided not to include them as classification criteria for ANZSCO. 

Design constraints

One of the primary purposes of a statistical classification is to provide a simplification of the real world, which is a useful framework for collecting and analysing data from both statistical and administrative collections. To achieve this end, there are a number of practical considerations which impinged on the design of ANZSCO.

Statistical balance

As a general principle, a classification used for the dissemination of statistics should not have categories at the same level in its hierarchy which are too disparate in their population size. That is, similar numbers of real-world entities should be classified to each category at a particular level. This approach is referred to as statistical balance, and serves to minimise large variations in standard errors and the suppression of cells in statistical tables at particular levels of the structure when using output from sample surveys. It also allows the classification to be used effectively for the cross-tabulation of aggregate data. 

Categories which have been defined to reflect the real world, however, will not always be statistically balanced. To force categories to conform to size limitations would mean that the categories would not always be meaningful or useful. 

In developing ANZSCO, a balance between these competing requirements was sought. The following minimum and maximum size guidelines were considered in designing the categories at each level of ANZSCO. For inclusion in ANZSCO, a category ideally fitted within the range listed below for either Australia or New Zealand.

  Australia New Zealand
Major Group 500,000 to 1,500,000 100,000 to 300,000
Sub-Major Group 100,000 to 300,000 30,000 to 100,000
Minor Group 50,000 to 150,000 10,000 to 30,000
Unit Group 5,000 to 30,000 3,000 to 10,000
Occupation 300 to 10,000 100 to 5,000

Some exceptions, however, were made for occupations, or groups of occupations, of particular strategic or labour market significance.

Statistical feasibility

Another consideration affecting the design of ANZSCO was the statistical feasibility of the categories. That is, whether it is possible to accurately and consistently distinguish between the categories in the classification on the basis of responses to questions which can reasonably be asked in statistical collections such as population censuses and labour force surveys.

Relationship to other occupation classifications

Comparability with ISCO

The International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) was developed by the International Labour Organization (ILO). ISCO was first issued in 1958 and revised versions were produced in 1968, 1988 and 2008. The main aims of ISCO are to provide a basis for international comparisons of occupation statistics between member countries and to provide a conceptual model for the development of national occupation classifications. 

The current edition, ISCO-08, uses skill level and skill specialisation as criteria in the conceptual framework for the classification. Four broad skill levels are used, defined in terms of the educational categories and levels that appear in the International Standard Classification of Education 1976, published by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 

Comparison between ANZSCO and ISCO

The following table indicates the number of categories at each level of ANZSCO and ISCO

Hierarchical Level ANZSCO 2021 Australian Update ISCO-08
Major Group 8 10
Sub-Major Group 43 43
Minor Group 99 130
Unit Group 364 436
Occupation 1 070 -

The occupation level is not defined in ISCO-08 as it is expected that individual countries will develop this level of detail to suit their requirements.

The following table compares the major group titles for ANZSCO and ISCO-08. Note that this table does not provide a correspondence between the two classifications. 

ANZSCO ISCO-08
1 Managers 1 Managers
2 Professionals 2 Professionals
3 Technicians and Trades Workers 3 Technicians and Associate Professionals
4 Community and Personal Service Workers 4 Clerical Support Workers
5 Clerical and Administrative Workers 5 Services and Sales Workers
6 Sales Workers 6 Skilled Agricultural, Forestry and Fishery Workers
7 Machinery Operators and Drivers 7 Craft and Related Trades Workers
8 Labourers 8 Plant and Machine Operators and Assemblers
  9 Elementary Occupations
  0 Armed Forces Occupations

The ten major groups in ISCO-08 are broadly similar to the eight ANZSCO major groups. The most significant differences at major group level are: 

ISCO-08 identifies Skilled Agricultural, Forestry and Fishery Workers as a separate major group (Major Group 6). ANZSCO includes Farmers and Farm Managers as a sub-major group in Major Group 1 Managers; Skilled Animal, Agricultural and Horticultural Workers as a sub-major group in Major Group 3 Technicians and Trades Workers; and Farm, Forestry and Garden Workers as a sub-major group in Major Group 8 Labourers. 

ISCO-08 Major Group 3 Technicians and Associate Professionals has no equivalent in ANZSCO.

A major group of Community and Personal Service Workers has been introduced for ANZSCO and has no equivalent in ISCO-08. 

In ISCO-08, jobs held by members of the armed forces are included in Major Group 0 Armed Forces. In ANZSCO, jobs held by members of the armed forces are classified with their civilian equivalents, where these exist, or to a number of defence force specific occupations.

Classification structure

Profile and summary of ANZSCO structure

The structure of ANZSCO has five hierarchical levels - major group, sub-major group, minor group, unit group and occupation. The categories at the most detailed level of the classification are termed 'occupations'. These are grouped together to form 'unit groups', which in turn are grouped into 'minor groups'. Minor groups are aggregated to form 'sub-major groups' which in turn are aggregated at the highest level to form 'major groups'.

The following is a profile of the ANZSCO structure with hierarchy descriptions and examples. The complete listing of the major, sub-major, minor and unit groups and occupations can be found under the Browse Classification section.

ANZSCO Classification Structure example
Descriptions of the five hierarchical levels of the classification's structure are summarised between diagrams showing two examples.

Major Groups are the broadest level of ANZSCO denoted by 1-digit codes, and are formed using a combination of skill level and skill specialisation to create groups which are meaningful and useful for most purposes. There are 8 Major Groups in ANZSCO.

Sub-Major Groups are subdivisions of the major groups and are denoted by 2-digit codes (the relevant major group code plus an additional digit). They are distinguished from other sub-major groups in the same major group on the basis of skill level and a broad application of skill specialisation. There are 43 Sub-Major Groups.

Minor Groups are subdivisions of the sub-major groups and are denoted by 3-digit codes (the relevant sub-major group code plus an additional digit). They are distinguished from other minor groups in the same sub-major group mainly on the basis of a less broad application of skill specialisation. There are 99 Minor Groups.

Unit Groups are subdivisions of the minor groups and are denoted by 4-digit codes (the relevant minor group code plus an additional digit). They are distinguished from other unit groups in the same minor group mainly on the basis of a finer application of skill specialisation and, where necessary, skill level. There are 364 Unit Groups.

Occupations are subdivisions of the unit groups and are denoted by 6-digit codes (the relevant unit group code plus an additional two digits). They are distinguished from other occupations in the same unit group mainly on the basis of detailed skill specialisation. Occupations are sets of jobs which involve the performance of a common set of tasks. There are 1,070 Occupations.

The first of two examples of the classification's hierarchical structure commences with 'Major Group 3 Technicians and Trades Workers' at the top. Below Major Group 3, in descending order are 'Sub-Major Group 32 Automotive and Engineering Trades Workers', 'Minor Group 321 Automotive Electricians and Mechanics', 'Unit Group 3211 Automotive Electricians' finishing with the 'Occupation 321111 Automotive Electrician'.

The second example commences with the 'Sub-Major Group 33 Construction Trades Workers' at the top. Below Sub-Major Group 33, in descending order are 'Minor Group 331 Bricklayers, and Carpenters and Joiners', 'Unit Group 3311 Bricklayers and Stonemasons' finishing with the 'Occupation 331111 Bricklayer'.

Each major group comprises a different number of sub-major, minor and unit groups and occupations. The following table illustrates the distribution of these categories between the major groups.

Major Group Sub-Major Groups Minor Groups Unit Groups Occupations
1 Managers 4 11 39 102
2 Professionals 7 23 99 331
3 Technicians and Trades Workers 7 22 70 203
4 Community and Personal Service Workers 5 9 36 105
5 Clerical and Administrative Workers 7 12 33 80
6 Sales Workers 3 5 19 37
7 Machinery Operators and Drivers 4 7 22 77
8 Labourers 6 10 46 135

Standard code scheme

One, two, three, four and six-digit codes are assigned to the major, sub-major, minor and unit groups, and occupations respectively.

Within each major group, the sub-major groups are ordered firstly by skill level and then alphabetically. Note: the various updates to ANZSCO have disrupted this practice as new occupations and unit groups have been assigned the next available code in the respective unit group or minor group. Residual 'other' sub-major groups are listed last. Sub-major groups comprising occupations at multiple skill levels have been ordered firstly on the basis of their highest predominant skill level, then alphabetically.

Within each sub-major group, the minor groups are ordered alphabetically, with the exception of residual 'miscellaneous' minor groups which are listed last. Similarly, within each minor group, the unit groups are ordered alphabetically, with the exception of the residual 'other' unit groups which are listed last.

The occupations within each unit group are essentially in alphabetical order, with the exception of 'general' occupations which are listed first, and residual 'not elsewhere classified' (nec) categories which are listed last. This ordering is more expedient than necessary and it is not considered that the addition of any new occupations, which may disrupt this ordering, will affect the usefulness of the classification.

The occupational profile of Australia and New Zealand is likely to change over time due to factors such as technological change and changes in the industrial profile of Australia and New Zealand. Therefore, from time to time, it may be necessary to add or delete occupations from the list of occupations separately identified in ANZSCO.

If it becomes necessary to identify an additional unit group or occupation, it will be allocated the next available four or six-digit code in the numerical sequence of codes of the minor or unit group to which it is being added. Similarly, if a unit group or occupation ceases to have sufficient numbers of persons employed to justify it continuing to be separately identified in the classification and it is consequently deleted from the classification, its code would not be reallocated as this would be likely to cause confusion with time series data.

It should be noted that the separately identified occupations are not allocated codes ending with the digits '0' or '9'. These are special purpose codes used to denote supplementary or operational (not further defined) codes in the case of '0' and residual (not elsewhere classified) categories in the case of '9' (see Supplementary or operational codes and Codes reserved for residual categories).

The ANZSCO code scheme is devised so that any future changes to the classification structure can be easily accommodated. However, in order that the classification remains a standard, users should not make arbitrary changes to the structure. Rather, they should contact the ABS or Statistics NZ and identify any apparent problems they encounter in the course of implementation, data collection or data analysis. ANZSCO will be revised at a suitable time so that all users continue to use the standard classification.

Codes reserved for residual categories

For each unit group of the classification structure, a six-digit code, consisting of the four digits of the unit group followed by the digits '99', is reserved as a residual 'not elsewhere classified' (nec) category. All occupations which are not separately identified in the classification structure are included in the 'nec' category of the unit group to which they relate. Residual categories are only identified in the classification structure if they are needed. ANZSCO currently identifies 84 'nec' categories.

The decision to include particular occupations in an 'nec' category rather than as substantive categories is based on their lack of numerical significance in Australia or New Zealand.

For each minor group, codes are reserved for residual categories at the unit group level. These codes consist of the minor group code followed by '9'. These categories are termed 'Other' and consist of separately identified occupations which do not fit into any of the unit groups contained within the minor group, on the basis of the classification criteria. The classification contains 22 'other' categories at the unit group level.

For each sub-major group, codes are also reserved for residual categories at the minor group level. These codes consist of the sub-major group code followed by '9'. These categories are termed 'Miscellaneous' and consist of separately identified unit groups which do not fit into any of the minor groups contained within the sub-major group, on the basis of the classification criteria. The classification contains eight 'miscellaneous' categories at the minor group level.

For each major group, codes are reserved for residual categories at the sub-major group level. These codes consist of the major group code followed by '9'. These categories are termed 'Other' and consist of separately identified minor groups which do not fit into any of the sub-major groups contained within the major group, on the basis of the classification criteria. The classification contains three 'other' categories at the sub-major group level.

Residual categories are part of the ANZSCO structure. They should not be created or used merely to 'dump' responses that cannot be coded to any separately identified category in the classification because of insufficient detail in the response. See Supplementary or operational codes.

Supplementary or operational codes

Supplementary or operational codes are used in statistical collections to process inadequately described responses or for responses which are outside of the scope of the classification.

In Australia, these codes are of two types:

  • six digit codes ending in two, three, four or five zeros; and
  • six digit codes commencing with one zero.

Codes ending in zero are described as 'not further defined' (nfd) codes and are used to code responses which cannot be coded to the occupation level of the classification, but which can be coded to a higher level of the classification structure.

For example, responses which cannot be identified as relating directly to a particular occupation category, but which are known to be within the range of occupations within a particular unit group are coded to that unit group. Such responses are allocated an nfd code consisting of the four-digit code of the unit group followed by '00'. For instance, the response 'Internal Medicine Specialist' does not contain sufficient information to be coded directly to any particular occupation category, but it can be coded to Unit Group 2533 Specialist Physicians, which encompasses all internal medicine specialists. It is thus allocated the code 253300 Specialist Physicians, nfd.

Codes commencing with zero are used to process responses which do not provide sufficient information to be coded to any level of the structure. They are also used to process responses such as 'housewife', 'pensioner' and 'student', which are not covered by the current definition of the labour force (see Standards for Labour Force Statistics, ABS cat. no. 1288.0). The standard set of such codes used in the ANZSCO Coding Index is available on request from the ABS.

Other codes commencing with zero may be defined by users to facilitate the processing and storage of data, when data sets coded to ANZSCO contain records for entities outside the scope of ANZSCO. For example, occupational activities which are wholly illegal in New Zealand and all States and Territories of Australia are excluded from ANZSCO.

In New Zealand, codes commencing with the digits '99' are used as supplementary or operational codes.

  • The code '997000' is used for legitimate/valid responses, such as 'public servant', which cannot be coded to any single occupation category because there is insufficient supporting information to accurately code to a specific category. This code is called 'Response Unidentifiable'.
  • The code '999000' is used for responses, such as 'housewife', 'pensioner' or 'student', which are not covered by the current definition of the labour force. This code is called 'Response Outside Scope'.
  • The code '999999' is used for non-response. This code is called 'Not Stated'.

It should be noted that supplementary or operational codes are not part of the classification structure. They exist for operational reasons only, and no data would be coded to them if sufficiently detailed responses or responses within the scope of the classification were obtained in all instances.

Explanatory notes

The detailed structure of ANZSCO at each descending level of the classification can be found under the Data downloads section. This also shows the relationship between the groups and skill level.

The first three tables (Major Groups, Sub-Major Groups and Minor Groups) show the predominant skill levels applying to each group.

In the next two tables (Unit Groups and Occupations), all skill levels applying to each group are shown.

A definitive list of all skill levels applying to each group in the classification is found in the definition for that group. See Definitions.

Definitions

Interpreting ANZSCO occupation definitions

ANZSCO occupation definitions are based on the skill level and specialisation usually necessary to perform the tasks of the specific occupation, or of most occupations in the group. The definitions and skill level statements apply to the occupation and not persons working in the occupation. The allocation of a particular occupation to a particular skill level should be seen as indicative only and should not be used prescriptively. 

The definitional material describing each occupation is intended primarily as an aid to interpreting occupation statistics classified to ANZSCO. The descriptions are, therefore, only a guide to the tasks undertaken and skills involved in various occupations and are not a definitive statement of what is required. 

Format of the definitions

This classification contains definitions for all major, sub-major, minor and unit groups, and occupations. The format of the definitions may vary slightly between the hierarchical levels, but all contain similar elements. 

Major, sub-major, minor and unit group definitions

The elements of major, sub-major, minor and unit group definitions are as follows: 

  • Main heading - consists of the level in the ANZSCO hierarchy (e.g. minor group), the code, and the title of the group in that order.
  • Lead statement - describes the main activities undertaken in the group and, indirectly, the group's boundaries.
  • Inclusion and exclusion statements - are included only where necessary to avoid potential for confusion and to clarify the scope of the group.
  • Task list - a representative list of the principal or indicative tasks undertaken in the group. Because of the disparate nature of the occupations contained in 'miscellaneous' and 'other' groups, no task lists are provided for these groups.
  • Skill level statement - specifies the requirements for competent performance of occupations in the group, expressed in terms of the amount of formal education and training, previous experience and on-the-job training. Any special requirements, such as registration or licensing, are indicated in this statement.
  • List of lower categories - lists the categories (code and title) in the hierarchical level immediately below the group being defined.
 

Occupation definitions

The elements of occupation definitions are as follows: 

  • Code - the numerical representation of the occupation.
  • Principal title - the title which best describes the particular occupation. It is generally the most commonly used title, although there are exceptions in cases where the most commonly used title is too broad or too narrow in meaning for the purposes of the ANZSCO occupation, or where occupations of different content are usually known by the same title.
  • Alternative title - any commonly used alternative title (or titles) for the occupation. These alternative titles have the same meaning as the principal title but may be less commonly used.
  • Lead statement - describes the nature of the occupation, summarising the main activities undertaken and, indirectly, the occupation's boundaries. Any special requirements, such as registration or licensing, are indicated in this statement.
  • Skill level - the number equating to the ANZSCO skill level of the occupation.
  • Specialisation titles - any commonly used titles which refer to a subset of jobs belonging to the occupation designated in the principal title. These jobs involve the performance of specialised tasks rather than the broader range of tasks usually performed in the occupation.

Browse Classification

Major Group

1 Managers

Managers plan, organise, direct, control, coordinate and review the operations of government, commercial, agricultural, industrial, non-profit and other organisations, and departments.

Indicative Skill Level:

Most occupations in this major group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

In Australia:

  • Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1); or
  • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

In New Zealand:

  • Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1); or
  • NZQF Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

Tasks Include:

  • setting the overall direction and objectives of organisations and departments within organisations
  • formulating, administering and reviewing policy and legislation to ensure organisational and departmental objectives are met
  • directing and coordinating the allocation of assets and resources
  • directing, controlling and coordinating the activities of organisations and departments, either personally or through senior subordinate staff
  • monitoring and evaluating overall organisational and departmental performance, and adjusting policies, rules and regulations to ensure objectives are met
  • representing the organisation at official occasions, in negotiations, at conventions, seminars, public hearings and forums, and liaising between areas of responsibility
Sub-major Group

11 Chief Executives, General Managers and Legislators

Chief Executives, General Managers and Legislators plan, organise, direct, control and review the overall operations of organisations and their major programs, and represent constituencies in parliaments and local government authorities.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this sub-major group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • determining and setting the overall direction and objectives of organisations
  • determining and formulating policies, rules and regulations to govern the overall operations of organisations
  • directing and controlling the overall operations of organisations to ensure objectives are met
  • monitoring and evaluating the overall performance of organisations and adjusting policies, rules and regulations to ensure objectives are met
  • representing the organisation at official occasions, in negotiations, at conventions, seminars, public hearings and forums, and liaising between areas of responsibility
  • determining, planning and formulating government policies, laws, rules and regulations
  • investigating matters of concern to the public and electorate, and proposing government action
Minor Group

111 Chief Executives, General Managers and Legislators

Chief Executives, General Managers and Legislators plan, organise, direct, control and review the overall operations of organisations and their major programs, and represent constituencies in parliaments and local government authorities.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • determining and setting the overall direction and objectives of organisations
  • determining and formulating policies, rules and regulations to govern the overall operations of organisations
  • directing and controlling the overall operations of organisations to ensure objectives are met
  • monitoring and evaluating the overall performance of organisations and adjusting policies, rules and regulations to ensure objectives are met
  • representing the organisation at official occasions, in negotiations, at conventions, seminars, public hearings and forums, and liaising between areas of responsibility
  • determining, planning and formulating government policies, laws, rules and regulations
  • investigating matters of concern to the public and electorate, and proposing government action
Unit Group

1111 Chief Executives and Managing Directors

Chief Executives and Managing Directors determine, formulate and review the general policy programs and the overall direction of organisations within the framework established by boards of directors and similar governing bodies.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • determining objectives, strategies, policies and programs for organisations
  • providing overall direction and management to organisations
  • authorising material, human and financial resources to implement organisational policies and programs
  • monitoring and evaluating performance of organisations against organisational objectives and strategies
  • consulting with senior subordinate staff and reviewing recommendations and reports
  • preparing, or arranging for the preparation of, reports, budgets and forecasts and presenting them to governing bodies
  • representing the organisation at official occasions, in negotiations, at conventions, seminars, public hearings and forums, and liaising between areas of responsibility
  • selecting, or approving the selection of senior staff
  • ensuring the organisation complies with company laws and other relevant legislation

Occupation:

  • 111111 Chief Executive or Managing Director

111111 Chief Executive or Managing Director

Alternative Title:

  • Chief Executive Officer

Determines, formulates and reviews the general policy program and the overall direction of an organisation within the framework established by a board of directors or similar governing body.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisations:

  • Director-General
  • Executive Director
  • Secretary (Government Department)
Unit Group

1112 General Managers

General Managers plan, organise, direct, control and review the day-to-day operations and major functions of commercial, industrial, government and defence organisations through departmental managers and subordinate executives.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • planning policy, and setting standards and objectives for organisations
  • providing day-to-day direction and management of organisations, and directing and endorsing policy to fulfil objectives, achieve specific goals, and maximise profit and efficiency
  • assessing changing situations and responding accordingly by issuing commands and directives to subordinate staff
  • consulting with immediate subordinates and departmental heads on matters such as methods of operation, equipment requirements, finance, sales and human resources
  • authorising the funding of major policy implementation programs
  • representing the organisation at official occasions, in negotiations, at conventions, seminars, public hearings and forums, and liaising between areas of responsibility
  • preparing, or arranging for the preparation of, reports, budgets and forecasts, and presenting them to governing bodies
  • selecting and managing the performance of senior staff
  • may undertake responsibility for some or all of accounting, sales, marketing, human resources and other specialist operations

Occupations:

  • 111211 Corporate General Manager
  • 111212 Defence Force Senior Officer

111211 Corporate General Manager

Alternative Title:

  • Chief Operating Officer

Plans, organises, directs, controls and reviews the day-to-day operations and major functions of a commercial, industrial, governmental or other organisation through departmental managers and subordinate executives.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisations:

  • Assistant Commissioner (Police)
  • Hospital Administrator
  • Kaiwhakahaere (NZ)
  • Managing Editor
  • Trade Union Secretary

111212 Defence Force Senior Officer

Alternative Titles:

  • Air Force Senior Officer
  • Army Senior Officer
  • Navy Senior Officer

Plans, organises, directs, controls and reviews the day-to-day operations and major functions of organisational units of the Australian or New Zealand Defence Forces through subordinate officers.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisations:

  • Air Chief Marshal (Air Force)
  • Air Commodore (Air Force)
  • Air Marshal (Air Force)
  • Air Vice Marshal (Air Force)
  • Group Captain (Air Force)
  • Wing Commander (Air Force)
  • Brigadier (Army)
  • Colonel (Army)
  • General (Army)
  • Lieutenant Colonel (Army)
  • Lieutenant General (Army)
  • Major General (Army)
  • Admiral (Navy)
  • Captain (Navy)
  • Commander (Navy)
  • Commodore (Navy)
  • Rear Admiral (Navy)
  • Vice Admiral (Navy)
Unit Group

1113 Legislators

Legislators represent the interests of people in constituencies as elected members of national, state and territory parliaments and local government authorities.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • developing national, state, territory or local government policy, and formulating, amending and repealing legislation and by-laws
  • helping constituents with a range of problems particularly with regard to matters concerning government and local agencies
  • investigating matters of concern to the public and to particular persons and groups
  • introducing proposals for government action and representing public and electoral interests
  • issuing policy directions to government departments and exercising control over local government authorities
  • attending community functions and meetings of local groups to provide service to the community, gauge public opinion and provide information on government plans
  • may serve as a member on parliamentary committees and inquiries
  • may present petitions on behalf of concerned groups

Occupations:

  • 111311 Local Government Legislator
  • 111312 Member of Parliament
  • 111399 Legislators nec

111311 Local Government Legislator

Alternative Titles:

  • Alderman
  • Councillor

Represents the interests of people in a constituency as their elected member of a local government authority.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisations:

  • Community Board Member (NZ)
  • Mayor

111312 Member of Parliament

Alternative Title:

  • Parliamentarian

Represents the interests of people in a constituency as their elected member to national, state or territory parliament.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisations:

  • Chief Minister
  • Government Minister
  • Member of the Legislative Assembly
  • Member of the Legislative Council
  • Premier
  • Prime Minister
  • Senator

111399 Legislators nec

This occupation group covers Legislators not elsewhere classified.

Skill Level: 1

Occupations in this group include:

  • Aboriginal Community Council Member
  • Councillor, Aboriginal Land Council
Sub-major Group

12 Farmers and Farm Managers

Farmers and Farm Managers plan, organise, control, coordinate and perform farming operations involving aquaculture, broadacre crops, horticultural crops, and livestock.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this sub-major group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • planning and coordinating the operation of hatcheries and crop production
  • breeding and raising livestock and aquatic stock
  • monitoring and maintaining the health of stock
  • identifying and controlling environmental toxins, weeds, pests and diseases
  • organising and conducting farming operations such as maintaining buildings, water supply systems and equipment
  • managing business capital, monitoring market activity and planning production to meet contract requirements and market demand
Minor Group

121 Farmers and Farm Managers

Farmers and Farm Managers plan, organise, control, coordinate and perform farming operations involving aquaculture, broadacre crops, horticultural crops, and livestock.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • planning and coordinating the operation of hatcheries and crop production
  • breeding and raising livestock and aquatic stock
  • monitoring and maintaining the health of stock
  • identifying and controlling environmental toxins, weeds, pests and diseases
  • organising and conducting farming operations such as maintaining buildings, water supply systems and equipment
  • managing business capital, monitoring market activity and planning production to meet contract requirements and market demand
Unit Group

1211 Aquaculture Farmers

Aquaculture Farmers plan, organise, control, coordinate and perform farming operations to breed and raise fish and other aquatic stock.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • planning and coordinating the operation of hatcheries and grow-out operations taking into account environmental and market factors
  • coordinating and overseeing strategies to monitor the environment to maintain optimal growing conditions, minimise the impact of operations on the environment and manage biosecurity and other risks 
  • coordinating and overseeing strategies to monitor and maintain the health, welfare and condition of aquatic stock
  • overseeing and undertaking breeding, feeding and nutrition programs
  • overseeing transportation of aquatic stock to new tanks, ponds, cages and floating net pens
  • coordinating and overseeing harvesting, grading, processing and packaging operations for aquatic stock
  • directing and overseeing general farming activities including the provision and maintenance of farming infrastructure and equipment
  • organising the sale, purchase and transportation of aquatic stock
  • maintaining and evaluating records of farming activities, monitoring market activity and planning production accordingly
  • overseeing data collection and analysis and farm technology systems
  • managing business capital including budgeting, taxation, debt and loan management
  • may select, train and supervise staff and contractors

Occupation:

  • 121111 Aquaculture Farmer

121111 Aquaculture Farmer

Alternative Title:

  • Aquaculture Farm Manager

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and performs farming operations to breed and raise fish and other aquatic stock.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisations:

  • Grow-Out Manager (Aquaculture)
  • Hatchery Manager (Aquaculture)
  • Oyster Farmer
Unit Group

1213 Livestock Farmers

Livestock Farmers plan, organise, control, coordinate and perform farming operations to breed and raise livestock for the production of breeding stock, milk, eggs, meat, honey, wool and hair.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • breeding and raising livestock for the production of honey, meat, milk, skins, eggs and wool
  • overseeing and undertaking breeding, feeding and nutrition programs
  • monitoring and maintaining the health, welfare and condition of livestock, including developing and overseeing strategies to manage biosecurity and other risks
  • providing water, and providing and growing pastures and fodder crops to maintain livestock health and condition
  • organising farming operations and routines such as catching, drenching and milking livestock, sterilising machines, and collecting, grading and packaging produce
  • directing and overseeing general farming activities including the provision and maintenance of infrastructure such as fences, sheds, pens, water supply systems and irrigation infrastructure
  • organising the sale, purchase and transportation of livestock and produce
  • maintaining and evaluating records of farming activities, monitoring market activity and planning production accordingly
  • overseeing data collection and analysis and farm technology systems
  • managing business capital including budgeting, taxation, debt and loan management
  • may select, train and supervise staff and contractors

Occupations:

  • 121311 Apiarist
  • 121312 Beef Cattle Farmer
  • 121313 Dairy Cattle Farmer
  • 121314 Deer Farmer
  • 121315 Goat Farmer
  • 121316 Horse Breeder
  • 121318 Pig Farmer
  • 121321 Poultry Farmer
  • 121322 Sheep Farmer
  • 121323 Mixed Cattle and Sheep Farmer 
  • 121399 Livestock Farmers nec

121311 Apiarist

Alternative Title:

  • Beekeeper

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and operates apiaries to produce honey, queen bee pollen, beeswax and royal jelly, breed queen bees and pollinate crops.

Skill Level: 1

121312 Beef Cattle Farmer

Alternative Titles:

  • Beef Cattle Farm Manager
  • Beef Cattle Grazier

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and performs farming operations to breed and raise beef cattle for meat and breeding stock.

Skill Level: 1

121313 Dairy Cattle Farmer

Alternative Title:

  • Dairy Cattle Farm Manager

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and performs farming operations to breed and raise dairy cattle for milk, meat and breeding stock. 

Dairy Herd Managers are excluded from this occupation. Dairy Herd Managers are included in Occupation 363213 Senior Dairy Cattle Farm Worker.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisation:

  • Share Dairy Farmer

121314 Deer Farmer

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and performs farming operations to breed and raise deer for meat, velvet, hides and breeding stock.

Skill Level: 1

121315 Goat Farmer

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and performs farming operations to breed and raise goats for fibre, milk, meat and breeding stock.

Skill Level: 1

121316 Horse Breeder

Alternative Title:

  • Horse Stud Manager

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and performs farming operations to breed and raise horses for competition, dressage, eventing, showjumping, riding for pleasure and working.

Skill Level: 1

121318 Pig Farmer

Alternative Title:

  • Pig Farm Manager

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and performs farming operations to breed and raise pigs for meat and breeding stock.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisation:

  • Pig Breeder

121321 Poultry Farmer

Alternative Title:

  • Poultry Farm Manager

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and performs farming operations to breed and raise chickens, turkeys, ducks and other poultry for eggs, meat and breeding stock.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisations:

  • Egg Producer
  • Hatchery Manager (Poultry)

121322 Sheep Farmer

Alternative Title:

  • Sheep Farm Manager

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and performs farming operations to breed and raise sheep for wool, meat and breeding stock.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisation:

  • Wool Grower

121323 Mixed Cattle and Sheep Farmer

Alternative Title: 

  • Mixed Cattle and Sheep Farm Manager

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and performs farming operations to breed and raise cattle and sheep.

Skill Level: 1

121399 Livestock Farmers nec

This occupation group covers Livestock Farmers not elsewhere classified.

Skill Level: 1

Occupations in this group include:

  • Alpaca Farmer
  • Crocodile Farmer
  • Dog Breeder
  • Emu Farmer
  • Llama Farmer
  • Ostrich Farmer
Unit Group

1215 Broadacre Crop Growers

Broadacre Crop Growers plan, organise, control, coordinate and perform farming operations to grow broadacre crops such as cereals, oilseeds, pulses, sugar cane, rice, cotton and pasture crops.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • planning and coordinating the production and marketing of broadacre crops, from soil preparation to harvest, taking into account environmental and market factors

  • planning crop production and selecting seed and plant stock

  • coordinating and developing strategies for cultivating, fertilising and watering to maintain optimal production, crop health and growing conditions

  • organising farming operations and routines, such as collecting, storing, grading and packaging produce

  • planning and coordinating the sale, purchase and despatch of produce

  • directing and overseeing general farming activities to maintain crop health by managing biosecurity and other risks and controlling pests and weeds 

  • planning and overseeing the provision and maintenance of infrastructure such as equipment, machinery, sheds and water supply and irrigation systems

  • maintaining and evaluating records of farming activities, monitoring market activity, and planning production accordingly

  • overseeing data collection and analysis and farm technology systems

  • managing business capital including budgeting, taxation, debt and loan management

  • may select, train and supervise staff and contractors

Occupations:

  • 121511 Cotton Grower
  • 121512 Grain, Oilseed, Pulse or Pasture Grower / Field Crop Grower
  • 121513 Sugar Cane Grower
  • 121599 Broadacre Crop Growers nec

121511 Cotton Grower

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and performs farming operations to grow cotton.

Skill Level: 1

121512 Grain, Oilseed, Pulse or Pasture Grower / Field Crop Grower

Alternative Title:

  • Grain, Oilseed, Pulse or Pasture Farm Manager

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and performs farming operations to grow grain (including certified seed and specialty grains), fodder, legumes, lupins, oilseeds, pulse and pasture crops.

Skill Level: 1

121513 Sugar Cane Grower

Alternative Title:

  • Sugar Cane Farm Manager

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and performs farming operations to grow sugar cane.

Skill Level: 1

121599 Broadacre Crop Growers nec

This occupation group covers Broadacre Crop Growers not elsewhere classified.

Skill Level: 1

Occupations in this group include:

  • Tree Farmer
Unit Group

1216 Horticultural Crop Growers

Horticultural Crop Growers plan, organise, control, coordinate and perform farming operations to grow horticultural crops such as flowers, fruit, grapes, nuts, turf and vegetables.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • planning and coordinating the production and marketing of horticultural crops, from soil preparation to harvest, taking into account environmental and market factors
  • planning crop production and selecting seeds, seedlings, bulbs and plant stock
  • coordinating and developing strategies for cultivating, fertilising and watering to maintain optimal production, crop health and growing conditions
  • organising farming operations and routines, such as collecting, storing, grading and packaging produce 
  • planning and coordinating the sale, purchase and despatch of produce
  • directing and overseeing general farming activities to maintain crop health by managing biosecurity and other risks and controlling pests and weeds
  • planning and overseeing the provision and maintenance of infrastructure such as equipment, machinery, sheds and water supply systems and irrigation systems
  • maintaining and evaluating records of farming activities, monitoring market activity, and planning production accordingly
  • overseeing data collection and analysis and farm technology systems
  • managing business capital including budgeting, taxation, debt and loan management
  • may select, train and supervise staff and contractors

Occupations:

  • 121611 Flower Grower
  • 121612 Fruit Grower
  • 121613 Nut Grower
  • 121614 Production Nursery Grower
  • 121615 Turf Grower
  • 121616 Vegetable Grower (Aus) / Market Gardener (NZ)
  • 121617 Wine Grape Grower
  • 121699 Horticultural Crop Growers nec

121611 Flower Grower

Alternative Title:

  • Floriculturist

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and performs planting, cultivating and harvesting activities to grow flowering and foliage plants.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisation:

  • Market Gardener (Flowers) (Aus)

121612 Fruit Grower

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and performs farming operations to grow fruit, including table grapes.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisations:

  • Market Gardener (Fruit) (Aus)
  • Olive Grower
  • Orchardist

121613 Nut Grower

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and performs farming operations to grow nuts, excluding those grown as broadacre crops (e.g. peanuts).

Skill Level: 1

121614 Production Nursery Grower

Plans, organises, controls and coordinates the propagation and growing of horticultural plant stock for wholesale. May also grow plants and seedlings for retail customers.

Skill Level: 1

121615 Turf Grower

Alternative Title:

  • Turf Farmer

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and performs farming operations to grow turf.

Skill Level: 1

121616 Vegetable Grower (Aus) / Market Gardener (NZ)

Alternative Title:

  • Vegetable Farm Manager

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and performs farming, greenhouse and market garden operations to grow vegetables.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisation:

  • Market Gardener (Vegetables) (Aus)

121617 Wine Grape Grower

Alternative Titles:

  • Vineyard Manager (Wine Grapes)
  • Viticulturist (Wine Grapes)
  • Vigneron

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and performs farming operations to grow wine grapes.

Skill Level: 1

121699 Horticultural Crop Growers nec

This occupation group covers Horticultural Crop Growers not elsewhere classified.

Skill Level: 1

Occupations in this group include:

  • Coffee Grower
  • Ginger Farmer
  • Hop Farmer
  • Mushroom Grower
Unit Group

1217 Mixed Production Farmers

Mixed Production Farmers plan, organise, control, coordinate and perform farming operations spanning two or more of the four different primary production areas - aquaculture, broadacre crops, horticultural crops, and livestock.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • planning and coordinating the production and marketing of commodities from at least two of the following four different primary production areas - aquaculture, broadacre crops, horticultural crops, and livestock
  • breeding and raising animals or aquatic stock for the production of food, wool, skins, milk or eggs, and growing grain, seed crops, vegetables, fruit or nuts
  • monitoring and maintaining the health, welfare and condition of livestock or aquatic stock
  • providing pastures, fodder and water to maintain animal health and condition
  • planning crop production and selecting seed and plant stock
  • maintaining crop production by coordinating and developing cultivating, fertilising, watering and crop health strategies and maintaining optimal growing conditions
  • directing and overseeing general farming activities to maintain animal and crop health by managing biosecurity and other risks and controlling pests and weeds
  • planning and overseeing the provision and maintenance of infrastructure such as equipment, machinery, sheds and water supply systems and irrigation systems
  • planning and coordinating the sale, purchase and transportation of livestock and produce
  • maintaining and evaluating records of farming activities, monitoring market activity and planning production accordingly
  • overseeing data collection and analysis and farm technology systems
  • managing business capital, monitoring market activity and planning production accordingly
  • may select, train and supervise staff and contractors

Occupations:

  • 121711 Broadacre Crop and Livestock Farmer
  • 121799 Mixed Production Farmers nec

121711 Broadacre Crop and Livestock Farmer

Alternative Title:

  • Farmer and Grazier

Plans, organises, controls, coordinates and performs farming and farm management activities involving the cultivation of broadacre crops and the breeding and raising of livestock.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisations:

  • Cattle and Wheat Farmer
  • Sheep and Wheat Farmer

121799 Mixed Production Farmers nec

This occupation group covers Mixed Production Farmers not elsewhere classified.

Skill Level: 1

 

Sub-major Group

13 Specialist Managers

Specialist Managers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate special functions within organisations such as advertising and sales, financial, human resources, production and distribution, education, health and welfare, and ICT.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this sub-major group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • developing, implementing and monitoring strategies, policies and plans for their area of control
  • establishing and directing operational and administrative procedures
  • directing and coordinating the allocation of resources
  • monitoring work progress and performance, and adjusting processes and resources to keep goals on track
  • controlling budget planning and report preparation, and monitoring and controlling expenditure for their area of control
  • controlling selection, training and performance of staff
  • representing the organisation in negotiations, and at conventions, seminars, public hearings and forums
Minor Group

131 Advertising, Public Relations and Sales Managers

Advertising, Public Relations and Sales Managers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate advertising, public relations, sales and marketing activities within organisations.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • directing the development and implementation of sales strategies and setting sales targets in order to maximise an organisation's sales and customer loyalty
  • directing the development and implementation of strategies to promote an organisation's goods and services to as many people as possible
  • directing the development and implementation of strategies to generate increased consumption of an organisation's goods and services through the creation and reinforcement of 'brand image' or 'brand loyalty'
  • directing the development and implementation of strategies to build and maintain an organisation's image and reputation with its customers, investors and the wider public
Unit Group

1311 Advertising, Public Relations and Sales Managers

Advertising, Public Relations and Sales Managers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate advertising, public relations, sales and marketing activities within organisations.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • directing the development and implementation of sales strategies and setting sales targets in order to maximise an organisation's sales and customer loyalty
  • directing the development and implementation of strategies to promote an organisation's goods and services to as many people as possible
  • directing the development and implementation of strategies to generate increased consumption of an organisation's goods and services through the creation and reinforcement of 'brand image' or 'brand loyalty'
  • directing the development and implementation of strategies to build and maintain an organisation's image and reputation with its customers, investors and the wider public

Occupations:

  • 131112 Sales and Marketing Manager
  • 131113 Advertising Manager
  • 131114 Public Relations Manager

131112 Sales and Marketing Manager

Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the sales and marketing activities within an organisation.

ICT Business Development Managers are excluded from this occupation. ICT Business Development Managers are included in Unit Group 2252 ICT Sales Professionals, in Occupation 225212 ICT Business Development Manager.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisations:

  • Business Development Manager
  • Market Research Manager

131113 Advertising Manager

Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the advertising activities within an organisation.

Skill Level: 1

131114 Public Relations Manager

Alternative Titles:

  • Communications Manager
  • Corporate Affairs Manager
  • Corporate Relations Manager
  • PR Manager
  • Public Affairs Manager

Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the public relations activities within an organisation.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisations:

  • Community Relations Manager
  • External Relations Manager
  • Media Relations Manager
Minor Group

132 Business Administration Managers

Business Administration Managers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate the corporate, financial, human resource, policy, planning, research and development activities and guidelines within organisations.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • formulating and administering policy advice and strategic planning
  • establishing and directing operational and administrative procedures
  • implementing, monitoring and evaluating budgetary and accounting strategies and policies
  • providing advice to senior Managers and board members on strategic, policy and program and legislative issues
  • ensuring compliance with relevant legislation, regulations and standards
  • controlling selection, training and performance of staff
  • representing the organisation in negotiations, and at conventions, seminars, public hearings and forums
Unit Group

1321 Corporate Services Managers

Corporate Services Managers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate the overall administration of organisations.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • providing high level administrative, strategic planning and operational support, research and advice to senior management on administrative matters such as staff management, financial planning, facility management and information services
  • developing and managing the organisation's administrative, financial, physical and staff resources
  • developing and implementing administrative, financial and operational procedural statements and guidelines for use by staff in the organisation
  • analysing complex resource management issues and initiatives that affect the organisation, and preparing associated reports, correspondence and submissions
  • providing information and support for the preparation of financial reports and budgets
  • leading, managing and developing administrative staff to ensure smooth business operations and the provision of accurate and timely information
  • representing the organisation in negotiations, and at conventions, seminars, public hearings and forums, and promoting existing and new programs and policies

Occupation:

  • 132111 Corporate Services Manager

132111 Corporate Services Manager

Alternative Titles:

  • Administration Manager
  • Business Services Manager

Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the overall administration of an organisation.

Skill Level: 1

Unit Group

1322 Finance Managers

Finance Managers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate the financial and accounting activities within organisations.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • determining, implementing, monitoring, reviewing and evaluating budgetary and accounting strategies, policies and plans in consultation with other Managers
  • providing financial information and interpreting the implications for business performance and funding needs
  • coordinating the development, implementation and monitoring of accounting systems
  • directing the preparation of financial reports that summarise and forecast the organisation's financial position such as income statements, balance sheets and analyses of future earnings and income
  • assessing capital finance proposals and the financial status of operational projects
  • advising on investment strategies, sources of funds and the distribution of earnings
  • delivering long range profit forecasts, budgeting and financial reporting
  • ensuring compliance with financial legislation and standards

Occupation:

  • 132211 Finance Manager

132211 Finance Manager

Alternative Titles:

  • Chief Financial Officer
  • Finance Director
  • Financial Controller

Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the financial and accounting activities within an organisation.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisation:

  • Financial Administrator
Unit Group

1323 Human Resource Managers

Human Resource Managers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate the human resource and workplace relations activities within organisations.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • determining, implementing, monitoring, reviewing and evaluating human resource management strategies, policies and plans to meet business needs
  • advising and assisting other Managers in applying sound recruitment and selection practices, and appropriate induction, training and development programs
  • developing and implementing performance management systems to plan, appraise and improve individual and team performance
  • representing the organisation in negotiations with unions and employees to determine remuneration and other conditions of employment
  • developing and implementing occupational health and safety programs and equal employment opportunity programs, and ensuring compliance with related statutory requirements
  • overseeing the application of redundancy and other employee retrenchment policies
  • monitoring employment costs and productivity levels
  • may train and advise other Managers in personnel and workplace relations matters

Occupation:

  • 132311 Human Resource Manager

132311 Human Resource Manager

Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the human resource and workplace relations activities within an organisation.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisations:

  • Kaiwhakahaere Tumu (NZ)
  • Occupational Health and Safety Manager
  • Training and Development Manager
  • Workplace Relations Manager
Unit Group

1324 Policy and Planning Managers

Policy and Planning Managers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate policy advice and strategic planning within organisations.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • developing, implementing and monitoring strategic plans, programs, policies, processes, systems and procedures to achieve goals, objectives and work standards
  • developing, implementing, administering and participating in policy research and analysis
  • coordinating the implementation of policies and practices
  • establishing activity measures and measurements of accountability
  • overseeing and participating in the development of policy documents and reports
  • consulting with and providing expert advice to government officials and board members on policy, program and legislative issues
  • representing the organisation in negotiations, and at conventions, seminars, public hearings and forums convened to discuss policy issues

Occupation:

  • 132411 Policy and Planning Manager

132411 Policy and Planning Manager

Alternative Title:

  • Public Policy Manager

Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates policy advice and strategic planning within an organisation.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisations:

  • Corporate Planning Manager
  • Strategic Planning Manager
Unit Group

1325 Research and Development Managers

Research and Development Managers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate research and development activities within organisations.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • determining, implementing and monitoring research and development strategies, policies and plans
  • developing and implementing research projects, priorities and targets to support commercial and policy developments
  • leading major research projects and coordinating activities of other research workers
  • assessing the benefits and monitoring the costs and effectiveness of research and development activities
  • interpreting results of research projects and recommending associated product and service development innovations
  • providing advice on research and development options available to the organisation
  • monitoring leading-edge developments in relevant disciplines and assessing implications for the organisation
  • may publish results of significant research projects

Occupation:

  • 132511 Research and Development Manager

132511 Research and Development Manager

Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates research and development activities within an organisation.

Skill Level: 1

Minor Group

133 Construction, Distribution and Production Managers

Construction, Distribution and Production Managers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate building and construction, engineering, importing, exporting and wholesaling, manufacturing, production, supply and distribution activities within organisations.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • identifying business opportunities, and developing and implementing business plans and marketing, operating, human resource, pricing and credit policies and procedures
  • establishing project schedules and budgets
  • coordinating labour resources and procurement and delivery of materials, plant and equipment
  • negotiating contracts with suppliers and customers to meet resource, cost and quality requirements
  • monitoring costs and work progress and performance, and adjusting processes and resources to ensure goals are met
  • directing the preparation of production records and reports
Unit Group

1331 Construction Managers

Construction Managers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate the construction of engineering projects or buildings and dwellings, and the physical and human resources involved in building and construction.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Registration or licensing may be required.

Tasks Include:

  • leading the coordination and prioritisation of resources across projects
  • assessing and interpreting architectural drawings and specifications
  • coordinating resources, procurement and delivery of materials, plant and equipment
  • consulting with Architects, Engineering Professionals and other professionals, and Technical and Trades Workers
  • managing links between projects and monitoring overall time, costs, quality, budget and risk
  • negotiating with stakeholders throughout the construction process and project lifecycle
  • developing tenders and contract bids
  • managing and monitoring adherence to legislation and standards of performance and safety
  • managing submission of plans to local authorities and liaising with stakeholders to undertake relevant inspections throughout the project
  • leading and managing human resources including subcontractors, standards, progress and delivery of project and program requirements
  • managing change and implementation of projects and programs
  • establishing and managing project plans to ensure alignment with program strategic goals and project outcomes

Occupations:

  • 133111 Construction Project Manager
  • 133112 Project Builder

133111 Construction Project Manager

Alternative Title:

  • Building and Construction Manager

Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates construction of engineering and building projects, and all resources involved in the construction process. Registration or licensing may be required.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisation:

  • Shipbuilding Program Manager

133112 Project Builder

Alternative Title:

  • Professional Builder

Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the construction, alteration and renovation of dwellings and other buildings, and the physical and human resources involved in the building process. Registration or licensing is required.

Skill Level: 1

Unit Group

1332 Engineering Managers

Engineering Managers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate the engineering and technical operations of organisations.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • determining, implementing and monitoring engineering strategies, policies and plans
  • interpreting plans, drawings and specifications, and providing advice on engineering methods and procedures to achieve construction and production requirements
  • establishing project schedules and budgets
  • ensuring conformity with specifications and plans, and with laws, regulations and safety standards
  • ensuring engineering standards of quality, cost, safety, timeliness and performance are observed
  • overseeing maintenance requirements to optimise efficiency
  • liaising with marketing, research and manufacturing managers regarding engineering aspects of new construction and product design
  • may contribute to research and development projects

Occupation:

  • 133211 Engineering Manager

133211 Engineering Manager

Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the engineering and technical operations of an organisation.

Skill Level: 1

Unit Group

1333 Importers, Exporters and Wholesalers

Importers, Exporters and Wholesalers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate the operations of importing, exporting and wholesaling establishments.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • identifying local and overseas business opportunities
  • developing and implementing business plans, and marketing, operating, human resource, pricing and credit policies and procedures
  • determining the mix of products and services to be provided and negotiating conditions of trade
  • liaising with local and overseas suppliers and distributors about orders and products
  • researching regulatory and statutory requirements affecting the importing, exporting, wholesaling and distribution of goods
  • monitoring business performance and preparing estimates, financial statements and reports of operations
  • appointing agents and distributors
  • arranging the shipping of goods into and out of the country
  • overseeing the display and sale of merchandise and preparation of product information for customer service staff and customers
  • implementing after-sales service procedures

Occupations:

  • 133311 Importer or Exporter
  • 133312 Wholesaler

133311 Importer or Exporter

Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the operations of an importing or exporting establishment.

Skill Level: 1

133312 Wholesaler

Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the operations of a wholesale trading establishment.

Skill Level: 1

Unit Group

1334 Manufacturers

Manufacturers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate the operations of small manufacturing establishments.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • identifying business opportunities, devising new manufacturing processes and determining products to be manufactured
  • developing business plans and implementing operational, marketing, human resource and pricing procedures
  • researching and implementing regulatory and statutory requirements affecting manufacturing operations and the environment
  • directing the activities of production, warehouse, distribution and other operating units
  • maintaining quality control systems for manufacturing, waste disposal, delivery and other procedures
  • coordinating orders for raw materials, supplies and equipment, and arranging packaging, delivery and wholesaling of products
  • overseeing the coordination of after-sales service
  • overseeing the provision of quotes for the manufacture of specialised goods and arranging contracts with customers
  • may devise and oversee the implementation of production run schedules

Occupation:

  • 133411 Manufacturer

133411 Manufacturer

Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the operations of a small manufacturing establishment.

Skill Level: 1

Unit Group

1335 Production Managers

Production Managers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate the production activities of forestry, manufacturing and mining organisations including physical and human resources.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • determining, implementing and monitoring production strategies, policies and plans
  • planning details of production activities in terms of output quality and quantity, cost, time available and labour requirements
  • controlling the operation of production plant and quality procedures through planning of maintenance, designation of operating hours and supply of parts and tools
  • monitoring production output and costs, and adjusting processes and resources to minimise costs
  • informing other Managers about production matters
  • overseeing the acquisition and installation of new plant and equipment
  • directing research into production methods, and recommending and implementing initiatives
  • controlling the preparation of production records and reports
  • coordinating the implementation of occupational health and safety requirements
  • directing staff activities and monitoring their performance

Occupations:

  • 133511 Production Manager (Forestry)
  • 133512 Production Manager (Manufacturing)
  • 133513 Production Manager (Mining)

133511 Production Manager (Forestry)

Alternative Title:

  • Forest Manager

Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the production activities of a forestry operation including physical and human resources.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisations:

  • Forest Logistics Manager (NZ)
  • Forestry Contractor (NZ)
  • Harvest Manager (Forestry)
  • Operations Manager (Forestry)

133512 Production Manager (Manufacturing)

Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the manufacturing activities of an organisation including physical and human resources.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisations:

  • Operations Manager (Production)
  • Plant Manager (Manufacturing)
  • Sawmill Manager
  • Timber and Wood Products Mill Manager
  • Works Manager (Manufacturing)

133513 Production Manager (Mining)

Alternative Titles:

  • Mine Manager
  • Mine Superintendent

Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the production activities of a mining operation including physical and human resources.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisation:

  • Quarry Manager
Unit Group

1336 Supply, Distribution and Procurement Managers

Supply, Distribution and Procurement Managers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate the supply, storage and distribution of goods, products and services produced and used by organisations.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • determining, implementing and monitoring purchasing, storage and distribution strategies, policies and plans
  • preparing and implementing plans to maintain required stock levels at minimum cost
  • negotiating contracts with suppliers to meet quality, cost and delivery requirements
  • monitoring and reviewing storage and inventory systems to meet supply requirements and control stock levels
  • operating recording systems to track all movements of supplies and finished goods, and ensuring re-ordering and re-stocking at optimal times
  • liaising with other departments and customers concerning requirements for outward goods and associated forwarding transportation
  • overseeing the recording of purchase, storage and distribution transactions
  • directing staff activities and monitoring their performance
  • provision of products and services to meet customer or client requirements

Occupation:

  • 133611 Supply and Distribution Manager
  • 133612 Procurement Manager

133611 Supply and Distribution Manager

Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the supply, storage and distribution of goods produced by an organisation.

Skill Level: 1

Specialisations:

  • Agricultural Goods Logistics Manager
  • Logistics Manager
  • Logistics Officer (Air Force)
  • Ordnance Corps Officer (Army)
  • Supply Chain Manager
  • Supply Officer (Navy)
  • Transport Corps Officer (Army)

133612 Procurement Manager

Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the procurement and purchasing of materials, products and services for an organisation.

Skill Level: 1

Alternative Title:

  • Purchasing Manager
Minor Group

134 Education, Health and Welfare Services Managers

Education, Health and Welfare Services Managers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate the provision of childcare, health, welfare and education services.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • formulating policies and plans for the operation of childcare, health, welfare and educational establishments, and setting standards and objectives
  • developing and implementing programs and services to meet the needs of clients
  • directing and coordinating the allocation of resources
  • liaising with parents, boards, funding bodies, the community and educational institutions to discuss areas of cooperation and coordination
  • directing administrative operations such as budget planning, report preparation, monitoring and controlling expenditure, and student admissions
  • selecting, developing and managing the performance of staff
  • preparing, or arranging for the preparation of, reports, budgets and forecasts
  • representing the organisation in negotiations, and at conventions, seminars, public hearings and forums
Unit Group

1341 Child Care Centre Managers

Child Care Centre Managers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate the activities of childcare centres and services including physical and human resources.

Indicative Skill Level:

In Australia and New Zealand:

Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

Tasks Include:

  • developing and implementing programs to enhance the physical, social, emotional and intellectual development of young children
  • providing care for children in before-school, after-school, day, and vacation care centres
  • directing and supervising Child Carers in providing care and supervision for young children
  • ensuring the centre is a safe area for children, staff and visitors
  • complying with relevant government requirements and standards
  • liaising with parents
  • maintaining records and accounts for the centre
  • recruiting staff and coordinating professional development

Occupation:

  • 134111 Child Care Centre Manager

134111 Child Care Centre Manager

Alternative Titles:

  • Child Care Centre Director
  • Child Care Coordinator

Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the activities of a childcare centre or service including physical and human resources.

Skill Level: 1

Unit Group

1342 Health and Welfare Services Managers

Health and Welfare Services Managers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate the professional and administrative aspects of health and welfare programs and services. Nurse Managers are excluded from this unit group.

Nurse Managers are included in Unit Group 2543 Nurse Managers.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification and at least five years of relevant experience. In some instances relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • providing overall direction and management for the service, facility, organisation or centre
    • developing, implementing and monitoring procedures, policies and standards for medical, nursing, allied health and administrative staff
    • coordinating and administering health and welfare programs and clinical services
    • monitoring and evaluating resources devoted to health, welfare, recreation, housing, employment, training and other community facilities and centres
    • controlling administrative operations such as budget planning, report preparation, expenditure on supplies, equipment and services
    • liaising with other health and welfare providers, boards and funding bodies to discuss areas of health and welfare service cooperation and coordination
    • advising government bodies about measures to improve health and welfare services and facilities
    • representing the organisation in negotiations, and at conventions, seminars, public hearings and forums
    • controlling selection, training and supervision of staff

    Occupations:

    • 134211 Medical Administrator / Medical Superintendent
    • 134212 Nursing Clinical Director
    • 134213 Primary Health Organisation Manager
    • 134214 Welfare Centre Manager
    • 134299 Health and Welfare Services Managers nec

    134211 Medical Administrator / Medical Superintendent

    Alternative Title:

    • Medical Manager

    Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates medical programs and clinical services in a hospital or other health service facility, maintains standards of medical care, provides leadership to ensure an appropriately skilled medical workforce, and contributes to health service planning.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Director of Clinical Services
    • Director of Medical Services

    134212 Nursing Clinical Director

    Alternative Titles:

    • Director of Nursing
    • Senior Nurse Manager

    Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates nursing programs and clinical services in a hospital, aged care or other health service facility, maintains standards of nursing care, provides leadership to ensure an appropriately skilled nursing and midwifery workforce, and contributes to health service planning. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Assistant Director of Nursing
    • Deputy Director of Nursing
    • Executive Director of Nursing

    134213 Primary Health Organisation Manager

    Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates a primary health organisation that provides a broad range of out-of-hospital health services.

    Skill Level: 1

    134214 Welfare Centre Manager

    Alternative Title:

    • Welfare Project Manager

    Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates a centre, program or project concerned with social welfare support.

    Skill Level: 1

    134299 Health and Welfare Services Managers nec

    This occupation group covers Health and Welfare Services Managers not elsewhere classified.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Director of Pharmacy
    • Director of Physiotherapy Services
    • Director of Speech Pathology
    • Disability Services Program Manager
    • Manager of Allied Health Services
    Unit Group

    1343 School Principals

    School Principals plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate the educational and administrative aspects of primary, middle or intermediate, and secondary schools including physical and human resources.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification and at least five years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • determining educational programs based on curricula set by educational authorities
    • implementing systems and procedures to monitor school performance and student enrolments
    • directing administrative and clerical activities concerning student admissions and educational services
    • preparing school budgets and maintaining budgetary controls
    • promoting the educational program, and representing schools in the wider community
    • supervising the maintenance of school facilities
    • enforcing a disciplinary code to create a safe and conducive environment for students and teachers
    • organising and implementing methods of raising additional funds in conjunction with parent groups
    • controlling selection, training and supervision of staff
    • may teach students

    Occupation:

    • 134311 School Principal

    134311 School Principal

    Alternative Title:

    • Headmaster/mistress

    Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the educational and administrative aspects of primary, middle or intermediate and secondary schools including physical and human resources. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Middle or Intermediate School Principal
    • Primary School Principal
    • Secondary School Principal
    Unit Group

    1344 Other Education Managers

    Other Education Managers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate educational policy, and provide advice and educational and administrative support to staff and students in educational institutions.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification and at least five years of relevant experience. In some instances relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • coordinating the educational, administrative and financial affairs of an educational institution or department within the institution
    • researching, developing, implementing, reviewing and evaluating educational and administrative policy
    • liaising between educational institutions, parents and the wider community
    • providing advice on policy and procedures to staff and students
    • consulting with academic and administrative staff to coordinate educational programs
    • identifying and addressing present and future needs for student and staff development
    • researching educational systems and monitoring and evaluating new developments
    • researching and reporting on students' needs arising from curriculum implementation
    • developing and delivering training programs for teachers

    Occupations:

    • 134411 Faculty Head
    • 134412 Regional Education Manager
    • 134499 Education Managers nec

    134411 Faculty Head

    Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the educational and administrative aspects of a department, faculty or school within a university or other tertiary education institution.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Dean (University)
    • Head Teacher (TAFE)

    134412 Regional Education Manager

    Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates educational approaches and policy, and curriculum resources and development for preschool, primary, middle or intermediate school, secondary, TAFE or polytechnic teachers and administrators.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • School Administrator

    134499 Education Managers nec

    This occupation group covers Education Managers not elsewhere classified.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Polytechnic Registrar
    • Project Coordinator (Education)
    • TAFE Registrar
    • University Registrar
    Minor Group

    135 ICT Managers

    ICT Managers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate the acquisition, development, maintenance and use of computer and telecommunication systems within organisations.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • analysing information needs and specifying technology to meet those needs
    • formulating and directing information and communication technology (ICT) strategies, policies and plans
    • directing the selection and installation of ICT resources and the provision of user training
    • directing ICT operations and setting priorities between system developments, maintenance and operations
    • overseeing the security of ICT systems
    Unit Group

    1351 ICT Managers

    ICT Managers plan, organise, direct, control and coordinate the acquisition, development, maintenance and use of computer and telecommunication systems within organisations.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • analysing information needs and specifying technology to meet those needs
    • formulating and directing information and communication technology (ICT) strategies, policies and plans
    • directing the selection and installation of ICT resources and the provision of user training
    • directing ICT operations and setting priorities between system developments, maintenance and operations
    • overseeing the security of ICT systems

    Occupations:

    • 135111 Chief Information Officer
    • 135112 ICT Project Manager
    • 135199 ICT Managers nec

    135111 Chief Information Officer

    Alternative Title:

    • Chief Technology Officer

    Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the ICT strategies, plans and operations of an organisation to ensure the ICT infrastructure supports the organisation's overall operations and priorities.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Chief Information Security Officer

    135112 ICT Project Manager

    Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates quality accredited ICT and cyber security projects. Accountable for day-to-day operations of resourcing, scheduling, prioritisation and task coordination, and meeting project milestones, objectives and deliverables within agreed timeframes and budgets.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • ICT Development Manager
    • ICT Security Project Manager

    135199 ICT Managers nec

    This occupation group covers ICT Managers not elsewhere classified.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • IT Service Delivery Manager
    • Network Manager
    Minor Group

    139 Miscellaneous Specialist Managers

    This minor group covers Specialist Managers not elsewhere classified. It includes Commissioned Officers (Management), and Senior Non-commissioned Defence Force Members.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Unit Group

    1391 Commissioned Officers (Management)

    Commissioned Officers (Management) provide high level management to support the running of organisational, geographical and operational units and sections within the defence forces and fire and police services.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • establishing administrative and operational procedures by taking account of the organisation's operating environment
    • making policy decisions and accepting responsibility for operations, performance of staff, achievement of targets and adherence to budgets, standards and procedures
    • establishing lines of control and delegating responsibilities to subordinate staff
    • representing the organisation in dealings with other organisations and the public
    • controlling the collection and interpretation of management information to monitor performance
    • controlling the use of, and accounting for, the assets and facilities of the organisation
    • preparing budgets and other management plans
    • preparing reports, authorising the release of information, and handling public relations activities

    Occupations:

    • 139111 Commissioned Defence Force Officer
    • 139112 Commissioned Fire Officer
    • 139113 Commissioned Police Officer

    139111 Commissioned Defence Force Officer

    Provides high level management to support the running of an organisational unit within the Australian or New Zealand Defence Forces.

    This occupation includes the following ranks:

    • Air Force: Flight Lieutenant, Flying Officer, Pilot Officer, Squadron Leader
    • Army: Captain, Lieutenant, Major, Second Lieutenant
    • Navy: Lieutenant, Lieutenant Commander, Midshipman, Sub Lieutenant

    This occupation excludes Commissioned Defence Force Officers performing duties for which there is a civilian equivalent. These officers are included with the civilian occupation, for example, Nursing Officers are included in Unit Group 2544 Registered Nurses, in Occupation 254499 Registered Nurses nec.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Air Defence Officer (Air Force) (Aus)
    • Ground Defence Officer (Air Force) (Aus)
    • Military Police Officer (Air Force) (NZ)
    • Security Police Officer (Air Force) (Aus)
    • Armoured Corps Officer (Army)
    • Artillery Officer (Army)
    • General Service Officer (Army) (Aus)
    • Infantry Officer (Army)
    • Military Police Officer (Army)
    • Special Service Officer (Army) (Aus)
    • Military Police Officer (Navy) (NZ)
    • Observer (Navy)

    139112 Commissioned Fire Officer

    Provides high level management to support the running of a geographical or operational section of a fire service.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Fire Investigator
    • Inspector (Fire Services)

    139113 Commissioned Police Officer

    Provides high level management to support the running of a geographical or operational section of a police service.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    1392 Senior Non-commissioned Defence Force Members

    Senior Non-commissioned Defence Force Members implement and enforce directives of commissioned officers of the Australian and New Zealand Defence Forces.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • supervising a small group of subordinates
    • maintaining discipline of subordinates
    • monitoring the morale, welfare and behaviour of subordinates, and advising commanding officers accordingly
    • instructing subordinates in dress, deportment, demeanour, behaviour, drill and devotion to duty to maintain military standards
    • conducting military drills and inspections
    • teaching military traditions and customs

    Occupation:

    • 139211 Senior Non-commissioned Defence Force Member

    139211 Senior Non-commissioned Defence Force Member

    Implements and enforces directives of commissioned officers of the Australian or New Zealand Defence Forces.

    This occupation includes the following ranks:

    • Air Force:
      • Flight Sergeant
      • Sergeant
      • Warrant Officer
      • Warrant Officer of the Air Force
    • Army:
      • Regimental Sergeant Major of the Army
      • Sergeant
      • Warrant Officer Class 1
      • Warrant Officer Class 2
    • Navy:
      • Chief Petty Officer
      • Petty Officer
      • Warrant Officer
      • Warrant Officer of the Navy

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    1399 Other Specialist Managers

    This unit group covers Specialist Managers not elsewhere classified. It includes Arts Administrators or Managers, Environmental Managers, Laboratory Managers, Quality Assurance Managers and Sports Administrators.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Occupations:

    • 139911 Arts Administrator or Manager
    • 139912 Environmental Manager
    • 139913 Laboratory Manager
    • 139914 Quality Assurance Manager
    • 139915 Sports Administrator
    • 139999 Specialist Managers nec

    139911 Arts Administrator or Manager

    Plans, organises, directs, controls, coordinates and promotes artistic and cultural policies, programs, projects and services.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Art Gallery Director
    • Community Arts Centre Manager
    • Cultural Centre Manager

    139912 Environmental Manager

    Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the development and implementation of an environmental management system within an organisation by identifying, solving and alleviating environmental issues, such as pollution and waste treatment, in compliance with environmental legislation and to ensure corporate sustainable development.

    Skill Level: 1

    139913 Laboratory Manager

    Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the operations of a research or production laboratory.

    Skill Level: 1

    139914 Quality Assurance Manager

    Alternative Title:

    • Quality Facilitator

    Plans, organises, directs, controls and coordinates the deployment of quality systems and certification processes within an organisation.

    Skill Level: 1

    139915 Sports Administrator

    Plans, organises, directs, controls, coordinates and promotes sport and recreational activities, and develops related policies.

    Skill Level: 1

    139999 Specialist Managers nec

    This occupation group covers Specialist Managers not elsewhere classified.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Airport Manager
    • Ambassador
    • Ambulance Services Manager
    • Archbishop
    • Bishop
    • Harbour Master
    • Security Manager (Non-ICT)
    Sub-major Group

    14 Hospitality, Retail and Service Managers

    Hospitality, Retail and Service Managers organise and control the operations of establishments which provide accommodation, hospitality, retail and other services.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this sub-major group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualifications listed above. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Tasks Include:

    • planning and organising special functions, sporting, gaming and entertainment activities and the range and mix of products, stock levels and service standards
    • promoting and selling goods and services
    • observing liquor, gaming, health and other laws and regulations
    • developing and reviewing policies, programs and procedures concerning customer relations and goods and services provided
    • promoting facilities, conferences, conventions and trade shows to potential customers
    • organising the purchase and maintenance of transport vehicles, equipment and fuel, and transporting goods
    • controlling the selection, training and supervision of staff
    • ensuring compliance with occupational health and safety regulations
    Minor Group

    141 Accommodation and Hospitality Managers

    Accommodation and Hospitality Managers organise and control the operations of establishments which provide accommodation and hospitality services.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualifications listed above. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Tasks Include:

    • planning and organising special functions, sporting, gaming and entertainment activities
    • directing and overseeing reservation, reception, room service and housekeeping activities
    • observing liquor, gaming, health and other laws and regulations
    • monitoring quality at all stages of preparation and presentation of food and services
    • controlling the selection, training and supervision of staff
    • ensuring compliance with occupational health and safety regulations
    Unit Group

    1411 Cafe and Restaurant Managers

    Cafe and Restaurant Managers organise and control the operations of cafes, restaurants and related establishments to provide dining and catering services.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualifications listed above. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Tasks Include:

    • planning menus in consultation with Chefs
    • planning and organising special functions
    • arranging the purchasing and pricing of goods according to budget
    • maintaining records of stock levels and financial transactions
    • ensuring dining facilities comply with health regulations and are clean, functional and of suitable appearance
    • conferring with customers to assess their satisfaction with meals and service
    • selecting, training and supervising waiting and kitchen staff
    • may take reservations, greet guests and assist in taking orders

    Occupation:

    • 141111 Cafe or Restaurant Manager

    141111 Cafe or Restaurant Manager

    Alternative Titles:

    • Food and Beverage Manager
    • Restaurateur

    Organises and controls the operations of a cafe, restaurant or related establishment to provide dining and catering services.

    Note: Fast Food Managers are excluded from this occupation. Fast Food Managers are included in Occupation 142111 Retail Manager (General).

    Skill Level: 2

    Specialisations:

    • Bistro Manager
    • Canteen Manager
    • Caterer
    • Internet Cafe Manager
    Unit Group

    1412 Caravan Park and Camping Ground Managers

    Caravan Park and Camping Ground Managers organise and control the operations of caravan parks and camping grounds to provide accommodation and leisure services.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualifications listed above. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • taking reservations, registering guests, assigning accommodation and collecting payments
    • arranging cleaning and maintenance of caravans, cabins, amenities blocks, recreation facilities and grounds
    • informing guests of local tourist attractions and recreational facilities
    • attending to complaints lodged by customers
    • liaising with local government to ensure compliance with laws, regulations and ordinances
    • may operate an on-site shop, cafe or restaurant for guests
    • may sign, supervise and enforce terms of tenancy agreements in accordance with legislation and may obtain enforcement orders where tenants are in breach of requirements
    • may act as licensee for the purchase and sale of liquor

    Occupation:

    • 141211 Caravan Park and Camping Ground Manager

    141211 Caravan Park and Camping Ground Manager

    Organises and controls the operations of a caravan park and camping ground to provide accommodation and leisure services. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 2

    Unit Group

    1413 Hotel and Motel Managers

    Hotel and Motel Managers organise and control the operations of hotels and motels to provide guest accommodation, meals and other services.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualifications listed above. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • directing and overseeing reservation, reception, room service and housekeeping activities
    • supervising security arrangements, and garden and property maintenance
    • planning and supervising bar, restaurant, function and conference activities
    • observing liquor, gaming, and other laws and regulations
    • assessing and reviewing customer satisfaction
    • overseeing accounting and purchasing activities
    • ensuring compliance with occupational health and safety regulations
    • may provide guests with local tourism information, and arrange tours and transportation

    Occupation:

    • 141311 Hotel or Motel Manager

    141311 Hotel or Motel Manager

    Alternative Titles:

    • Hotelier
    • Publican

    Organises and controls the operations of a hotel or motel to provide guest accommodation, meals and other services. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 2

    Specialisations:

    • Duty Manager (Hotel)
    • Resort Manager
    Unit Group

    1414 Licensed Club Managers

    Licensed Club Managers organise and control the operations of licensed clubs to provide food, beverages, gaming, entertainment, sporting and other amenities for members.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualifications listed above. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • planning and supervising bar, restaurant and function services
    • planning, booking and supervising sporting, gaming and entertainment activities
    • supervising security arrangements and property maintenance
    • arranging member subscriptions
    • observing liquor, gaming, health and other laws and regulations
    • ensuring compliance with occupational health and safety regulations
    • compiling and organising distribution of newsletters and other information to keep members informed of forthcoming events and facilities available
    • assessing and reviewing member satisfaction and preferences
    • liaising with community groups sponsored and assisted by the club
    • selecting, training and supervising staff

    Occupation:

    • 141411 Licensed Club Manager

    141411 Licensed Club Manager

    Alternative Title:

    • Club Licensee

    Organises and controls the operations of a licensed club to provide food, beverages, gaming, entertainment, sporting and other amenities for members. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 2

    Specialisations:

    • Gaming Manager
    • Nightclub Manager
    Unit Group

    1419 Other Accommodation and Hospitality Managers

    This unit group covers Accommodation and Hospitality Managers not elsewhere classified. It includes Bed and Breakfast Operators and Retirement Village Managers.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualifications listed above. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Occupations:

    • 141911 Bed and Breakfast Operator
    • 141912 Retirement Village Manager
    • 141999 Accommodation and Hospitality Managers nec

    141911 Bed and Breakfast Operator

    Organises and controls the operations of a bed and breakfast to provide a short term, highly personalised accommodation and leisure service for guests including breakfast. Ensures guests' needs, wants and comfort are satisfied during their stay. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 2

    141912 Retirement Village Manager

    Organises and controls the day-to-day operations of a retirement village to provide a range of accommodation, personal care services, and recreational and social activities for the use and enjoyment of residents.

    Skill Level: 2

    141999 Accommodation and Hospitality Managers nec

    This occupation group covers Accommodation and Hospitality Managers not elsewhere classified. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 2

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Backpackers Manager
    • Boarding House Manager
    • Casino Duty Manager
    • Guest House Manager
    • Hostel Manager
    • Reception Centre Manager
    Minor Group

    142 Retail Managers

    Retail Managers organise and control the operations of establishments which provide retail services.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualifications listed above. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Tasks Include:

    • determining product mix, stock levels and service standards
    • formulating and implementing purchasing and marketing policies, and setting prices
    • promoting and advertising the establishment's goods and services
    • selling goods and services to customers and advising them on product use
    • maintaining records of stock levels and financial transactions
    • undertaking budgeting for the establishment
    • controlling selection, training and supervision of staff
    • ensuring compliance with occupational health and safety regulations
    Unit Group

    1421 Retail Managers

    Retail Managers organise and control the operations of establishments which provide retail services.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualifications listed above. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • determining product mix, stock levels and service standards
    • formulating and implementing purchasing and marketing policies, and setting prices
    • promoting and advertising the establishment's goods and services
    • selling goods and services to customers and advising them on product use
    • maintaining records of stock levels and financial transactions
    • undertaking budgeting for the establishment
    • controlling selection, training and supervision of staff
    • ensuring compliance with occupational health and safety regulations

    Occupations:

    • 142111 Retail Manager (General)
    • 142112 Antique Dealer
    • 142113 Betting Agency Manager
    • 142114 Hair or Beauty Salon Manager
    • 142115 Post Office Manager
    • 142116 Travel Agency Manager

    142111 Retail Manager (General)

    Alternative Titles:

    • Retail Store Manager
    • Shop Manager

    Organises and controls the operations of a retail trading establishment.

    Retail Pharmacists are excluded from this occupation. Retail Pharmacists are included in Unit Group 2515 Pharmacists, in Occupation 251513 Retail Pharmacist.

    Skill Level: 2

    Specialisations:

    • Fast Food Manager
    • Newsagent
    • Retail Bakery Manager

    142112 Antique Dealer

    Buys and sells antiques such as furniture, art, jewellery and china. May also clean, restore and value antiques. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 2

    142113 Betting Agency Manager

    Organises and controls the operations of a branch of a betting agency. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 2

    142114 Hair or Beauty Salon Manager

    Organises and controls the operations of a hairdressing or beauty salon. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 2

    142115 Post Office Manager

    Organises and controls the operations of a post office.

    Skill Level: 2

    142116 Travel Agency Manager

    Organises and controls the operations of a travel agency. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 2

    Minor Group

    149 Miscellaneous Hospitality, Retail and Service Managers

    This minor group covers Hospitality, Retail and Service Managers not elsewhere classified. It includes Amusement, Fitness and Sports Centre Managers, Call or Contact Centre and Customer Service Managers, Conference and Event Organisers, and Transport Services Managers.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualifications listed above. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Unit Group

    1491 Amusement, Fitness and Sports Centre Managers

    Amusement, Fitness and Sports Centre Managers organise, control and promote the activities, facilities and resources of amusement, fitness and sports centres.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualifications listed above. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Tasks Include:

    • planning and organising the range and mix of entertainment, attractions, amusement machines and fitness programs to be offered by the centre
    • organising publicity to promote facilities and attract clients
    • scheduling games and competitions
    • selecting, training and supervising staff
    • ensuring facilities are properly maintained and conform to safety standards
    • may undertake coaching, fitness instruction and training of clients
    • may plan and organise catering facilities

    Occupations:

    • 149111 Amusement Centre Manager
    • 149112 Fitness Centre Manager
    • 149113 Sports Centre Manager

    149111 Amusement Centre Manager

    Alternative Title:

    • Entertainment Centre Manager

    Organises, controls and promotes the activities, facilities and resources of an amusement centre, showground or theme park.

    Skill Level: 2

    Specialisations:

    • Bridge Club Manager
    • Fairground Operator
    • Video Arcade Manager

    149112 Fitness Centre Manager

    Organises, controls and promotes the activities, facilities and resources of a fitness centre. May coach, instruct and train clients.

    Skill Level: 2

    149113 Sports Centre Manager

    Organises, controls and promotes the activities, facilities and resources of a sports centre.

    Skill Level: 2

    Specialisations:

    • Aquatic Centre Manager
    • Golf Course Manager
    • Indoor Sports Centre Manager
    • Squash Centre Manager
    • Stadium Manager
    • Tennis Centre Manager
    • Ten Pin Bowling Centre Manager
    Unit Group

    1492 Call or Contact Centre and Customer Service Managers

    Call or Contact Centre and Customer Service Managers organise and control the operations of call or contact centres, review customer services, and maintain sound customer relations.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualifications listed above. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Tasks Include:

    • developing and reviewing policies, programs and procedures concerning customer relations and goods and services provided
    • ensuring operational efficiency within a call centre
    • providing direction and feedback to team members and assisting with recruitment
    • managing, motivating and developing staff providing customer services
    • planning and implementing after-sales services to follow up customer satisfaction, ensure performance of goods purchased, and modify and improve services provided
    • liaising with other organisational units, service agents and customers to identify and respond to customer expectations
    • may work in a call centre

    Occupations:

    • 149211 Call or Contact Centre Manager
    • 149212 Customer Service Manager

    149211 Call or Contact Centre Manager

    Organises and controls the operations of a call or contact centre. May work in a call centre.

    Skill Level: 2

    149212 Customer Service Manager

    Alternative Titles:

    • Client Service Manager
    • Service Manager

    Plans, administers and reviews customer services and after-sales services, and maintains sound customer relations.

    Skill Level: 2

    Unit Group

    1493 Conference and Event Organisers

    Conference and Event Organisers organise and coordinate services for conferences, events, functions, banquets and seminars.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualifications listed above. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Tasks Include:

    • promoting conferences, conventions and trade shows to potential customers
    • responding to inquiries concerning services provided and costs for room and equipment hire, catering and related services
    • meeting with clients to discuss their needs and outlining package options to meet these needs
    • arranging and coordinating services, such as conference facilities, catering, signage, displays, audiovisual equipment, accommodation, transport and social events, for participants
    • organising registration of participants
    • negotiating the type and costs of services to be provided within budget
    • overseeing work by contractors and reporting on variations to work orders

    Occupation:

    • 149311 Conference and Event Organiser

    149311 Conference and Event Organiser

    Alternative Title:

    • Event Manager

    Organises and coordinates services for conferences, events, functions, banquets and seminars.

    Skill Level: 2

    Specialisations:

    • Event Planner
    • Exhibition Organiser
    • Wedding Coordinator
    Unit Group

    1494 Transport Services Managers

    Transport Services Managers organise and control the buying and selling of vehicles for rental agencies and coordinate the leasing of vehicles, the operations of railway stations, and the operations of enterprises that operate fleets of vehicles to transport goods and passengers.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualifications listed above. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • organising the purchase and maintenance of transport vehicles, equipment and fuel
    • liaising with clients to determine requirements and providing customers with advice and information regarding vehicle type, purchase or hire rates and obligations and handling complaints
    • receiving orders and bookings, and planning and implementing transportation schedules
    • ensuring goods are stored and transported in conditions that will maintain their quality
    • arranging collection and delivery of vehicles and goods
    • maintaining business records and preparing operational statements and reports
    • coordinating activities associated with the arrival, departure, loading and unloading of trains
    • ensuring compliance with occupational health and safety regulations

    Occupations:

    • 149411 Fleet Manager
    • 149412 Railway Station Manager
    • 149413 Transport Company Manager

    149411 Fleet Manager

    Organises and controls the buying and selling of vehicles for rental agencies and coordinates the leasing of vehicles. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 2

    149412 Railway Station Manager

    Organises and controls the operations of a railway station.

    Skill Level: 2

    149413 Transport Company Manager

    Organises and controls the operations of an enterprise that operates a fleet of vehicles to transport goods and passengers. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 2

    Specialisations:

    • Bus Company Manager
    • Car Rental Agency Manager
    Unit Group

    1499 Other Hospitality, Retail and Service Managers

    This unit group covers Hospitality, Retail and Service Managers not elsewhere classified. It includes Boarding Kennel or Cattery Operators, Cinema or Theatre Managers, Facilities Managers, Financial Institution Branch Managers and Equipment Hire Managers.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualifications listed above. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Occupations:

    • 149911 Boarding Kennel or Cattery Operator
    • 149912 Cinema or Theatre Manager
    • 149913 Facilities Manager
    • 149914 Financial Institution Branch Manager
    • 149915 Equipment Hire Manager
    • 149999 Hospitality, Retail and Service Managers nec

    149911 Boarding Kennel or Cattery Operator

    Organises and controls the operations of an establishment which offers temporary boarding for dogs and cats.

    Skill Level: 2

    149912 Cinema or Theatre Manager

    Organises and controls the operations of a cinema or theatre. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 2

    149913 Facilities Manager

    Alternative Title:

    • Building Manager

    Organises, controls and coordinates the strategic and operational management of buildings and facilities in a public and private organisations to ensure the proper and efficient operation of all physical aspects of a facility, to create and sustain safe and productive environments for occupants.

    Skill Level: 2

    Specialisation:

    • Shopping Centre Manager

    149914 Financial Institution Branch Manager

    Organises and controls the general operational activities of a branch of a bank, building society, credit union or similar financial institution.

    Skill Level: 2

    Specialisations:

    • Bank Manager
    • Credit Union Manager

    149915 Equipment Hire Manager

    Organises and controls the operations of an establishment engaged in the hiring out of equipment to companies involved in areas such as building and engineering construction, government, mining and resources, manufacturing, maintenance, special events, and to individuals for personal use.

    Skill Level: 2

    149999 Hospitality, Retail and Service Managers nec

    This occupation group covers Hospitality, Retail and Service Managers not elsewhere classified. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 2

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Abattoir Manager
    • Brothel Keeper
    • Laundromat Operator
    • Marina Manager
    • Taxi Proprietor
    Major Group

    2 Professionals

    Professionals perform analytical, conceptual and creative tasks through the application of theoretical knowledge and experience in the fields of the arts, media, business, design, engineering, the physical and life sciences, transport, education, health, information and communication technology, the law, social sciences and social welfare.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this major group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1); or
    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1); or
    • NZQF Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2).

    In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Some occupations, such as those in Sub-Major Group 21 Arts and Media Professionals, require high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications or experience.

    Tasks Include:

    • communicating ideas through language, printed and electronic media, and artistic media including the visual and performing arts
    • analysing, planning, developing and implementing programs and solutions to resolve business and economic problems
    • providing services in financial accounting, human resource development, publicity and marketing, and the efficient operation of organisations
    • flying aircraft, and controlling and directing the operation of ships, boats and marine equipment
    • conducting and analysing research to extend the body of knowledge in the field of the sciences and developing techniques to apply this knowledge
    • designing products, buildings and other physical structures, and engineering systems
    • researching and developing curricula, and teaching students in a range of educational settings
    • designing, implementing, testing and maintaining technologies and services that enable information to be accessed, stored, manipulated, processed, and disseminated
    • identifying, treating, and advising on, health, social, and personal issues
    • advising clients on legal matters
    Sub-major Group

    21 Arts and Media Professionals

    Arts and Media Professionals communicate ideas, impressions and factual information through printed, electronic, visual and performance media, and produce, direct and present film, television, radio and stage productions.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this sub-major group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1); or
    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1); or
    • NZQF Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Tasks Include:

    • conceiving and developing ideas, styles, characters, emotions and themes and translating them through artistic presentation
    • composing music and dance routines and creating visual art forms such as paintings, pictures and sculptures
    • writing, reviewing and editing journalistic copy, literary works, musical compositions, and film, television and radio scripts
    • presenting information and producing, directing and performing various kinds of entertainment
    Minor Group

    211 Arts Professionals

    Arts Professionals communicate ideas, impressions and facts in a range of media to achieve particular effects, and interpret compositions such as musical scores and scripts for performance.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1); or
    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1); or
    • NZQF Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Tasks Include:

    • conceiving and developing ideas, styles, characters, emotions and themes and translating them through artistic presentation
    • reading scripts and undertaking research to gain understanding of parts, themes and characterisations
    • composing music and dance routines and creating visual forms such as paintings, pictures and sculptures
    • learning lines, parts, cues, dance routines and music
    • performing music, dances, dramatic roles and other parts for audience entertainment
    • transporting and setting up photographic equipment, and taking photographs
    Unit Group

    2111 Actors, Dancers and Other Entertainers

    Actors, Dancers and Other Entertainers entertain by portraying roles in productions, performing and composing dances, and performing a variety of other acts.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. Some occupations in this unit group require high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications or experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • reading scripts and undertaking research to gain understanding of parts, themes and characterisations
    • learning lines and cues, rehearsing parts, and applying vocal and movement skills to the development of characterisation
    • preparing for performances through rehearsals under the instruction and guidance of production directors
    • acting parts and portraying roles as developed in rehearsals in film, television, radio and stage productions
    • practising dance routines and interpreting the choreographic content of the production
    • performing dances for audience entertainment, coordinating body movements and facial expression, usually with musical accompaniment
    • composing and notating ballet compositions and other dance routines
    • creating and performing individual performance routines
    • rehearsing, auditioning and travelling between entertainment venues

    Occupations:

    • 211111 Actor
    • 211112 Dancer or Choreographer
    • 211113 Entertainer or Variety Artist
    • 211199 Actors, Dancers and Other Entertainers nec

    211111 Actor

    Entertains by portraying roles in film, television, radio and stage productions. This occupation requires high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications or experience.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Mime Artist
    • Voice-over Artist

    211112 Dancer or Choreographer

    Entertains by performing dances, or creates dance compositions. This occupation requires high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications or experience.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Ballet Dancer
    • Contemporary or Modern Dancer
    • Exotic Dancer

    211113 Entertainer or Variety Artist

    Entertains by performing a variety of acts using a mix of acting, singing, dance and movement skills. This occupation requires high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications or experience.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Busker
    • Circus Artist
    • Clown
    • Comedian
    • Magician/Illusionist
    • Puppeteer
    • Ventriloquist

    211199 Actors, Dancers and Other Entertainers nec

    This occupation group covers Actors, Dancers and Other Entertainers not elsewhere classified. This occupation group requires high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications or experience.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Circus Trainer
    • Disc Jockey (Nightclub)
    • Extra (Film or Television)
    • Motivational Speaker
    • Public Speaker
    • Stunt Performer
    Unit Group

    2112 Music Professionals

    Music Professionals write, arrange, orchestrate, conduct and perform musical compositions.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. Some occupations in this unit group require high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications or experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • creating melodic, harmonic and rhythmic structures to express ideas and emotions in musical form
    • translating ideas and concepts into standard musical signs and symbols for reproduction and performance
    • undertaking research and liaising with clients when composing musical backing for television commercials, popular recordings, and radio, television and film productions
    • auditioning and selecting Musicians and Singers
    • selecting music for performances and assigning instrumental parts to musicians
    • directing musical groups at rehearsals and performances to achieve desired effects such as tonal and harmonic balance, rhythm and tempo
    • studying and rehearsing repertoire and musical scores prior to performances
    • playing music in recital, as an accompanist, or as a member of an orchestra, band or other musical group, from score and by memory
    • performing music and songs according to interpretation, direction and style of presentation, using highly developed aural skills to reproduce music

    Occupations:

    • 211211 Composer
    • 211212 Music Director
    • 211213 Musician (Instrumental)
    • 211214 Singer
    • 211299 Music Professionals nec

    211211 Composer

    Writes new and rearranges existing musical compositions such as songs, operas, symphonies, musical scores and advertising jingles. This occupation requires high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications or experience.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Music Arranger
    • Songwriter

    211212 Music Director

    Conducts choirs, orchestras, bands, ensembles, opera companies and musical performances. This occupation requires high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications or experience.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Band Leader
    • Choral Director
    • Orchestra Conductor

    211213 Musician (Instrumental)

    Alternative Title:

    • Instrumentalist

    Entertains by playing one or more musical instruments. This occupation requires high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications or experience.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Drummer
    • Guitarist
    • Pianist
    • Violinist

    211214 Singer

    Alternative Title:

    • Vocalist

    Entertains by singing songs. This occupation requires high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications or experience.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Band Singer
    • Chorister
    • Commercial Singer (Advertising)
    • Jazz Singer
    • Opera Singer
    • Pop Singer
    • Rock Singer

    211299 Music Professionals nec

    This occupation group covers Music Professionals not elsewhere classified.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Music Copyist
    • Musicologist
    • Music Researcher
    Unit Group

    2113 Photographers

    Photographers operate still cameras to take photographs.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia:

    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualifications listed above. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Tasks Include:

    • consulting with clients to determine objectives of photographic assignments
    • studying requirements of assignment and selecting type of camera, film, filter and lighting
    • working from a studio, and transporting and setting up equipment at assigned locations
    • measuring light levels and determining exposure
    • adjusting camera angles, aperture settings and subjects to achieve desired composition
    • adjusting lighting and filters to accentuate highlights and colours
    • mixing photographic chemicals, processing film and developing prints
    • manipulating images using digital imaging techniques and creative darkroom techniques such as adjusting exposure and development times
    • may make enlarged prints, and mount and frame prints

    Occupation:

    • 211311 Photographer

    211311 Photographer

    Operates a still camera to take photographs. This occupation requires high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications or experience.

    Skill Level: 2

    Specialisations:

    • Fashion Photographer
    • Landscape Photographer
    • News Photographer
    • Photographic Artist
    • Portrait Photographer
    • Sports Photographer
    • Technical Photographer
    Unit Group

    2114 Visual Arts and Crafts Professionals

    Visual Arts and Crafts Professionals create visual two- and three-dimensional concepts and forms through painting, drawing, carving, sculpting, modelling, printmaking, video, multimedia, found objects, ephemera, soundscapes and other media to communicate concepts and ideas.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    The occupations Painter (Visual Arts) and Sculptor in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1)

    In New Zealand:

    • Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1)

    In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    The occupations Potter or Ceramic Artist and Visual Arts and Crafts Professionals nec in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Tasks Include:

    • conceiving and developing ideas, designs and styles for paintings, drawings, pottery pieces and sculptures
    • arranging objects, positioning models, and selecting landscapes and other visual forms according to chosen subject matter
    • selecting artistic media, method and materials
    • applying media to surfaces using appropriate techniques
    • moulding clay into functional and artistic articles by wheel-throwing, moulding and hand-building
    • mixing glazing materials and applying glazes to dried pottery by dipping and painting
    • placing finished and decorated pieces in kilns
    • sketching designs of proposed sculptures, and making wax and plaster models
    • devising forms from metal using welding and metalworking equipment, and from stone using masonry tools
    • carving and forming materials to desired shape using hand and power tools

    Occupations:

    • 211411 Painter (Visual Arts)
    • 211412 Potter or Ceramic Artist
    • 211413 Sculptor
    • 211499 Visual Arts and Crafts Professionals nec

    211411 Painter (Visual Arts)

    Alternative Title:

    • Painter (Artistic)

    Conceives and creates visual art forms, such as pictures, abstract designs and similar compositions, to communicate impressions and ideas. This occupation requires high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications or experience.

    Skill Level: 1

    211412 Potter or Ceramic Artist

    Conceives and creates functional or artistic articles by moulding clay, glass and other fusible materials using hand-building and wheel techniques. This occupation requires high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications or experience.

    Skill Level:

    • 1 Australia
    • 2 New Zealand

    211413 Sculptor

    Conceives and creates three-dimensional forms to communicate impressions and ideas by carving or modelling materials, such as wood, stone, clay and metal, or assembling found and manufactured materials. This occupation requires high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications or experience.

    Skill Level: 1

    211499 Visual Arts and Crafts Professionals nec

    This occupation group covers Visual Arts and Crafts Professionals not elsewhere classified. This occupation group requires high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications or experience.

    Skill Level:

    • 1 Australia
    • 2 New Zealand

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Leadlighter
    • Multimedia Artist
    • Quilter
    • Textile Artist
    Minor Group

    212 Media Professionals

    Media Professionals direct and produce film, television, radio and stage productions, present programs on radio and television, write and edit literary works and scripts, and research, write and edit news reports, articles and material for advertising.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • managing artistic and media productions to meet quality, cost, and timing specifications
    • studying scripts and scenarios to determine theme and setting, and assessing staging, production and technical requirements
    • preparing and presenting news, sports and other information, conducting interviews and introducing music, guests and special events on radio and television
    • writing literary works for publication and scripts for film, television, radio and stage productions
    • gathering facts about newsworthy events, and writing news reports, commentaries and feature stories for presentation in print and electronic media
    • reviewing written material to ensure consistency in style, grammar and content, and coherence of story
    Unit Group

    2121 Artistic Directors, and Media Producers and Presenters

    Artistic Directors, and Media Producers and Presenters plan, administer and review activities concerned with producing artistic media, determine artistic policies for performing arts organisations, prepare and present news, sports and other information, and conduct interviews and introduce music, performances and special events on radio and television.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. Artistic Directors and Media Producers (excluding Video) require relevant experience in addition to the formal qualification. Radio and Television Presenters require high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications and experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • managing artistic and media productions to meet quality, cost, and timing specifications
    • formulating and developing organisations' artistic policies and selecting and planning organisations' artistic programs
    • hiring and managing artistic staff
    • controlling the use of media production facilities such as studios and editing equipment, stage and film equipment and rehearsal time
    • directing the formulation of media production strategies, policies and plans
    • introducing programs, music, entertainment items, guests and celebrities
    • preparing and reading news bulletins, making special announcements and providing commentary for sports and other events
    • presenting opinions on sports, politics, and social and economic matters
    • researching, investigating and compiling stories and programs

    Occupations:

    • 212111 Artistic Director
    • 212112 Media Producer (excluding Video)
    • 212113 Radio Presenter
    • 212114 Television Presenter

    212111 Artistic Director

    Determines and oversees implementation of artistic policies for a performing arts organisation such as a theatre company, dance company, music ensemble, festival or venue.

    Skill Level: 1

    212112 Media Producer (excluding Video)

    Plans, administers and reviews activities concerned with publishing, or the production of films, television or radio programs, theatre, music, festivals or other artistic activities.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Executive Producer
    • Film Producer
    • Stage Producer
    • Television Producer

    212113 Radio Presenter

    Alternative Title:

    • Radio Announcer

    Prepares and presents news, sports or other information, conducts interviews, and introduces music, performances and special events on radio. This occupation requires high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications and experience.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Disc Jockey (Radio)
    • Talkback Host
    • Tourism Radio Presenter

    212114 Television Presenter

    Prepares and presents news, sports or other information, conducts interviews, and introduces music, performances and special events on television. This occupation requires high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications and experience.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2122 Authors, and Book and Script Editors

    Authors, and Book and Script Editors write, edit and evaluate literary works for publication and scripts for film, television, radio and stage productions.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. Some occupations in this unit group require high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications or experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • creating and developing ideas and themes for written works, such as novels, plays, musicals, screen productions, educational texts, information texts and multimedia products
    • researching subject matter through original and secondary materials, interviews and other media
    • planning, organising and writing material
    • reviewing and evaluating manuscripts of novels, biographies, short stories, poems, educational texts and other books, and ensuring coherence of style and development of theme, plot and characterisation
    • advising publishers about potential of works for publication and conditions of publication contract
    • negotiating publication details such as royalties, publication dates and numbers of copies to be printed
    • reviewing and assessing stories and other material for film, television, radio and stage productions
    • directing the preparation of scripts to be read by announcers to introduce and connect parts of musicals, news, sports and special events programs

    Occupations:

    • 212211 Author
    • 212212 Book or Script Editor

    212211 Author

    Produces literary or other written work for publication or performance. This occupation requires high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications and experience.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Novelist
    • Playwright
    • Poet
    • Screenwriter
    • Script Writer

    212212 Book or Script Editor

    Evaluates manuscripts of books or scripts to determine suitability for publication or production, and edits and supervises material in preparation for publication or for production on film, television, radio or stage.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Script Coordinator
    Unit Group

    2123 Film, Television, Radio and Stage Directors

    Film, Television, Radio and Stage Directors direct the artistic and production aspects of film, television, radio and stage productions.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. Some occupations in this unit group require high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications or experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • studying scripts and scenarios to determine theme and setting
    • assessing locations and staging requirements for productions in association with specialist designers
    • overseeing creative aspects of film, television, radio and stage productions
    • determining lighting, film, shutter angles, filter factors, camera distance, depth of field and focus, angles of view and other variables to achieve desired mood and effect
    • viewing film and video tape to evaluate and select scenes and determine which scenes need to be re-shot
    • planning and organising the preparation and presentation of programs
    • supervising the positioning of scenery, props and lighting and sound equipment
    • assessing technical requirements of productions by studying scripts and discussing program content, set locations and stage directions with production team
    • creating, planning, writing scripts for, recording, videotaping and editing programs

    Occupations:

    • 212311 Art Director (Film, Television or Stage)
    • 212312 Director (Film, Television, Radio or Stage)
    • 212313 Director of Photography
    • 212314 Film and Video Editor
    • 212315 Program Director (Television or Radio)
    • 212316 Stage Manager
    • 212317 Technical Director
    • 212318 Video Producer
    • 212399 Film, Television, Radio and Stage Directors nec

    212311 Art Director (Film, Television or Stage)

    Alternative Title:

    • Production Designer

    Plans, organises and controls artistic aspects of film, television or stage productions. This occupation requires high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications and experience.

    Skill Level: 1

    212312 Director (Film, Television, Radio or Stage)

    Interprets and approves selection of scripts, and directs and instructs cast and crew during filming, recording or performance of productions. This occupation requires high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications and experience.

    Skill Level: 1

    212313 Director of Photography

    Alternative Title:

    • Cinematographer

    Plans, directs and coordinates filming to control the quality and style of photography in films or videos.

    Skill Level: 1

    212314 Film and Video Editor

    Makes and implements editorial decisions regarding mood, pace and climax of films, television programs, video productions or commercials.

    Skill Level: 1

    212315 Program Director (Television or Radio)

    Compiles and directs programs for television or radio.

    Skill Level: 1

    212316 Stage Manager

    Plans, organises, supervises and coordinates the activities of workers responsible for placing sets and properties, and operating lighting and sound equipment as part of film, television or stage productions.

    Skill Level: 1

    212317 Technical Director

    Alternative Title:

    • Technical Producer

    Controls the quality of pictures and sound for television or radio programs by directing technical teams and planning and organising technical facilities.

    Skill Level: 1

    212318 Video Producer

    Creates films, television programs, video productions or commercials by filming, adding sound and editing in digital or analogue format. This occupation requires high levels of creative talent or personal commitment and interest as well as, or in place of, formal qualifications and experience.

    Skill Level: 1

    212399 Film, Television, Radio and Stage Directors nec

    This occupation group covers Film, Television, Radio and Stage Directors not elsewhere classified.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Audio Director
    • Casting Director
    • Lighting Director
    • Location Manager (Film or Television)
    Unit Group

    2124 Journalists and Other Writers

    Journalists and Other Writers research and compile news stories, write and edit news reports, commentaries and feature stories for presentation in print and electronic media, and compose written material to advertise goods and services.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • determining advertising approach by consulting clients and management, and studying products to establish principal selling features
    • writing advertisements for press, radio, television, cinema screens, billboards, catalogues and shop displays
    • making decisions about the specific content of publications in conjunction with other senior editors and in accordance with editorial policies and guidelines
    • reviewing copy for publication to ensure conformity with accepted rules of grammar, style and format, coherence of story, and accuracy, legality and probity of content
    • collecting and analysing facts about newsworthy events from interviews, printed matter, investigations and observations
    • writing news reports, commentaries, articles and feature stories for newspapers, magazines, journals, television and radio on topics of public interest
    • researching and writing technical, information-based material and documentation for manuals, text books, handbooks and multimedia products
    • critically discussing daily news topics in the editorial columns of newspapers and reviewing books, films and plays

    Occupations:

    • 212411 Copywriter
    • 212412 Newspaper or Periodical Editor
    • 212413 Print Journalist
    • 212414 Radio Journalist
    • 212415 Technical Writer
    • 212416 Television Journalist
    • 212499 Journalists and Other Writers nec

    212411 Copywriter

    Designs and composes written material to advertise products and services.

    Skill Level: 1

    212412 Newspaper or Periodical Editor

    Alternative Title:

    • Associate Editor

    Plans and directs editing of a publication, such as a newspaper, magazine or journal, in accordance with editorial policies and guidelines and accepted rules of grammar, style and format prior to printing and distribution.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Features Editor
    • News Editor
    • Pictures Editor
    • Subeditor
    • Website/Blog Editor

    212413 Print Journalist

    Collects and analyses facts about newsworthy events by interview, investigation and observation and writes stories for newspapers, magazines or journals.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Columnist
    • Feature Writer
    • Leader Writer
    • Newspaper Reporter

    212414 Radio Journalist

    Alternative Title:

    • Radio Reporter

    Collects and analyses facts about newsworthy events by interview, investigation and observation and writes stories for radio news or current affairs programs.

    Skill Level: 1

    212415 Technical Writer

    Researches and writes technical information-based material and documentation for articles, manuals, text books, handbooks, or multimedia products, usually for education or corporate purposes.

    Skill Level: 1

    212416 Television Journalist

    Alternative Title:

    • Television Reporter

    Collects and analyses facts about newsworthy events by interview, investigation and observation and writes stories for television news or current affairs programs.

    Skill Level: 1

    212499 Journalists and Other Writers nec

    This occupation group covers Journalists and Other Writers not elsewhere classified.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Blogger
    • Critic
    • Editorial Assistant
    • Photo Journalist
    • Vlogger
    Sub-major Group

    22 Business, Human Resource and Marketing Professionals

    Business, Human Resource and Marketing Professionals perform analytical, conceptual and practical tasks to provide services in financial accounting and transaction matters, human resource development, public relations and marketing, and conduct studies of the economy, organisational structures, methods and systems.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this sub-major group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1); or
    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1); or
    • NZQF Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2).

    In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Tasks Include:

    • collecting, analysing and interpreting information on the financial viability, cost structures and trading effectiveness of organisations
    • conducting audits, preparing financial statements and controlling treasury systems for organisations
    • developing and reviewing financial plans and strategies, executing buy and sell orders, and negotiating the purchase and sale of commodities
    • developing, implementing and evaluating staff recruitment, training and development programs
    • researching, developing and implementing marketing and public relations campaigns
    • studying and developing methods and policies to improve and promote government and business operations and effectiveness
    • developing and managing record and archival systems for retention and destruction of legal, administrative, evidential, historical and other records
    Minor Group

    221 Accountants, Auditors and Company Secretaries

    Accountants, Auditors and Company Secretaries plan and provide accounting, financial auditing and treasury valuation services and systems to individuals and organisations, and plan and review legislative compliance activities.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • collecting, analysing and interpreting information on the financial status, cost structures and trading effectiveness of organisations
    • devising, re-organising and establishing budgetary cost control and other accounting systems such as computer-based systems
    • conducting audits and investigations and preparing financial statements and reports for management, shareholders, and statutory and other bodies
    • controlling treasury and treasury systems and establishing and reviewing risk management objectives and treasury policies
    • arranging and giving notice of meetings of directors and shareholders
    • advising organisations' governing boards on matters concerning compliance with stock exchange listing rules, relevant legislation and corporation practice
    Unit Group

    2211 Accountants

    Accountants provide services relating to financial reporting, taxation, auditing, insolvency, accounting information systems, budgeting, cost management, planning and decision-making by organisations and individuals; and provide advice on associated compliance and performance requirements to ensure statutory and strategic governance.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • assisting in formulating budgetary and accounting policies
    • preparing financial statements for presentation to boards of directors, management, shareholders, and governing and statutory bodies
    • conducting financial investigations, preparing reports, undertaking audits and advising on matters such as the purchase and sale of businesses, mergers, capital financing, suspected fraud, insolvency and taxation
    • examining operating costs and organisations' income and expenditure
    • providing assurance about the accuracy of information contained in financial reports and their compliance with statutory requirements
    • providing financial and taxation advice on business structures, plans and operations
    • preparing taxation returns for individuals and organisations
    • liaising with financial institutions and brokers to establish funds management arrangements
    • introducing and maintaining accounting systems, and advising on the selection and application of computer-based accounting systems
    • maintaining internal control systems
    • may appraise cash flow and financial risk of capital investment projects

    Occupations:

    • 221111 Accountant (General)
    • 221112 Management Accountant
    • 221113 Taxation Accountant

    221111 Accountant (General)

    Provides services relating to compliance-based financial reporting, auditing, insolvency and accounting information systems; and advises on associated record-keeping requirements. Registration or licensing may be required for certain services such as auditing.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Financial Analyst
    • Insolvency Consultant
    • Insolvency Practitioner

    221112 Management Accountant

    Alternative Title:

    • Cost Accountant

    Provides services relating to performance-based financial reporting, asset valuation, budgetary systems, cost management, pricing, forecasting and the strategic governance of organisations. Provides advice on financial planning, risk management, carbon sequestration projects and carbon pricing and provides management with reports to assist in decision-making. May provide insight into cost performance and support the implementation of benchmarking and quality improvement initiatives. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Carbon Accountant
    • Commercial Accountant
    • Product Accountant

    221113 Taxation Accountant

    Alternative Titles:

    • Taxation Agent
    • Taxation Consultant

    Analyses, reports and provides advice on taxation issues to organisations or individuals, prepares taxation returns and reports, and handles disputes with taxation authorities. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2212 Auditors, Company Secretaries and Corporate Treasurers

    Auditors, Company Secretaries and Corporate Treasurers conduct audits of accounting systems, procedures and financial statements, manage corporate funding and financial risk, and administer and review corporate compliance activities.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification. In the case of Corporate Treasurers and Company Secretaries, at least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • arranging, giving notice of and attending meetings of directors and shareholders
    • advising organisations' governing boards on matters concerning compliance with stock exchange listing rules, relevant legislation and corporation practice
    • supervising organisations' share capital by preparing documents and share issues, and handling share transfers
    • controlling treasury and treasury systems and establishing and reviewing risk management objectives and treasury policies
    • identifying, managing and reporting on financial risks
    • assisting with equity management, debt management, securities and taxation planning issues
    • collecting, analysing and interpreting information on the financial standing, cost structures and trading effectiveness of organisations
    • devising, re-organising and establishing budgetary cost control and other accounting systems such as computer-based systems
    • conducting audits and investigations and preparing financial statements and reports for management, shareholders, and governing and statutory bodies
    • evaluating the cost effectiveness and risks of operational processes, activities, policies and systems
    • reporting to management on the existence and effectiveness of the system of internal controls
    • establishing audit objectives, and designing and implementing audit methodologies, processes and audit report criteria

    Occupations:

    • 221211 Company Secretary
    • 221212 Corporate Treasurer
    • 221213 External Auditor
    • 221214 Internal Auditor

    221211 Company Secretary

    Plans, administers and reviews corporate compliance activities and effective practice concerning company board meetings and shareholdings, ensuring all business matters and transactions are managed and implemented as directed by the board.

    Skill Level: 1

    221212 Corporate Treasurer

    Alternative Title:

    • Financial Risk Manager

    Manages corporate funding, liquidity and financial risk associated with the profitable development and operation of an organisation. May be involved in acquisitions, disposals and joint ventures. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    221213 External Auditor

    Designs and operates information and reporting systems, procedures and controls to meet external financial reporting requirements. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    221214 Internal Auditor

    Alternative Title:

    • Audit Officer

    Examines, verifies, evaluates and reports on financial, operational and managerial processes, systems and outcomes to ensure financial and operational integrity and compliance, and assists in business process reviews, risk assessments, developing deliverables and reporting progress against outcomes. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Minor Group

    222 Financial Brokers and Dealers, and Investment Advisers

    Financial Brokers and Dealers, and Investment Advisers conduct financial market transactions on behalf of clients, sell loans and insurance, buy and sell commodities, offer financial investment advice and plans, and develop and manage financial plans for individuals and organisations.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1); or
    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1); or
    • NZQF Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2).

    In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Tasks Include:

    • obtaining information on securities, market conditions, government regulations and financial circumstances of clients
    • executing buy and sell orders in the market place on behalf of clients, and offering advice on financial matters such as stocks and bonds, market conditions and the history and prospects of corporations
    • recording and transmitting buy and sell orders, and calculating and recording costs of transactions
    • arranging insurance, home loan mortgages and other types of finance for clients through banks, lenders, financiers and insurance companies
    • developing lists of investments for clients, and reviewing and revising investment plans based on modified needs and changes in markets
    • negotiating the purchase and sale of commodities such as grains, wool, minerals and metals
    • interviewing prospective clients to determine financial status and objectives, discussing their financial options and developing financial plans and strategies
    • managing funds raised from personal superannuation saving policies and unit trusts
    Unit Group

    2221 Financial Brokers

    Financial Brokers operate as independent agents to facilitate the trading of commodities and arrange insurance and loans of money on behalf of clients.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    At least three years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualifications listed above. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • monitoring commodity prices, trends and other factors affecting the supply and demand for commodities
    • negotiating the purchase and sale of commodities such as grains, wool, minerals and metals
    • determining the specific financial and insurance requirements of clients, and researching and reviewing available finance and insurance products for suitability to meet clients' requirements
    • analysing clients' financial status, discussing financial options and developing financial strategies
    • recommending loan combinations that meet clients' needs
    • interviewing prospective clients to explain insurance policy conditions, risks covered, premium rates and benefits, and to make recommendations on the amount and type of cover
    • arranging insurance, home loan mortgages and other types of finance for clients through banks, lenders, financiers and insurance companies
    • preparing documents which set out the conditions of finance, repayments and loan periods
    • identifying and advising on significant risk changes to clients' insurance
    • broking complex and commercial leases, equipment finance, commercial finance, project finance and finance for property developers

    Occupations:

    • 222111 Commodities Trader
    • 222112 Finance Broker
    • 222113 Insurance Broker
    • 222199 Financial Brokers nec

    222111 Commodities Trader

    Alternative Title:

    • Commodities Broker

    Operates as an independent agent to bring together buyers and sellers of commodities, negotiates private sales and arranges sales through established market places.

    Skill Level: 2

    Specialisations:

    • Energy Trader
    • Grain Buyer
    • Livestock Trader
    • Media Buyer
    • Water Broker/Trader

    • Wool Broker

    222112 Finance Broker

    Operates as an independent agent in the course of financial negotiations and arranges loans of money on behalf of clients. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 2

    Specialisations:

    • Lease Broker
    • Mortgage Broker

    222113 Insurance Broker

    Operates as an independent agent to sell life, fire, accident, industrial or other forms of insurance for a range of insurance companies. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 2

    222199 Financial Brokers nec

    This occupation group covers Financial Brokers not elsewhere classified. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 2

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Investment Broker
    Unit Group

    2222 Financial Dealers

    Financial Dealers conduct financial market transactions on behalf of clients.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia:

    • Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • obtaining information on securities, market conditions, government regulations and financial circumstances of clients
    • interpreting data from securities reports, financial periodicals and stock-quotation viewer screens
    • analysing financial markets and financial market products
    • providing information and offering advice on financial market matters, market conditions and the history and prospects of corporations
    • executing buy and sell orders in the market place on behalf of clients
    • relaying trade information to clients such as the number of contracts bought and sold and the price
    • monitoring futures prices and market changes, and bidding for commodity futures contracts
    • recording and transmitting buy and sell orders
    • calculating and recording costs of transactions

    Occupations:

    • 222211 Financial Market Dealer
    • 222212 Futures Trader
    • 222213 Stockbroking Dealer
    • 222299 Financial Dealers nec

    222211 Financial Market Dealer

    Alternative Title:

    • Money Market Dealer

    Buys and sells securities within financial markets, and trades and distributes financial securities on behalf of financial institutions. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level:

    • 1 Australia
    • 2 New Zealand

    Specialisations:

    • Derivatives Trader
    • Fixed Interest Dealer
    • Foreign Exchange Dealer
    • Securities Dealer

    222212 Futures Trader

    Buys and sells commodity futures on behalf of clients. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level:

    • 1 Australia
    • 2 New Zealand

    222213 Stockbroking Dealer

    Alternative Titles:

    • Sharebroker
    • Stockbroker

    Buys and sells stocks and bonds on behalf of clients. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level:

    • 1 Australia
    • 2 New Zealand

    Specialisation:

    • Trading Floor Operator (Stock Exchange)

    222299 Financial Dealers nec

    This occupation group covers Financial Dealers not elsewhere classified. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level:

    • 1 Australia
    • 2 New Zealand

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Equities Analyst
    Unit Group

    2223 Financial Investment Advisers and Managers

    Financial Investment Advisers and Managers develop financial plans for individuals and organisations, and invest and manage funds on their behalf.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • interviewing prospective clients to determine financial status and objectives, discussing financial options and developing financial plans and investment strategies
    • monitoring investment performance, and reviewing and revising investment plans based on modified needs and changes in markets
    • recommending and arranging insurance cover for clients
    • arranging to buy and sell stocks and bonds for clients
    • advising on investment strategies, sources of funds and the distribution of earnings
    • setting financial objectives, and developing and implementing strategies for achieving the financial objectives
    • managing funds raised from personal superannuation savings policies and unit trusts
    • assisting in meeting superannuation compliance requirements
    • directing the collection of financial, accounting and investment information and the preparation of budgets, reports, forecasts and statutory returns
    • may refer clients to other organisations to obtain services outlined in financial plans

    Occupations:

    • 222311 Financial Investment Adviser
    • 222312 Financial Investment Manager

    222311 Financial Investment Adviser

    Alternative Title:

    • Financial Planning Adviser

    Develops and implements financial plans for individuals or organisations, and advises on investment strategies and their taxation implications, securities, insurance, pension plans and real estate. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level:

    • 1 Australia
    • 2 New Zealand

    222312 Financial Investment Manager

    Alternative Title:

    • Portfolio Manager

    Invests and manages sums of money and assets on behalf of others over an agreed period of time, in order to generate income and profit. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level:

    • 1 Australia
    • 2 New Zealand

    Specialisations:

    • Superannuation Funds Manager
    • Unit Trust Manager
    Minor Group

    223 Human Resource and Training Professionals

    Human Resource and Training Professionals plan, develop, implement and evaluate staff recruitment, retention, training and development programs, assist in resolving disputes by advising on workplace relations policies and problems, and represent industrial, commercial, union, employer and other parties in negotiations.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • arranging for advertising of job vacancies, interviewing and testing of applicants, and selection of staff
    • providing advice and information to management on human resource policies and procedures, staff performance and misconduct matters
    • undertaking negotiations on terms and conditions of employment, and examining and resolving disputes and grievances
    • studying and interpreting legislation, awards and agreements, wage payment systems, and dispute settlement procedures
    • developing, planning and formulating workplace relations policies and programs, and procedures for their implementation
    • identifying and determining the need for training, through identifying competencies and defining training requirements in the work environment
    • designing, developing and assessing staff training and development
    Unit Group

    2231 Human Resource Professionals

    Human Resource Professionals plan, develop, implement and evaluate staff recruitment, assist in resolving disputes by advising on workplace matters, and represent industrial, commercial, union, employer and other parties in negotiations on issues such as enterprise bargaining, rates of pay and conditions of employment.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • arranging for advertising of job vacancies, interviewing and testing of applicants, and selection of staff
    • maintaining personnel records and associated human resource information systems
    • providing advice and information to management on workplace relations policies and procedures, staff performance and disciplinary matters
    • arranging the induction of staff and providing information on conditions of service, salaries and promotional opportunities
    • receiving and recording job vacancy information from employers such as details about job description, wages and conditions of employment
    • providing information on current job vacancies in the organisation to employers and job seekers
    • undertaking negotiations on terms and conditions of employment, and examining and resolving disputes and grievances
    • studying and interpreting legislation, awards, collective agreements and employment contracts, wage payment systems and dispute settlement procedures
    • developing, planning and formulating enterprise agreements or collective contracts such as productivity-based wage adjustment procedures, workplace relations policies and programs, and procedures for their implementation
    • overseeing the formation and conduct of workplace consultative committees and employee participation initiatives

    Occupations:

    • 223111 Human Resource Adviser
    • 223112 Recruitment Consultant
    • 223113 Workplace Relations Adviser

    223111 Human Resource Adviser

    Alternative Title:

    • Human Resource Consultant

    Provides staffing and personnel administration services in support of an organisation's human resource policies and programs.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Personnel Officer
    • Workforce Planning Analyst

    223112 Recruitment Consultant

    Alternative Title:

    • Employment Consultant

    Interviews applicants to determine their job requirements and suitability for particular jobs, and assists employers to find suitable staff.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Casting Agent
    • Literary Agent

    223113 Workplace Relations Adviser

    Assists in resolving disputes by advising on workplace relations policies and problems, and representing industrial, commercial, union, employer or other parties in negotiations on rates of pay and conditions of employment.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Industrial Relations Officer
    • Trade Union Official
    • Union Organiser
    Unit Group

    2233 Training and Development Professionals

    Training and Development Professionals plan, develop, implement and evaluate training and development programs to ensure management and staff acquire the skills and develop the competencies required by organisations to meet organisational objectives.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • identifying training needs and requirements of individuals and organisations
    • setting human resource development objectives and evaluating learning outcomes
    • preparing and developing instructional training material and aids such as handbooks, visual aids, online tutorials, demonstration models, and supporting training reference documentation
    • designing, coordinating, scheduling and conducting training and development programs that can be delivered in the form of individual and group instruction, and facilitating workshops, meetings, demonstrations and conferences
    • liaising with external training providers to arrange delivery of specific training and development programs
    • promoting internal and external training and development, and evaluating these promotional activities
    • monitoring and performing ongoing evaluation and assessment of training quality and effectiveness, and reviewing and modifying training objectives, methods and course deliverables
    • gathering, investigating and researching background materials to gain an understanding of various subject matters and systems
    • advising management on the development and placement of staff, and providing career counselling for employees
    • keeping up-to-date with new product version releases, advances in programming languages, application development software, and general information technology trends
    • writing end user products and materials such as user training, tutorial and instruction manuals, online help, and operating and maintenance instructions

    Occupation:

    • 223311 Training and Development Professional

    223311 Training and Development Professional

    Alternative Title:

    • Training Officer

    Plans, develops, implements and evaluates training and development programs to ensure management and staff acquire the skills and develop the competencies required by an organisation to meet organisational objectives.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Education Officer (Air Force and Army)
    • Training Systems Officer (Navy)
    • ICT Trainer
    Minor Group

    224 Information and Organisation Professionals

    Information and Organisation Professionals support organisations, government, individuals and the community by analysing, organising and managing information and data, and by providing advice on policy, business and organisational methods, and the value of property and other items.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • applying mathematical, statistical and actuarial principles and techniques to a range of tasks
    • developing, organising and maintaining libraries and other information keeping services
    • reviewing and analysing economic data and preparing reports
    • managing the collection and processing of information and data to produce intelligence, and analysing and advising on policy options
    • assessing the value of land, property and other items, and providing advice on the administration, and commercial and operational use of land and property
    • studying organisational structures and methods to solve organisational problems and achieve greater efficiency
    Unit Group

    2241 Actuaries, Mathematicians and Statisticians

    Actuaries, Mathematicians and Statisticians develop and apply actuarial, mathematical, statistical and quantitative principles and techniques to solve problems in a range of fields such as business and finance, scientific and social research, and engineering. Econometricians are excluded from this unit group.

    Econometricians are included in Unit Group 2243 Economists.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • defining, analysing and solving complex financial and business problems relating to areas such as insurance premiums, annuities, superannuation funds, pensions and dividends
    • examining financial projections for general insurance companies, finance companies, government and other organisations
    • designing new types of policies, assessing risks and analysing investments in life insurance, superannuation funds, health insurance, friendly societies, financial markets and other areas
    • formulating mathematical models to simulate processes
    • applying models to experimental observations, and adjusting and recasting the models
    • using numerical analysis methods to develop algorithms and perform computations
    • liaising with management and clients to determine the subject or area to be surveyed or examined
    • specifying the data to be collected, and the methodology to be used in collection and analysis
    • evaluating and describing the reliability and utility of source information
    • analysing and interpreting data, and producing relevant statistics to describe and infer particular trends and patterns

    Occupations:

    • 224111 Actuary
    • 224112 Mathematician
    • 224113 Statistician

    224111 Actuary

    Analyses mathematical, statistical, demographic, financial or economic data to predict and assess the long-term risk involved in financial decisions and planning. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    224112 Mathematician

    Develops and applies mathematical principles and techniques to solve problems in all areas of the sciences, engineering, technology, social sciences, business, industry and commerce.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Operations Research Analyst

    224113 Statistician

    Designs and applies statistical principles and techniques for collecting, organising and interpreting quantifiable data, and uses statistical methodologies to produce statistical reports and analyses for government, commercial and other purposes. Registration or licensing may be required

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Biometrician
    • Biostatistician
    • Demographer
    • Epidemiologist
    Unit Group

    2242 Archivists, Curators and Records Managers

    Archivists, Curators and Records Managers develop, maintain, implement and deliver systems for keeping, updating, accessing and preserving records, files, information, historical documents and artefacts.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • evaluating and preserving records for administrative, historical, technical change management, legal, evidential and other purposes
    • maintaining record-keeping systems, indexes, guides and procedures for archival research and for the retention and destruction of records
    • identifying and classifying specimens and objects, and arranging restoration work
    • examining items and arranging examinations to determine condition and authenticity
    • designing and revising data collection forms
    • analysing the record-keeping, policy and procedural, needs of organisations, and translating these into record management systems
    • maintaining record management systems and record forms, and advising on their usage
    • controlling access to confidential information, and recommending codes of practice and procedures for accessing records

    Occupations:

    • 224211 Archivist
    • 224212 Gallery or Museum Curator
    • 224213 Health Information Manager
    • 224214 Records Manager

    224211 Archivist

    Analyses and documents records, and plans and organises systems and procedures for the safekeeping of records and historically valuable documents.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Film Archivist
    • Legal Archivist
    • Manuscripts Archivist
    • Parliamentary Archivist

    224212 Gallery or Museum Curator

    Plans and organises a gallery or museum collection by drafting collection policies and arranging acquisitions of pieces.

    Skill Level: 1

    224213 Health Information Manager

    Plans, develops, implements and manages health information services, such as patient information systems, and clinical and administrative data, to meet the medical, legal, ethical and administrative requirements of health care delivery.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Clinical Trial Data Manager
    • Health Data Administrator

    224214 Records Manager

    Designs, implements and administers record systems and related information services, to support efficient access, movement, updating, storage, retention and disposal of files and other organisational records.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Configuration Management Technician
    • Freedom of Information Officer

    Unit Group

    2243 Economists

    Economists perform economic research and analysis, develop and apply theories about production and distribution of goods and services and people's spending and financial behaviour, and provide advice to governments and organisations on economic policy issues. Statisticians are excluded from this unit group.

    Statisticians are included in Unit Group 2241 Actuaries, Mathematicians and Statisticians.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • analysing interrelationships between economic variables and studying the effects of government fiscal and monetary policies, expenditure, taxation and other budgetary policies on the economy and the community
    • researching, analysing and assessing the effects of labour market programs and industry policies and programs on economic growth, welfare, education and training
    • investigating international and national economic situations, and particular features such as industries, regions and socioeconomic groups
    • studying workplace issues such as enterprise bargaining and wage fixation, and the effect of workplace policies on productivity and economic growth
    • analysing trends and advising on economic issues such as taxation levels, prices, employment and unemployment, imports and exports, and interest and exchange rates
    • forecasting changes in the economic environment for short-term budgeting, long-term planning and investment evaluation
    • formulating recommendations, policies and plans for the economy, corporate strategies and investment, and undertaking feasibility studies for projects
    • preparing reports on research findings

    Occupation:

    • 224311 Economist

    224311 Economist

    Alternative Title:

    • Economic Analyst

    Performs economic research and analysis, develops and applies theories about production and distribution of goods and services and people's spending and financial behaviour, and provides advice to governments and organisations on economic policy issues.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Agricultural Economist
    • Econometrician
    • Economic Forecaster
    • Environmental Economist
    • Health Economist
    • Labour Market Economist
    • Mineral Economist
    • Taxation Economist
    Unit Group

    2244 Intelligence and Policy Analysts

    Intelligence and Policy Analysts collect and analyse information and data to produce intelligence and to develop and analyse policies guiding the design, implementation and modification of government and commercial operations and programs.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • determining organisational and client intelligence requirements
    • organising, collecting, collating and analysing data, and developing intelligence information such as electronic surveillance
    • compiling and disseminating intelligence information using briefings, maps, charts, reports and other methods
    • ascertaining the accuracy of data collected and reliability of sources
    • conducting threat and risk assessments and developing responses
    • liaising and consulting with program administrators and other interested parties to identify policy needs
    • reviewing existing policies and legislation to identify anomalies and out-of-date provisions
    • researching social, economic and industrial trends, and client expectations of programs and services provided
    • formulating and analysing policy options, preparing briefing papers and recommendations for policy changes, and advising on preferred options
    • assessing impacts, financial implications, interactions with other programs and political and administrative feasibility of policies

    Occupations:

    • 224411 Intelligence Officer
    • 224412 Policy Analyst

    224411 Intelligence Officer

    Collects and analyses information and data to produce intelligence for an organisation to support planning, operations and human resource functions.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Criminal Intelligence Analyst
    • Defence Intelligence Analyst

    224412 Policy Analyst

    Alternative Title:

    • Policy Adviser

    Develops and analyses policies guiding the design, implementation and modification of government or commercial operations and programs.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Research and Evaluation Analyst (NZ)
    • Foreign Policy Officer
    Unit Group

    2245 Land Economists and Valuers

    Land Economists and Valuers provide advice on the administration and use of land and property, and assess the value of land, property and other items such as commercial equipment and objects of art.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • providing advice on land and property financing and valuation matters
    • researching and advising on the administration and use of land and property
    • developing and implementing sales and leasing proposals for commercial land and property
    • providing asset management services for the administration and use of land and property
    • analysing land and property investments
    • managing land and property portfolios and commercial property developments
    • calculating values by considering market demand, condition of items, future trends and other factors
    • examining property, selecting methods of valuation, and submitting written assessments
    • giving evidence in legal proceedings, mediating on valuation matters and providing rental determinations for arbitration purposes

    Occupations:

    • 224511 Land Economist
    • 224512 Valuer

    224511 Land Economist

    Alternative Title:

    • Property Economist

    Provides advice on the administration and use of land and property.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Asset Manager (Land and Property)

    224512 Valuer

    Assesses the value of land, property, commercial equipment, merchandise, personal effects, household goods and objects of art. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Plant and Machinery Valuer
    • Property Valuer
    • Real Estate Valuer
    Unit Group

    2246 Librarians

    Librarians develop, organise and manage library services such as collections of information, recreational resources and reader information services. Teacher-Librarians are excluded from this unit group.

    Teacher-Librarians are included in Minor Group 241 School Teachers.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • developing and implementing library and information policies and services
    • examining publications and materials, interviewing publishers' representatives, and consulting with others to select library materials
    • reviewing, evaluating and modifying services in response to user needs
    • providing assistance to clients in accessing library resources
    • managing library systems for recording and organising library holdings, acquisitions and purchases, reader registrations and loan transactions, and supervising indexing, filing and retrieval activities
    • managing inter-library loan systems and information networks
    • undertaking information research activities on behalf of clients
    • selecting, ordering, classifying and cataloguing library and information resources
    • monitoring collection development and culling programs
    • supervising and training other library staff
    • may plan and direct library promotion and outreach activities

    Occupation:

    • 224611 Librarian

    224611 Librarian

    Develops, organises and manages library services such as collections of information, recreational resources and reader information services. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Acquisitions Librarian
    • Audiovisual Librarian
    • Bibliographer
    • Cataloguer
    • Children's Librarian
    • Corporate Librarian
    • Legal Librarian
    • Multicultural Services Librarian
    • Parliamentary Librarian
    • Reference Librarian
    • Special Librarian
    • Special Needs Librarian
    Unit Group

    2247 Management and Organisation Analysts

    Management and Organisation Analysts assist organisations to achieve outcomes, continual improvement and greater efficiency. They study organisational structures, methods, risks, systems and procedures. ICT Business Analysts are excluded from this unit group.

    ICT Business Analysts are included in Unit Group 2611 ICT Business and Systems Analysts.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • assisting and encouraging the development of objectives, strategies and plans aimed at achieving optimal customer experience and satisfaction and the effective use of organisations' resources and capabilities
    • identifying business and organisational gaps and opportunities through application of continuous improvement and change methodologies
    • analysing and evaluating current systems, capabilities and structures
    • advising clients on recommendations based on analysis of current-state gaps to provide solutions to organisational problems
    • preparing and recommending proposals to revise methods and procedures, alter work flows, redefine job functions and support organisational innovation and improvements.
    • assisting in implementing approved recommendations
    • providing coaching and mentoring to individuals and teams to build specific capabilities

    Occupations:

    • 224711 Management Consultant
    • 224712 Organisation and Methods Analyst

    224711 Management Consultant

    Alternative Title:

    • Business Consultant

    Assists organisations to achieve greater efficiency and solve organisational problems which exclude the deployment of quality systems and certification processes.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Business Analyst
    • Business Improvement Manager

    224712 Organisation and Methods Analyst

    Alternative Title:

    • Procedures Analyst

    Studies organisational structures, methods, systems and procedures.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Change Management Facilitator
    • Delivery Coach
    • Industry Analyst
    • Quality Auditor
    Unit Group

    2249 Other Information and Organisation Professionals

    This unit group covers Information and Organisation Professionals not elsewhere classified. It includes Electorate Officers, Liaison Officers, Migration Agents / Immigration Consultants and Patents Examiners.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Occupations:

    • 224911 Electorate Officer
    • 224912 Liaison Officer
    • 224913 Migration Agent / Immigration Consultant
    • 224914 Patents Examiner
    • 224999 Information and Organisation Professionals nec

    224911 Electorate Officer

    Manages the electorate office of a politician, and liaises with constituents and the media on their behalf.

    Skill Level: 1

    224912 Liaison Officer

    Establishes and facilitates communication between different community groups, organisations and governments.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Aboriginal Liaison Officer
    • Business Liaison Officer
    • Community Liaison Officer
    • Disability Liaison Officer
    • Māori Liaison Adviser
    • Police Liaison Officer

    224913 Migration Agent / Immigration Consultant

    Alternative Title:

    • Migration Consultant

    Provides information and advice to potential migrants, prepares and lodges visa applications, and acts as an intermediary to legally represent clients during visa processing and before review bodies. Liaises with Legal Professionals in relation to judicial review matters. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    224914 Patents Examiner

    Investigates and reports on patent applications to assess their compliance with the requirements of the Patents Act. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    224999 Information and Organisation Professionals nec

    This occupation group includes Information and Organisation Professionals not elsewhere classified.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Electoral Officer
    • Information Management Co-ordinator
    • Knowledge Manager
    • Lobbyist
    • Museum Registrar
    • Procurement Specialist
    • Sales Analyst
    Minor Group

    225 Sales, Marketing and Public Relations Professionals

    Sales, Marketing and Public Relations Professionals plan, develop, coordinate and implement programs of information dissemination to promote organisations, goods and services, and represent companies in selling a range of technical, industrial, medical, pharmaceutical and ICT goods and services.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • commissioning and undertaking market research, analysing the findings, and planning advertising, marketing and public relations activities
    • supporting business growth and development through the preparation and execution of marketing objectives, policies and programs
    • planning and organising publicity campaigns
    • appraising and selecting material submitted by writers, Photographers, Illustrators and others to create favourable publicity
    • acquiring and updating knowledge of employers' and competitors' goods and services, and market conditions
    • assessing customers' needs and explaining and demonstrating goods and services to them
    • visiting regular and prospective client businesses to establish and act on marketing opportunities
    • quoting and negotiating prices and credit terms, and completing contracts
    Unit Group

    2251 Advertising and Marketing Professionals

    Advertising and Marketing Professionals develop and coordinate advertising strategies and campaigns, determine the market for new goods and services, and identify and develop market opportunities for new and existing goods and services.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • planning, developing and organising advertising policies and campaigns to support sales objectives
    • advising executives and clients on advertising strategies and campaigns to reach target markets, creating consumer awareness and effectively promoting the attributes of goods and services
    • coordinating production of advertising campaigns involving specialised activities, such as artwork, copywriting, media scripting, television and film production and media placement, within time and budget constraints
    • researching potential demand and market characteristics for new goods and services and collecting and analysing data and other statistical information
    • supporting business growth and development through the preparation and execution of marketing objectives, policies and programs
    • commissioning and undertaking market research to identify market opportunities for new and existing goods and services
    • advising on all elements of marketing such as product mix, pricing, advertising and sales promotion, selling, and distribution channels
    • creating, scheduling and publishing marketing content to social media platforms and websites
    • apply statistical modelling methods to determine the potential impact of pricing strategies on profitability
    • monitoring performance of initiatives, providing regular reporting and insights as required
    • data analysis of digital marketing campaigns and platforms
    • recommending updates to digital content to improve Search Engine metrics

    Occupations:

    • 225111 Advertising Specialist
    • 225112 Market Research Analyst
    • 225113 Marketing Specialist
    • 225114 Content Creator (Marketing)
    • 225115 Digital Marketing Analyst 

    225111 Advertising Specialist

    Alternative Titles:

    • Advertising Account Executive
    • Advertising Account Manager
    • Creative Director (Advertising)

    Devises and coordinates advertising campaigns which encourage consumers to purchase particular goods or services.

    Skill Level: 1

    225112 Market Research Analyst

    Assist organisations to understand current and predict future consumer behaviours through the collection and analysis of data. This data is likely to be obtained through consumer surveys and interviews conducted online or in store. 

    Skill Level: 1

    225113 Marketing Specialist

    Alternative Titles:

    • Marketing Consultant
    • Marketing Coordinator
    • Marketing Officer

    Identifies market opportunities and advises on the development, coordination and implementation of plans for pricing and promoting an organisation's goods and services.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Brand Manager
    • Category Manager
    • Pricing Analyst
    • Product Manager
    • Sales Promotion Officer

    225114 Content Creator (Marketing)

    Alternative Title:

    • Social Media Specialist (Marketing)

    Creates and publishes text, photos and videos designed to promote businesses, products or services, to social media and digital platforms, to grow an audience, build brand awareness and increase sales. Schedules the release of, and updates to, marketing content on these platforms.

    This occupation excludes Social Media Influencers. Social Media Influencers are included in Occupation 639111 Model.

    Skill Level: 1

    225115 Digital Marketing Analyst

    Uses tools and techniques such as Pay per click, Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) and tracking customer behaviour on websites to better understand online consumer behaviour; with the aim of improving digital marketing campaigns and ultimately increasing sales.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2252 ICT Sales Professionals

    ICT Sales Professionals manage client accounts and represent companies in selling a range of computer hardware, software and other ICT goods and services to industrial, business, professional and other organisations.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience and/or relevant vendor certification may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • compiling lists of prospective client businesses using trade directories and other sources
    • acquiring and updating knowledge of employer's and competitors' goods and services, and market conditions
    • visiting regular and prospective client businesses to establish and act on selling opportunities
    • assessing customers' needs and explaining the goods and services which meet their needs
    • promoting employers' ICT goods and services to existing and prospective clients
    • quoting and negotiating prices and credit terms, and completing contracts and recording orders
    • arranging delivery of goods, installation of equipment and the provision of services
    • reporting to sales management on sales made and the marketability of ICT goods and services
    • following up with clients to ensure satisfaction with ICT goods and services purchased, arranging modifications and resolving any problems arising
    • preparing sales reports, and maintaining and submitting records of business expenses incurred

    Occupations:

    • 225211 ICT Account Manager
    • 225212 ICT Business Development Manager
    • 225213 ICT Sales Representative

    225211 ICT Account Manager

    Manages sale of computer hardware, software and services to existing account clients and identifies further sales opportunities within these accounts, builds new account clients, manages customer satisfaction and retention, and coordinates the preparation and presentation of ICT sales proposals and tenders.

    Skill Level: 1

    225212 ICT Business Development Manager

    Identifies and generates new ICT business opportunities to further improve market share and awareness by gaining an understanding of customers' ICT needs and promoting goods and services to these customers. May manage some key customer accounts.

    Skill Level: 1

    225213 ICT Sales Representative

    Develops and converts sales opportunities into sales of computer hardware, software and ICT services.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2253 Public Relations Professionals

    Public Relations Professionals plan, develop, implement and evaluate information and communication strategies that create an understanding and a favourable view of organisations, their goods and services, and their role in the community.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • planning and organising publicity campaigns and communication strategies
    • advising executives on the public relations implications of their policies, programs and practices
    • preparing and controlling the issue of news and press releases
    • undertaking and commissioning public opinion research, analysing the findings, and planning public relations and promotional campaigns
    • organising special events, seminars, entertainment, competitions and social functions to promote goodwill and favourable publicity
    • representing organisations and arranging executive interviews with publicity media
    • attending business, social and other functions to promote the organisation
    • commissioning and obtaining photographs and other illustrative material
    • selecting, appraising and revising material submitted by publicity writers, Photographers, Illustrators, and others to create favourable publicity

    Occupation:

    • 225311 Public Relations Professional

    225311 Public Relations Professional

    Plans, develops, implements and evaluates information and communication strategies that create an understanding and a favourable view of an organisation, its goods and services, and its role in the community.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Media Liaison Officer
    • Press Officer
    • Promotions Officer
    • Public Affairs Officer
    • Public Relations Consultant
    • Public Relations Officer
    Unit Group

    2254 Technical Sales Representatives

    Technical Sales Representatives represent companies in selling a range of industrial, medical and pharmaceutical goods and services to industrial, business, professional and other establishments.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • compiling lists of prospective client businesses using directories and other sources
    • acquiring and updating knowledge of employers' and competitors' goods and services, and market conditions
    • visiting regular and prospective client businesses to establish and act on selling opportunities
    • assessing customers' needs and recommending and explaining goods and services to them
    • monitoring customers' changing needs and competitor activity, and reporting these developments to sales management
    • quoting and negotiating prices and credit terms, and completing contracts and recording orders
    • arranging delivery of goods, installation of equipment and the provision of services
    • reporting to sales management on sales made and the marketability of goods and services
    • following up with clients to ensure satisfaction with goods and services purchased, and resolving any problems arising
    • preparing sales reports and maintaining and submitting records of business expenses incurred

    Occupations:

    • 225411 Sales Representative (Industrial Products)
    • 225412 Sales Representative (Medical and Pharmaceutical Products)
    • 225499 Technical Sales Representatives nec

    225411 Sales Representative (Industrial Products)

    Represents companies in selling a range of specialised chemicals, machines, manufacturing materials and other industrial supplies.

    Skill Level: 1

    225412 Sales Representative (Medical and Pharmaceutical Products)

    Represents companies in selling medical, dental and veterinary equipment and supplies, and pharmaceutical products.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Medical Representative

    225499 Technical Sales Representatives nec

    This occupation group covers Technical Sales Representatives not elsewhere classified.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Sales Representative (Educational Products and Services)
    Sub-major Group

    23 Design, Engineering, Science and Transport Professionals

    Design, Engineering, Science and Transport Professionals fly and ensure the safe operation of aircraft, control and manage the operation of ships, boats and marine equipment, design buildings, landscapes and products for manufacture and visual communication, design, plan and organise the testing, construction and maintenance of structures, machines, production systems and plants, and perform analytical, conceptual and practical tasks in relation to the chemical and physical properties of the universe, living organisms, and the environment.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this sub-major group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1); or
    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1); or
    • NZQF Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Tasks Include:

    • flying aircraft, and ensuring the safe and efficient operation of aircraft in flight and on the ground
    • controlling and directing the operation of ships, boats and marine equipment to ensure the safe and efficient loading and transport of cargo and passengers
    • designing products including furniture, textiles and maps, and physical structures and engineering systems
    • conducting research and practical tests to resolve design and operational problems
    • interpreting and analysing data from engineering and scientific experiments and tests
    • conducting experiments and tests to determine the chemical composition and reactive properties of natural substances and processed materials
    • analysing and describing living organisms and their interaction with their environment
    • advising on the use of natural resources, and discussing and making recommendations to individuals and groups about variables affecting land use
    Minor Group

    231 Air and Marine Transport Professionals

    Air and Marine Transport Professionals fly and navigate aircraft, control air traffic to ensure the safe and efficient operation of aircraft in flight and on the ground, and control and direct the operation of ships, boats and marine equipment.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1); or
    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1); or
    • NZQF Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Tasks Include:

    • flying aircraft in accordance with established air traffic control and aircraft operating procedures
    • controlling aircraft movements, and directing aircraft taxiing, take-offs and landings by radio
    • monitoring aircraft performance and reporting on mechanical condition of aircraft
    • giving in-flight instruction, supervising solo flights, accompanying students on training flights and demonstrating techniques for controlling aircraft
    • directing fishing operations by using knowledge about the species sought, fishing areas, seasons and the capabilities of the vessel and crew
    • controlling and directing shipping operations to ensure the safe and efficient loading and transport of cargo and passengers
    • planning, controlling and coordinating the operational and maintenance requirements of a ship's propulsion and domestic plant and equipment
    • examining and approving design plans of hulls and equipment such as main propulsion engines, auxiliary boilers and turbines, electrical power generating plant, refrigeration and airconditioning plant and pumping systems
    • monitoring a ship's navigational situation, and supervising a ship's course and speed according to predetermined passage plan and safety
    Unit Group

    2311 Air Transport Professionals

    Air Transport Professionals fly and navigate aircraft, control and direct air traffic to ensure the safe and efficient operation of aircraft in flight and on the ground, and instruct students in flying aircraft.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification. Aeroplane and Helicopter Pilots require a prescribed minimum amount of flying experience in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • preparing and submitting flight plans giving consideration to factors such as weather conditions and aircraft performance
    • flying aircraft in accordance with established air traffic control and aircraft operating procedures
    • providing flight information for flight crews and air traffic services staff
    • controlling aircraft movements, and directing aircraft taxiing, take-offs and landings by radio
    • providing pre-flight briefings and aeronautical information services
    • completing cockpit preparations and external inspections to determine that aircraft are acceptable for flight
    • monitoring aircraft performance and reporting on mechanical condition
    • giving in-flight instruction, supervising solo flights, accompanying students on training flights and demonstrating techniques for controlling aircraft

    Occupations:

    • 231111 Aeroplane Pilot
    • 231112 Air Traffic Controller
    • 231113 Flying Instructor
    • 231114 Helicopter Pilot
    • 231199 Air Transport Professionals nec

    231111 Aeroplane Pilot

    Flies aeroplanes to transport passengers, mail and freight, or provide agricultural, aerial surveillance or other aviation services. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    231112 Air Traffic Controller

    Ensures the safe and efficient movement of aircraft in controlled airspace and aerodromes by directing aircraft movements. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    231113 Flying Instructor

    Teaches the theory and practical skills of flying aircraft. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Gliding Pilot Instructor
    • Helicopter Pilot Instructor

    231114 Helicopter Pilot

    Flies helicopters to transport passengers, mail or freight, or provide agricultural, aviation or aerial surveillance services. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    231199 Air Transport Professionals nec

    This occupation group covers Air Transport Professionals not elsewhere classified. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Aircraft Navigator
    • Airworthiness Inspector
    • Balloonist
    • Flight Engineer Inspector
    Unit Group

    2312 Marine Transport Professionals

    Marine Transport Professionals control and manage the operations of ships, boats and marine equipment.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with the qualifications and experience outlined below.

    In Australia:

    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification. Note: some roles within this unit group are at ANZSCO Skill Level 1.

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • directing fishing operations by using knowledge about the species sought, fishing areas, seasons and the capabilities of the vessel and crew
    • directing crew in catching fish, molluscs and crustacea at varying depths using nets, lines, poles, pots and traps
    • planning, controlling and coordinating the operational and maintenance requirements of a ship's propulsion and domestic plant and equipment
    • operating plant and equipment and performing routine maintenance on ship's systems including mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, steam generating, and fire prevention and control systems
    • controlling and directing shipping operations to ensure the safe and efficient loading and transport of cargo and passengers
    • ensuring compliance with regulations pertaining to safety at sea and protection of the marine environment
    • directing the activities of the deck crew for navigational support tasks, berthing and unberthing, maintenance, cleaning and painting of superstructures, and repair and replacement of defective deck gear and equipment
    • navigating a ship by supervising the ship's course and speed according to predetermined passage plans and safety procedures
    • examining and approving design plans of hulls and equipment such as main propulsion engines, auxiliary boilers and turbines, electrical power generating plant, refrigeration and airconditioning plant and pumping systems
    • conducting periodic surveys throughout a ship's life to ensure standards are maintained

    Occupations:

    • 231211 Master Fisher
    • 231212 Ship's Engineer
    • 231213 Ship's Master
    • 231214 Ship's Officer
    • 231215 Marine Surveyor
    • 231299 Marine Transport Professionals nec

    231211 Master Fisher

    Controls a fishing vessel and fishing operations to catch and preserve fish, crustacea and molluscs. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 2 Note: some roles within this occupation are at ANZSCO Skill Level 1.

    231212 Ship's Engineer

    Alternative Title:

    • Marine Engineer

    Controls and manages the operation and maintenance of a ship's plant and equipment. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 2 Note: some roles within this occupation are at ANZSCO Skill Level 1.

    Specialisations:

    • Mechanical Engineering Officer (Navy)
    • Weapons Electrical Engineering Officer (Navy)

    231213 Ship's Master

    Alternative Title:

    • Ship's Captain

    Controls and manages the operations of a ship or boat. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 2 Note: some roles within this occupation are at ANZSCO Skill Level 1.

    Specialisations:

    • Dredge Master
    • Ship's Pilot
    • Tug Master

    231214 Ship's Officer

    Alternative Title:

    • Deck Officer

    Navigates and controls the safe operation of a ship and supervises and coordinates the activities of deck crew. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 2 Note: some roles within this occupation are at ANZSCO Skill Level 1.

    Specialisations:

    • Navigating Officer (Ship's)
    • Seaman Officer (Navy)

    231215 Marine Surveyor

    Alternative Title:

    • Ship's Surveyor

    Surveys machines and hulls of ships to ensure they are constructed, equipped and maintained according to safety standards, rules and regulations laid down by marine authorities. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 2 Note: some roles within this occupation are at ANZSCO Skill Level 1.

    231299 Marine Transport Professionals nec

    This occupation group covers Marine Transport Professionals not elsewhere classified. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 2 Note: some roles within this occupation are at ANZSCO Skill Level 1.

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Boating Safety Officer
    • Marine Safety Officer
    • Vessel Traffic Officer
    Minor Group

    232 Architects, Designers, Planners and Surveyors

    Architects, Designers, Planners and Surveyors design building exteriors and interiors, and landscapes; conduct survey work to precisely position geographical features, and design, prepare and revise maps; design information for visual communication, publication and display, and products for manufacture; and develop and implement plans and policies for controlling the use of land.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. For some occupations at least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • obtaining advice from and providing information to clients and management about design, size, materials and costs associated with new buildings and alterations to existing buildings
    • consulting with professionals and clients about external area designs, costs and construction
    • designing and compiling map manuscripts using digital and graphical source material such as aerial photographs, satellite imagery, survey documents, existing maps and records, and reports and statistics
    • planning and designing land subdivision projects and negotiating details with local governments and other authorities
    • formulating design concepts for clothing, textiles, industrial, commercial and consumer products, jewellery and building interiors
    • undertaking research and analysing functional, spatial, commercial, cultural, safety and aesthetic requirements
    • preparing sketches, diagrams, illustrations and samples to communicate design concepts
    • determining the objectives and constraints of design briefs by consulting with clients and stakeholders
    • compiling and analysing data on economic, legal, political, cultural, demographic, sociological, physical and environmental factors affecting land use
    Unit Group

    2321 Architects and Landscape Architects

    Architects and Landscape Architects design commercial, industrial, institutional, residential and recreational buildings and landscapes.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • obtaining advice from clients and management to determine type, style, and size of planned buildings and alterations to existing buildings
    • providing information regarding designs, materials, and estimated building times
    • preparing project documentation, including sketches and scale drawings, and integrating structural, mechanical and aesthetic elements in final designs
    • writing specifications and contract documents for use by builders and calling tenders on behalf of clients
    • consulting with Professionals and clients about external area designs, costs and construction
    • compiling and analysing site and community data about geographical and ecological features, landforms, soils, vegetation, site hydrology, visual characteristics and human-made structures, to formulate land use and development recommendations, and for preparing environmental impact statements
    • preparing reports, site plans, working drawings, specifications and cost estimates for land development, showing location and details of proposals, including ground modelling, structures, vegetation and access
    • inspecting construction work in progress to ensure compliance with plans, specifications, and quality standards

    Occupations:

    • 232111 Architect
    • 232112 Landscape Architect

    232111 Architect

    Plans and designs buildings, provides concepts, plans, specifications and detailed drawings, negotiates with builders and advises on the procurement of buildings. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Conservation or Heritage Architect

    232112 Landscape Architect

    Plans and designs land areas for projects such as open space networks, parks, schools, institutions, roads, external areas for all building types, land subdivisions, and commercial, industrial and residential sites.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2322 Surveyors and Spatial Scientists

    Surveyors and Spatial Scientists plan, direct and conduct survey work to determine and delineate boundaries and features of tracts of land, marine floors and underground works, prepare and revise maps, charts and other geographic products, and analyse, present and maintain geographical information about locations in space and time.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • determining the position of points of interest on the earth's surface including marine floors, and preparing the final product data in digital form
    • supervising the preparation of plans, maps, charts and drawings, to give pictorial representations and managing spatial information systems
    • undertaking research and development of surveying and photogrammetric measurement systems, cadastral systems and land information systems
    • planning and designing land subdivision projects and negotiating details with local governments and other authorities
    • advising Architects, Engineering Professionals, environmental and other scientists or other relevant professionals on the technical requirements of surveying, mapping, and spatial information systems
    • compiling and evaluating data, interpreting codes of practice, and writing reports concerning survey measurement, land use and tenure
    • preparing site plans and survey reports required for conveyancing and land ownership matters
    • evaluating, compiling and maintaining spatial information using a range of digital and graphical source materials, including aerial photographs, satellite imagery, survey documents, existing maps and records, historical data, reports and statistics
    • analysing and interpreting data to design maps, graphs, plans, drawings, and three-dimensional models using geographic information and related systems
    • developing and trialling new applications for use in geographic information systems
    • supervising and coordinating the work of Surveying or Spatial Science Technicians in the production and reproduction of geographic products

    Occupations:

    • 232212 Surveyor
    • 232213 Cartographer
    • 232214 Other Spatial Scientist

    232212 Surveyor

    Plans, directs and conducts survey work to determine, delineate, plan and precisely position tracts of land, natural and constructed features, coastlines, marine floors and underground works, and manages related information systems. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Cadastral Surveyor
    • Engineering Surveyor
    • Geodetic Surveyor
    • Hydrographic Surveyor
    • Mine Surveyor
    • Photogrammetric Surveyor

    232213 Cartographer

    Applies scientific, mathematical and cartographic design principles to prepare and revise maps, charts and other forms of cartographic output.

    Skill Level: 1

    232214 Other Spatial Scientist

    Acquires, integrates, analyses, interprets, presents, manages and distributes information about locations in space and time, and develops related equipment, software and services.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Geographic Information Systems Manager
    • Geospatial Analyst
    Unit Group

    2323 Fashion, Industrial and Jewellery Designers

    Fashion, Industrial and Jewellery Designers plan, design, develop and document products for manufacture and prepare designs and specifications of products for mass, batch and one-off production.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • determining the objectives and constraints of the design brief by consulting with clients and stakeholders
    • undertaking product research and analysing functional, commercial, cultural and aesthetic requirements
    • formulating design concepts for clothing, textiles, industrial, commercial and consumer products, and jewellery
    • preparing sketches, diagrams, illustrations, plans, samples and models to communicate design concepts
    • negotiating design solutions with clients, management, and sales and manufacturing staff
    • selecting, specifying and recommending functional and aesthetic materials, production methods and finishes for manufacture
    • detailing and documenting the selected design for production
    • preparing and commissioning prototypes and samples
    • supervising the preparation of patterns, programs and tooling, and the manufacture process

    Occupations:

    • 232311 Fashion Designer
    • 232312 Industrial Designer
    • 232313 Jewellery Designer

    232311 Fashion Designer

    Plans, designs and develops clothing, accessories, footwear or other items of personal apparel considering the form and construction of clothing, historical styles and contexts, contemporary and cultural trends, colour, fabric, and decoration, and the techniques and processes available for manufacture.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Costume Designer

    232312 Industrial Designer

    Alternative Title:

    • Product Designer

    Plans, designs, develops and documents industrial, commercial or consumer products for manufacture with particular emphasis on ergonomic (human) factors, marketing considerations and manufacturability, and prepares designs and specifications of products for mass or batch production.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Ceramic Designer
    • Furniture Designer
    • Glass Designer
    • Textile Designer

    232313 Jewellery Designer

    Conceptualises and designs prototypes and details for the manufacture of jewellery and objects for personal adornment, such as watches and spectacles, homewares and other objects, such as trophies and silverware, using metals, precious stones, plastics, engraving, casting and fabrication, to develop designs for mass or batch production or one-off commissions.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2324 Graphic and Web Designers, and Illustrators

    Graphic and Web Designers, and Illustrators design information for visual and audio communication, publication and display using print, film, electronic, digital and other forms of visual and audio media.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • determining the objectives and constraints of the design brief by consulting with clients and stakeholders
    • undertaking research and analysing functional communication requirements
    • formulating design concepts for the subject to be communicated
    • preparing sketches, diagrams, illustrations and layouts to communicate design concepts
    • negotiating design solutions with clients, management, sales and production staff
    • selecting, specifying or recommending functional and aesthetic materials and media for publication, delivery or display
    • detailing and documenting the selected design for production
    • supervising or carrying out production in the chosen media
    • may archive information for future client use

    Occupations:

    • 232411 Graphic Designer
    • 232412 Illustrator
    • 232413 Multimedia Designer
    • 232414 Web Designer

    232411 Graphic Designer

    Alternative Title:

    • Graphic Artist

    Plans, designs, develops and prepares information for publication and reproduction using text, symbols, pictures, colours and layout to achieve commercial and communication needs with particular emphasis on tailoring the message for the intended audience.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Exhibition Designer
    • Film and Video Graphics Designer
    • Publication Designer

    232412 Illustrator

    Plans, designs, develops, and prepares pictures and diagrams to communicate messages, clarify meaning, assist in presentations and illustrate stories, using traditional and digital media such as drawing, painting, drafting, collage, models, photography, and image capture and manipulation software.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Animator
    • Cartoonist
    • Technical Illustrator

    232413 Multimedia Designer

    Alternative Titles:

    • Digital Media Designer
    • Interactive Media Designer

    Plans, designs and develops the production of digitally delivered information, promotional content, instructional material and entertainment through online and recorded digital media using static and animated information, text, pictures, video and sound to produce information and entertainment tailored to an intended audience and purpose.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Instructional Designer

    232414 Web Designer

    Plans, designs, develops and prepares information for Internet publication with particular emphasis on the user interface, ease of navigation and location of information using text, pictures, animation, sound, colours, layout and data sources to deliver information tailored to an intended audience and purpose.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2325 Interior Designers

    Interior Designers plan, design, detail and supervise the construction of commercial, industrial, retail and residential building interiors to produce an environment tailored to a purpose, with particular emphasis on space creation, space planning, and factors that enhance living and working environments.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia:

    • AQF Associate Degree, Advanced Diploma or Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In New Zealand:

    • NZQF Diploma, or at least three years of relevant experience (ANZSCO Skill Level 2)

    In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification.

    Tasks Include:

    • determining the objectives and constraints of the design brief by consulting with clients and stakeholders
    • researching and analysing spatial, functional, efficiency, safety and aesthetic requirements
    • formulating design concepts for building interiors
    • preparing sketches, diagrams, illustrations and plans to communicate design concepts
    • negotiating design solutions with clients, management, suppliers and construction staff
    • selecting, specifying and recommending functional and aesthetic materials, furniture and products for interiors
    • detailing and documenting selected design for construction
    • supervising the construction of interiors

    Occupation:

    • 232511 Interior Designer

    232511 Interior Designer

    Plans, designs, details and supervises the construction of commercial, industrial, retail and residential building interiors to produce an environment tailored to a purpose, with particular emphasis on space creation, space planning, and factors that enhance living and working environments.

    Skill Level: 2

    Specialisations:

    • Commercial Interior Designer
    • Environmental Designer
    • Residential Interior Designer
    • Retail Interior Designer
    Unit Group

    2326 Urban and Regional Planners

    Urban and Regional Planners develop and implement plans and policies for the controlled use of urban and rural land, and advise on economic, environmental and social factors affecting land use.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • compiling and analysing data on economic, legal, political, cultural, demographic, sociological, physical and environmental factors affecting land use
    • conferring with government authorities, communities, Architects, social scientists, Legal Professionals, and planning, development and environmental specialists
    • devising and recommending use and development of land, and presenting narrative and graphic plans, programs and designs to groups and individuals
    • advising governments and organisations on urban and regional planning and resource planning
    • reviewing and evaluating environmental impact reports
    • staying up-to-date with changes in building and zoning codes, regulations and other legal issues
    • may serve as mediators in disputes over planning proposals and projects
    • may speak at public meetings and appear before government to explain planning proposals

    Occupation:

    • 232611 Urban and Regional Planner

    232611 Urban and Regional Planner

    Develops and implements plans and policies for the controlled use of urban and rural land, and advises on economic, environmental and social factors affecting land use.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Land Planner
    • Resource Management Planner (NZ)
    • Town Planner
    • Traffic and Transport Planner
    Minor Group

    233 Engineering Professionals

    Engineering Professionals design, plan and organise the testing, construction, installation and maintenance of structures, machines and their components, and production systems and plants, and plan production schedules and work procedures to ensure engineering projects are undertaken efficiently and in a cost effective manner.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • planning and designing chemical process systems, civil engineering projects, electrical power equipment and facilities, electronic components used in computer and industrial applications, mechanical equipment and systems, mining and drilling operations, and other engineering projects
    • drafting and interpreting specifications, drawings and plans, and determining construction methods
    • supervising the construction of structures, water and gas supply and transportation systems, and the manufacture, installation, operation and maintenance of equipment, machines and plant
    • organising and managing project labour and the delivery of materials, plant and equipment
    • estimating total costs and preparing detailed cost plans and estimates as tools for budgetary control
    • resolving design and operational problems in the various fields of engineering through the application of engineering technology
    Unit Group

    2331 Chemical and Materials Engineers

    Chemical and Materials Engineers design and prepare specifications for chemical process systems and the construction and operation of commercial-scale chemical plants, supervise industrial processing and fabrication of products undergoing physical and chemical change, and investigate the properties of metals, ceramics, polymers and other materials and assess and develop their engineering and commercial applications.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • preparing designs for chemical process systems and planning control systems for processes such as those used to remove and separate components, effect chemical changes, test and evaluate fuels, transfer heat, and control the storing and handling of solids, liquids and gases
    • monitoring the operation and maintenance of equipment to achieve maximum efficiency under safe operating conditions
    • ensuring correct materials and equipment are used and that they conform to specifications
    • diagnosing malfunctions in chemical plants and instituting remedial action
    • studying product utilisation and pollution control problems
    • reviewing plans for new products and submitting material selection recommendations in accordance with design specifications and factors such as strength, weight and cost
    • planning and implementing laboratory operations to develop new materials and fabrication procedures for new materials to fulfil production cost and performance standards
    • conferring with producers of materials, such as metals, ceramics, polymers, cements and elastomers, during the investigation and evaluation of materials suitable for specific product applications
    • reviewing product failure data and implementing laboratory tests to establish or reject possible causes, and advising on ways to overcome any problems

    Occupations:

    • 233111 Chemical Engineer
    • 233112 Materials Engineer

    233111 Chemical Engineer

    Designs and prepares specifications for chemical process systems and the construction and operation of commercial-scale chemical plants, and supervises industrial processing and fabrication of products undergoing physical and chemical changes. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    233112 Materials Engineer

    Investigates the properties of metals, ceramics, polymers and other materials and assesses and develops their engineering and commercial applications. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2332 Civil Engineering Professionals

    Civil Engineering Professionals design, plan, organise and oversee the construction of civil engineering projects such as dams, bridges, pipelines, gas and water supply schemes, sewerage systems, roads, airports and other structures; analyse the likely behaviour of soil and rock when placed under pressure by proposed structures and design structural foundations; analyse the statical properties of all types of structures and test the behaviour and durability of materials used in their construction; plan and develop transportation systems; and estimate and monitor the construction costs of projects.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • determining construction methods, materials and quality standards, and drafting and interpreting specifications, drawings, plans, construction methods and procedures
    • organising and directing site labour and the delivery of construction materials, plant and equipment, and establishing detailed programs for the coordination of site activities
    • obtaining soil and rock samples at different depths across sites and testing samples to determine strength, compressibility and other factors that affect the behaviour of soil and rock when a structure is imposed and determining the safe loading for the soil
    • studying architectural and engineering drawings and specifications to estimate total costs, and preparing detailed cost plans and estimates as tools to assist in budgetary control
    • monitoring changes to designs, assessing effects on cost, and measuring, valuing and negotiating variations to designs
    • analysing structural systems for both static and dynamic loads
    • designing structures to ensure they do not collapse, bend, twist or vibrate in undesirable ways
    • assessing present and future travel flow patterns taking into account population increase and needs change
    • designing the physical aspects of transportation systems such as highways, railroads, urban transit, air transportation, logistical supply systems and their terminals

    Occupations:

    • 233211 Civil Engineer
    • 233212 Geotechnical Engineer
    • 233213 Quantity Surveyor
    • 233214 Structural Engineer
    • 233215 Transport Engineer

    233211 Civil Engineer

    Plans, designs, organises and oversees the construction and operation of dams, bridges, pipelines, gas and water supply schemes, sewerage systems, airports and other civil engineering projects. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Airfield Engineer Officer (Air Force)
    • Hydraulics Engineer

    233212 Geotechnical Engineer

    Plans, directs and conducts survey work to analyse the likely behaviour of soil and rock when placed under pressure by proposed structures, and designs above and below ground foundations. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    233213 Quantity Surveyor

    Alternative Titles:

    • Building Economist
    • Construction Economist

    Estimates and monitors construction costs from the project feasibility stage, through tender preparation, to the construction period and beyond. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    233214 Structural Engineer

    Analyses the statical properties of all types of structures, tests the behaviour and durability of materials used in their construction, and designs and supervises the construction of all types of structures. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    233215 Transport Engineer

    Plans and develops transport systems to improve infrastructure efficiency and the cost effectiveness of moving people and freight. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Roading Engineer (NZ)
    Unit Group

    2333 Electrical Engineers

    Electrical Engineers design, develop and supervise the manufacture, installation, operation and maintenance of equipment, machines and systems for the generation, distribution, utilisation and control of electric power.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • planning and designing power stations and power generation equipment
    • determining the type and arrangement of circuits, transformers, circuit-breakers, transmission lines and other equipment
    • developing products such as electric motors, components, equipment and appliances
    • interpreting specifications, drawings, standards and regulations relating to electric power equipment and use
    • organising and managing resources used in the supply of electrical components, machines, appliances and equipment
    • establishing delivery and installation schedules for machines, switchgear, cables and fittings
    • supervising the operation and maintenance of power stations, transmission and distribution systems and industrial plants
    • designing and installing control and signalling equipment for road, rail and air traffic
    • may specialise in research in areas such as power generation and transmission systems, transformers, switchgear and electric motors, telemetry and control systems

    Occupation:

    • 233311 Electrical Engineer

    233311 Electrical Engineer

    Designs, develops and supervises the manufacture, installation, operation and maintenance of equipment, machines and systems for the generation, distribution, utilisation and control of electric power. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Electrical Design Engineer
    • Railway Signalling Engineer
    • Signalling and Communications Engineer
    Unit Group

    2334 Electronics Engineers

    Electronics Engineers design, develop, adapt, install, test and maintain electronic components, circuits and systems used for computer, communication, command and warfare systems, entertainment, transport and other industrial applications.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • designing electronic components, circuits and systems used for computer, communication and control systems, command and warfare systems, and other industrial applications
    • designing software, especially embedded software, to be used within such systems
    • developing apparatus and procedures to test electronic components, circuits and systems
    • supervising installation and commissioning of computer, communication and control systems, and ensuring proper control and protection methods
    • establishing and monitoring performance and safety standards and procedures for operation, modification, maintenance and repair of such systems
    • designing communications bearers based on wired, optical fibre and wireless communication media
    • analysing communications traffic and level of service, and determining the type of installation, location, layout and transmission medium for communication systems
    • designing and developing signal processing algorithms and implementing these through appropriate choice of hardware and software
    • designing the architecture, modelling and integration of communication and control systems, command and warfare systems, and other industrial applications

    Occupation:

    • 233411 Electronics Engineer

    233411 Electronics Engineer

    Designs, develops, adapts, installs, tests and maintains electronic components, circuits and systems used for computer, communication, command and warfare systems, entertainment, transport and other industrial applications. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Combat System Engineer
    Unit Group

    2335 Industrial, Mechanical and Production Engineers

    Industrial, Mechanical and Production Engineers design, organise and oversee the construction, operation, logistics and maintenance of mechanical and process plant and installations, establish programs for the coordination of manufacturing activities, and ensure usage of resources is cost effective.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • developing and reviewing functional statements, organisational charts and project information to determine functions and responsibilities of workers and work units and to identify areas of duplication
    • establishing work measurement programs and analysing work samples to develop standards for labour utilisation
    • analysing workforce utilisation, facility layout, operational data and production schedules and costs, to determine optimum worker and equipment efficiencies
    • designing mechanical equipment, machines, components, products for manufacture, and plant and systems for construction
    • developing specifications for manufacture, and determining materials, equipment, piping, material flows, capacities and layout of plant construction and systems
    • organising and managing project labour and the delivery of materials, plant and equipment
    • establishing standards and policies for installation, modification, quality control, testing, inspection and maintenance according to engineering principles and safety regulations
    • carrying out inspections to ensure optimum performance is maintained
    • directing the maintenance and coordinating the requirements for new designs, surveys and maintenance schedules

    Occupations:

    • 233511 Industrial Engineer
    • 233512 Mechanical Engineer
    • 233513 Production or Plant Engineer

    233511 Industrial Engineer

    Investigates and reviews the logistics and utilisation of personnel, facilities, equipment and materials, current operational processes and established practices, to recommend improvement in the quality and efficiency of operations in a variety of commercial, industrial and production environments. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Engineering Assurance Engineer

    • Integrated Logistics Support Engineer

    • Process Engineer (Industrial)

    233512 Mechanical Engineer

    Plans, designs, organises and oversees the assembly, erection, commissioning, operation and maintenance of mechanical and process plant and installations. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Airconditioning Engineer
    • Building Services Engineer
    • Heating and Ventilation Engineer

    233513 Production or Plant Engineer

    Plans, directs and coordinates the design, construction, modification, continued performance and maintenance of equipment and machines in industrial plants, and the management and planning of manufacturing activities. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Automation and Control Engineer
    • Maintenance Engineer (Shipbuilding)
    Unit Group

    2336 Mining Engineers

    Mining Engineers plan and direct the engineering aspects of locating and extracting minerals, petroleum and natural gas from the earth.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • conducting preliminary surveys of mineral, petroleum and natural gas deposits with prospectors, Geologists, Geophysicists, other mineral scientists and other engineers to determine the resources present, the feasibility of extracting the reserves, and the design and development of the extraction process
    • preparing operation and project cost estimates and production schedules, and reporting progress, production and costs compared to budget
    • determining the most suitable methods of ore extraction taking account of such factors as depth of overburden, and attitude and physical characteristics of deposits and surrounding strata
    • preparing plans for tunnels and chambers, location and construction of mine shafts, layout of mine development and the application of appropriate mining techniques, often using computer modelling
    • assessing the natural, technical, financial and safety risks associated with the phases of the project development, construction and operations
    • determining the safety of processes, order of extraction and safety of mine walls, evaluating the risk of slippage and advising on the prevention of slippage and rock falls
    • planning and coordinating the utilisation of labour and equipment consistent with efficiency targets, statutes, safety guidelines and environmental conditions
    • planning and conducting research and providing advice on engineering operations for the exploration, location and extraction of petroleum and natural gas
    • determining location for drilling
    • deciding on types of derrick and equipment including seabed platforms
    • devising methods of controlling the flow of oil and gas from wells

    Occupations:

    • 233611 Mining Engineer (excluding Petroleum)
    • 233612 Petroleum Engineer

    233611 Mining Engineer (excluding Petroleum)

    Plans and directs the engineering aspects of locating and extracting minerals from the earth. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Process Engineer (Mining)

    233612 Petroleum Engineer

    Plans and directs the engineering aspects of locating and extracting petroleum or natural gas from the earth. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Mud Engineer
    • Petrophysical Engineer
    Unit Group

    2339 Other Engineering Professionals

    This unit group covers Engineering Professionals not elsewhere classified. It includes Aeronautical Engineers, Agricultural Engineers, Biomedical Engineers, Engineering Technologists, Environmental Engineers and Naval Architects / Marine Designers.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Occupations:

    • 233911 Aeronautical Engineer
    • 233912 Agricultural Engineer
    • 233913 Biomedical Engineer
    • 233914 Engineering Technologist
    • 233915 Environmental Engineer
    • 233916 Naval Architect / Marine Designer
    • 233999 Engineering Professionals nec

    233911 Aeronautical Engineer

    Performs and supervises engineering work concerned with the design, development, manufacture, maintenance and modification of aircraft for flight. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Aeronautical Engineering Officer (Navy)
    • Aerospace Engineer
    • Aerospace Engineer Officer - Aeronautical (Air Force)
    • Aerospace Engineer Officer - Armament (Air Force)
    • Aerospace Engineer Officer - Electronics (Air Force)
    • Avionics Systems Engineer
    • Weapons Aeronautical Engineering Officer (Navy)

    233912 Agricultural Engineer

    Alternative Title:

    • Natural Resources Engineer

    Performs and supervises engineering work related to the use and development of agricultural land, buildings, machines and equipment. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    233913 Biomedical Engineer

    Applies knowledge and methodology of physics, engineering, mathematics, computing, physical chemistry and materials science to problems in biology and the treatment and prevention of human disease. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Bioengineer
    • Clinical Engineer
    • Medical Engineer

    233914 Engineering Technologist

    Analyses and modifies new and existing engineering technologies and applies them in the testing and implementation of engineering projects. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Biomedical Engineering Technologist
    • Industrial Engineering Technologist
    • Mining Engineering Technologist
    • Safety Engineering Technologist
    • Structural Engineering Technologist

    233915 Environmental Engineer

    Assesses the impact on air, water, soil and noise levels in the vicinity of engineering projects, plans and designs equipment and processes for the treatment and safe disposal of waste material, and assesses what may cause problems for the environment in the long-term. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    233916 Naval Architect / Marine Designer

    Designs and oversees the construction and repair of marine craft and floating structures. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Shipbuilding Designer

    233999 Engineering Professionals nec

    This occupation group covers Engineering Professionals not elsewhere classified. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Acoustic Engineer
    • Calibration Engineer
    • Corrosion Engineer
    • Fire Safety Engineer
    • Mechatronics Engineer
    • Product Design Engineer
    • Safety Engineer
    • Test and Activation Engineer (Naval Shipbuilding)

    Minor Group

    234 Natural and Physical Science Professionals

    Natural and Physical Science Professionals perform analytical, conceptual and practical tasks in relation to environmental factors and agricultural production, the chemical and physical properties of the universe, the extraction and processing of mineral ores, life forms including the physiology and biochemistry of humans, plants and animals, and disease prevention.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • advising farmers on techniques for improving crop and livestock production
    • conducting experiments and tests to identify the chemical composition and reactive properties of natural substances and processed materials
    • developing conservation and management policies for biological resources, such as fish populations and forests, and establishing standards and developing approaches for the control of pollution and the rehabilitation of areas disturbed by activities such as mining, timber felling and overgrazing
    • conducting studies of minerals and the nature and formation of the earth's crust, and carrying out mineral exploration
    • studying the forms and structures of organs and tissues of the body by systematic observation, dissection and microscopic examination
    • investigating the effects of environmental factors, such as rainfall, temperature, sunlight, soil, topography and disease, on plant and animal growth
    • analysing samples of body tissue and fluids to develop techniques to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases
    • treating animals medically and surgically, and administering and prescribing drugs, analgesics, and general and local anaesthetics for animals
    • conducting experiments to discover and develop industrial, medical and other practical applications of physics
    • studying and applying chemical and metallurgical techniques for extracting and refining metallic materials from their ores and concentrates
    Unit Group

    2341 Agricultural, Fisheries and Forestry Scientists

    Agricultural, Fisheries and Forestry Scientists advise farmers, primary industries and government on aspects of farming, fisheries, aquaculture and forestry, develop techniques for increasing productivity, and study and develop plans and policies for the management of land, fisheries and forest areas.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • collecting and analysing data and samples of produce, feed, soil, water quality and other factors affecting stock and production
    • advising Farmers and Farm Managers on techniques for improving production, and alternative options
    • advising farmers on issues such as livestock and crop disease, control of pests and weeds, soil improvement, animal husbandry and nutrition and feeding programs
    • studying environmental and other factors affecting commercial crop production, pasture growth, animal breeding, fisheries, and forests and forest trees
    • studying the effects of cultivation techniques, soils, insects and diseases on production
    • developing procedures and techniques for solving problems and improving the efficiency of production
    • managing forest and aquatic resources to maximise their long-term commercial, recreational and environmental benefits for the community
    • studying the propagation and culture of forest trees, methods for improving the growth of stock and the effects of thinning on forest yields
    • preparing plans for reafforestation and devising efficient harvesting systems
    • investigating, planning and implementing management procedures to cope with the effects of fires, floods, droughts, soil erosion, insect pests and diseases

    Occupations:

    • 234111 Agricultural Consultant
    • 234113 Forester / Forest Scientist
    • 234114 Agricultural Research Scientist
    • 234115 Agronomist
    • 234116 Aquaculture or Fisheries Scientist

    234111 Agricultural Consultant

    Alternative Title:

    • Agricultural Adviser

    Advises farmers, agricultural businesses, rural industries and government on the production, processing and distribution of farm products.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Agricultural Extension Officer
    • Landcare Officer

    234113 Forester / Forest Scientist

    Studies, develops and manages forest areas to maintain commercial and recreational uses, conserve flora and fauna, and protect against fire, pests and diseases.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Forestry Adviser
    • Forestry Consultant

    234114 Agricultural Research Scientist

    Alternative Title:

    • Agricultural Scientist

    Researches and studies commercial plants, animals, and cultivation techniques to enhance the productivity of farms and agricultural industries.

    Aquaculture or Fisheries Scientists are excluded from this occupation. Aquaculture or Fisheries Scientists are included in Occupation 234116 Aquaculture or Fisheries Scientist.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Research Agronomist

    234115 Agronomist

    Provides advice on quality, production and management of crops and livestock by assessing growing conditions and environmental factors and examining crops and livestock.

    Research Agronomists are excluded from this occupation. Research Agronomists are included in Occupation 234114 Agricultural Research Scientist.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Animal Nutritionist
    • Sales Agronomist

    234116 Aquaculture or Fisheries Scientist

    Alternative Title:

    • Aquaculture or Fisheries Research Scientist

    Studies commercial marine and aquatic plants, animals, ecosystems, and aquaculture techniques to assess stock and enhance the productivity of aquatic wild harvest and aquaculture and developing better ways of harvesting fish and plants.

    Marine Biologists are excluded from this occupation. Marine Biologists are included in Occupation 234516 Marine Biologist.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2342 Chemists, and Food and Wine Scientists

    Chemists, and Food and Wine Scientists study the chemical and physical properties of substances, develop and monitor chemical processes and production, develop new and improve existing food products, and plan and coordinate the production of wine and spirits.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification. In the case of Wine Makers, at least five years of experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • conducting experiments and tests to identify the chemical composition and reactive properties of natural substances and processed materials
    • analysing and conducting research to develop theories, techniques and processes, and testing the reliability of outcomes under different conditions
    • developing practical applications of experimental and research findings
    • testing food products for flavour, colour, taste, texture and nutritional content
    • advising on preserving, processing, packaging, storing and delivering foods
    • developing quality control procedures and safety standards for the manufacture of food products
    • examining grape samples to assess ripeness, sugar and acid content, and determining suitability for processing
    • coordinating winemaking processes, directing workers in testing and crushing grapes, fermenting juices, and fortifying, clarifying, maturing and finishing wines
    • blending wines according to formulae and knowledge of winemaking techniques

    Occupations:

    • 234211 Chemist
    • 234212 Food Technologist
    • 234213 Wine Maker

    234211 Chemist

    Studies the chemical and physical properties of substances, and develops and monitors chemical processes and production.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Analytical Chemist
    • Industrial Chemist

    234212 Food Technologist

    Alternative Title:

    • Food Scientist

    Develops new and improves existing food products, and sets standards for producing, packaging and marketing food.

    Skill Level: 1

    234213 Wine Maker

    Alternative Title:

    • Oenologist

    Plans, supervises and coordinates the production of wine or spirits from selected varieties of grapes.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2343 Environmental Scientists

    Environmental Scientists study, develop, implement and advise on policies and plans for managing and protecting the environment, flora, fauna and other natural resources.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • evaluating habitat, wildlife and fisheries needs, and formulating short- and long-term management goals and objectives
    • enforcing laws and regulations to conserve and protect fish and wildlife
    • carrying out environmental impact assessments for a wide range of development projects
    • proposing solutions to address negative environmental impact
    • studying the effects of factors, such as terrain, altitude, climatic and environmental change, sources of nutrition, predators and the impacts of humans, on animal and plant life
    • studying and analysing pollution, atmospheric conditions, demographic characteristics, ecology, mineral, soil and water samples
    • developing conservation and management policies for biological resources, such as fish populations and forests, and establishing standards and developing approaches for the control of pollution and the rehabilitation of areas disturbed by activities such as mining, timber felling and overgrazing
    • implementing policies and organising activities in designated parks and other areas to conserve and protect natural and cultural heritage
    • participating in management planning by providing environmental information and making inventories of plants, animals and items of cultural and heritage significance

    Occupations:

    • 234311 Conservation Officer
    • 234312 Environmental Consultant
    • 234313 Environmental Research Scientist
    • 234314 Park Ranger
    • 234399 Environmental Scientists nec

    234311 Conservation Officer

    Develops and implements programs and regulations for the protection of fish, wildlife and other natural resources.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Landcare Facilitator

    234312 Environmental Consultant

    Alternative Titles:

    • Environmental Adviser
    • Environmental Auditor
    • Environmental Officer

    Analyses and advises on policies guiding the design, implementation and modification of government or commercial environmental operations and programs.

    Skill Level: 1

    234313 Environmental Research Scientist

    Alternative Title:

    • Environmental Scientist

    Studies and develops policies and plans for the control of factors which may produce pollution, imbalance in or degradation of the environment.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Air Pollution Analyst
    • Ecologist
    • Land Degradation Analyst
    • Water Quality Analyst

    234314 Park Ranger

    Assists in controlling a State or national park, scenic area, historic site, nature reserve, recreation area or conservation reserve in accordance with authorised policies and priorities.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Land and Sea Ranger

    234399 Environmental Scientists nec

    This occupation group covers Environmental Scientists not elsewhere classified.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Environmental Educator
    • Soil Scientist
    Unit Group

    2344 Geologists, Geophysicists and Hydrogeologists

    Geologists, Geophysicists and Hydrogeologists study the composition, structure and other physical attributes of the earth, locate and advise on the extraction of minerals, petroleum and ground water, and detect, monitor and forecast seismic, magnetic, electrical, thermal and oceanographic activity. Geographers are excluded from this unit group.

    Geographers are included in Unit Group 2724 Social Professionals.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • conducting preliminary surveys of mineral, petroleum and natural gas deposits with prospectors, Mining Engineers, Metallurgists, and other mineral scientists and engineers
    • preparing and supervising the production of laboratory reports and scientific papers
    • conducting studies of the structure, nature and formation of the earth's crust and the minerals contained in it
    • studying and dating fossils and rock strata to develop knowledge of the evolution and biology of life forms, and to assess their commercial applications
    • studying the effects of natural events, such as erosion, sedimentation, earthquakes and volcanic activity, on the formation of the earth's surface and sea beds
    • carrying out exploration to determine the resources present by sampling, examining and analysing geological specimens, rock cores, cuttings and samples using optical, chemical, electronic and mechanical techniques
    • conducting surveys of variations in the earth's gravitational and magnetic fields to determine its physical features
    • investigating the propagation of seismic waves to determine the structure and stability of the earth's mantle and crust
    • studying the causes of earthquakes and other stress states of the earth's crust
    • performing laboratory and field studies, and aerial, ground and drill hole surveys

    Occupations:

    • 234411 Geologist
    • 234412 Geophysicist
    • 234413 Hydrogeologist

    234411 Geologist

    Studies the composition, structure and other physical attributes of the earth to increase scientific knowledge and to develop practical applications in fields such as mineral exploitation, civil engineering, environmental protection and rehabilitation of land after mining.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Marine Geologist
    • Palaeontologist

    234412 Geophysicist

    Studies the composition, structure and other physical attributes of the earth, locates minerals, petroleum or ground water, and detects, monitors and forecasts seismic, magnetic, electrical, geothermal and oceanographic activity.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Oceanographer
    • Seismologist

    234413 Hydrogeologist

    Monitors, measures, analyses and describes the earth’s surface and groundwater resources and many aspects of the water cycle, including human use of water resources.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2345 Life Scientists

    Life Scientists examine the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of humans, animals, plants, insects, and other living organisms to better understand how living organisms function and interact with each other and the environment in which they live.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • designing and conducting experiments, making observations and measurements, researching information, analysing data, preparing or supervising the preparation of laboratory reports and scientific papers, presenting findings at scientific meetings and conferences, and supervising the work of staff
    • studying the forms and structures of bodily organs and tissues by systematic observation, dissection and microscopic examination
    • investigating the chemical structure and function of living cells and their isolated components, organs and tissues in humans, animals, plants, and micro-organisms
    • examining micro-organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, yeast and their enzymes, and using the knowledge gained to create and develop new, and improve existing, products, materials and processes
    • investigating the effects of environmental factors, such as rainfall, temperature, sunlight, soil, topography and disease, on plant growth
    • planning and undertaking experiments to study, measure and understand marine animals and plants
    • studying the growth and characteristics of micro-organisms, such as bacteria, algae and fungi, and the effects they have on plants, animals and humans to develop medical, veterinary, industrial, environmental and other practical applications
    • investigating the interrelationships between animals in their natural surroundings, in captivity and in laboratories

    Occupations:

    • 234511 Life Scientist (General)
    • 234513 Biochemist
    • 234514 Biotechnologist
    • 234515 Botanist
    • 234516 Marine Biologist
    • 234517 Microbiologist
    • 234521 Entomologist
    • 234522 Zoologist
    • 234599 Life Scientists nec

    234511 Life Scientist (General)

    Alternative Title:

    • Biologist (General)

    Studies the origin, anatomy, physiology, reproduction and behaviour of living organisms and the ways in which they interact with the environment in which they live.

    Skill Level: 1

    234513 Biochemist

    Studies the biochemistry of living organisms and the molecular structure and function of related components.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Enzyme Chemist
    • Protein Chemist

    234514 Biotechnologist

    Studies the anatomy, physiology and characteristics of living organisms and isolated biological molecules, and develops new materials for applying to a range of purposes.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Cell Geneticist
    • Molecular Biologist
    • Molecular Geneticist

    234515 Botanist

    Studies the anatomy, physiology, biochemistry and ecology of plants.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Plant Pathologist
    • Plant Physiologist
    • Plant Taxonomist

    234516 Marine Biologist

    Studies the anatomy, physiology, functions, characteristics, behaviour and environments of all forms of life living in the sea and connected water bodies.

    Aquaculture or Fisheries Scientists are excluded from this occupation. Aquaculture or Fisheries Scientists are included in Occupation 234116 Aquaculture or Fisheries Scientist.

    Skill Level: 1

    234517 Microbiologist

    Studies microscopic forms of life such as bacteria, viruses and protozoa.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Bacteriologist (Non-medical)

    234521 Entomologist

    Studies the anatomy, physiology, characteristics, ecology, behaviour, environments, and impact of insects.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Entomologist (Biosecurity)
    • Medical Entomologist

    234522 Zoologist

    Studies the anatomy, physiology, characteristics, ecology, behaviour, and environments of animals.

    Skill Level: 1

    234599 Life Scientists nec

    This occupation group covers Life Scientists not elsewhere classified.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Anatomist
    • Animal Behaviourist
    • Neuroscientist
    • Parasitologist
    • Pharmacologist (Non-clinical)
    • Physiologist
    • Toxicologist
    Unit Group

    2346 Medical Scientists

    Medical Scientists conduct medical tests to assist in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases and health conditions.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • preparing tissue sections for microscopic examination
    • examining and analysing samples to study the effects of microbial infections
    • developing techniques to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of disease and respiratory or sleep disorders
    • advising Medical Practitioners on the interpretation of tests and methods used in  diagnosis and treatment
    • setting up the steps and rules of medical testing
    • operating and maintaining laboratory and testing equipment
    • maintaining laboratory and testing quality assurance and safety standards
    • preparing scientific papers and reports

    Occupation:

    • 234611 Medical Laboratory Scientist
    • 234612 Respiratory Scientist

    234611 Medical Laboratory Scientist

    Alternative Titles:

    • Hospital Scientist
    • Medical Scientific Officer

    Conducts medical laboratory tests to assist in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • IVF Embryologist

    234612 Respiratory Scientist

    Conducts lung function tests to support the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory and sleep disorders, in consultation with other medical professionals.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2347 Veterinarians

    Veterinarians diagnose, treat and prevent animal diseases, ailments and injuries.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • treating animals medically and surgically, and administering and prescribing drugs, analgesics, and general and local anaesthetics
    • determining the presence and nature of abnormal conditions by physical examination, laboratory testing and through diagnostic imaging techniques including radiography and ultrasound
    • performing surgery, dressing wounds and setting broken bones
    • rendering obstetric services to animals
    • participating in programs designed to prevent the occurrence and spread of animal diseases
    • inoculating animals against, and testing for, infectious diseases and notifying authorities of outbreaks of infectious animal diseases
    • performing autopsies to determine cause of death
    • advising clients on health, nutrition and feeding, hygiene, breeding and care of animals
    • may provide professional services to commercial firms producing biological and pharmaceutical products
    • may specialise in the treatment of a particular animal group or in a particular specialty area such as cardiology, chiropractic, dermatology or critical care

    Occupation:

    • 234711 Veterinarian

    234711 Veterinarian

    Alternative Title:

    • Veterinary Surgeon

    Diagnoses, treats and prevents animal diseases, ailments and injuries. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Veterinary Parasitologist
    • Veterinary Pathologist
    Unit Group

    2349 Other Natural and Physical Science Professionals

    This unit group covers Natural and Physical Science Professionals not elsewhere classified. It includes Conservators, Metallurgists, Meteorologists and Physicists and Exercise Physiologists.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification. In the case of Conservators, at least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Occupations:

    • 234911 Conservator
    • 234912 Metallurgist
    • 234913 Meteorologist
    • 234914 Physicist
    • 234915 Exercise Physiologist
    • 234999 Natural and Physical Science Professionals nec

    234911 Conservator

    Plans and organises the conservation of materials and objects in libraries, archives, museums, art galleries and other institutions.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Art Conservator

    234912 Metallurgist

    Researches, develops, tests, controls and provides advice on processes used in extracting metals from their ores, and processes used for casting, alloying, heat treating or welding refined metals, alloys and other materials to produce commercial metal products or develop new alloys, techniques and processes.  Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Welding Engineer

    234913 Meteorologist

    Studies the physics and dynamics of the atmosphere to increase understanding of weather and climate, and to forecast changes in the weather and long-term climatic trends.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Climatologist
    • Weather Forecaster

    234914 Physicist

    Studies matter, space, time, energy, forces and fields and the interrelationship between these physical phenomena to further understanding of the laws governing the behaviour of the universe, and seeks to apply these laws to solve practical problems and discover new information about the earth and the universe.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Astronomer
    • Medical Physicist

    234915 Exercise Physiologist

    Assesses, plans and implements exercise programs for preventing and managing chronic diseases and injuries, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, cancer and arthritis, and assists in restoring optimal physical function, health and wellness.

    Skill Level: 1

    234999 Natural and Physical Science Professionals nec

    This occupation group covers Natural and Physical Science Professionals not elsewhere classified.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Materials Scientist
    • Metrologist
    • Polymer Scientist
    Sub-major Group

    24 Education Professionals

    Education Professionals educate students in early childhood (pre-primary), primary, middle or intermediate, secondary, tertiary, private and special education institutions by teaching one or more subjects; research and develop curricula and teaching materials; and promote students' social, emotional, intellectual and physical development.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this sub-major group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • delivering prescribed courses of study
    • monitoring and assessing the progress of individual students
    • attending to the social, emotional, intellectual and physical wellbeing of students and maintaining acceptable standards of conduct
    • discussing individual progress, courses, academic matters and problems with other professionals, parents and students
    • providing tuition in specialised subjects such as art, music, dance and drama
    • preparing and presenting theoretical and practical subject matter in lectures, tutorials and workshop sessions
    • conducting research and advising on particular areas of the education process, curriculum coordination and design
    Minor Group

    241 School Teachers

    School Teachers educate students in early childhood (pre-primary), primary, middle or intermediate, secondary and special institutions by teaching a range of subjects within a prescribed curriculum, and promote students' social, emotional, intellectual and physical development.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • selecting, preparing and presenting courses, teaching materials and lessons suited to the abilities of the students
    • correcting and assessing students' work
    • attending to the social, emotional, intellectual and physical wellbeing of students and maintaining acceptable standards of behaviour
    • assessing the abilities and level of achievement of students through direct observation and administering tests
    • discussing individual progress and problems with other professionals, parents and students
    • performing extra-curricular tasks such as assisting with sport, school concerts, excursions and special interest programs
    • supervising student teachers on placement
    • maintaining attendance and scholastic records, and school discipline
    Unit Group

    2411 Early Childhood (Pre-primary School) Teachers

    Early Childhood (Pre-primary School) Teachers teach the basics of numeracy, literacy, music, art and literature to early childhood (pre-primary) students and promote students' social, emotional, intellectual and physical development.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • planning and structuring learning in both indoor and outdoor environments using a variety of materials and equipment to facilitate students' development
    • providing a variety of experiences and activities to develop motor skills, cooperative social skills, confidence and understanding
    • promoting language development through storytelling, role play, songs, rhymes and informal discussions held individually and within groups
    • observing students to evaluate progress and to detect signs of ill health, emotional disturbance and other disabilities
    • observing nutritional health, welfare and safety needs of students and identifying factors which may impede students' progress
    • discussing students' progress with parents
    • attending parent interviews, and staff and committee meetings
    • participating in community and family support programs as appropriate
    • supervising student teachers on placement

    Occupations:

    • 241111 Early Childhood (Pre-primary School) Teacher
    • 241112 Kaiako Kohanga Reo (Māori Language Nest Teacher)

    241111 Early Childhood (Pre-primary School) Teacher

    Alternative Title:

    • Kindergarten Teacher

    Plans, organises and conducts activities to help pre-primary school students to develop a wide variety of skills including speech, reading, writing, motor skills and social interaction. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Preschool Director

    241112 Kaiako Kohanga Reo (Māori Language Nest Teacher)

    Works with whanau (family) to care for young children in a Kohanga Reo (Māori language nest) and helps them understand Māori language and customs.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2412 Primary School Teachers

    Primary School Teachers teach a range of subjects within a prescribed curriculum to primary school students and promote students' social, emotional, intellectual and physical development.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • teaching literacy, numeracy, social science, creative expression and physical education skills to primary school students
    • presenting prescribed curriculum using a range of teaching techniques and materials
    • developing students' interests, abilities and coordination by way of creative activities
    • guiding discussions and supervising work in class
    • preparing, administering and marking tests, projects and assignments to evaluate students' progress and recording the results
    • discussing individual progress and problems with students and parents, and seeking advice from Student Counsellors and senior teachers
    • maintaining discipline in classrooms and other school areas
    • participating in staff meetings, educational conferences and workshops
    • liaising with parent, community and business groups
    • maintaining class and scholastic records
    • performing extra-curricular tasks such as assisting with sport, school concerts, excursions and special interest programs
    • supervising student teachers on placement

    Occupations:

    • 241211 Kaiako Kura Kaupapa Māori (Māori-medium Primary School Teacher)
    • 241212 Pouako Kura Kaupapa Māori (Māori-medium Primary School Senior Teacher)
    • 241213 Primary School Teacher

    241211 Kaiako Kura Kaupapa Māori (Māori-medium Primary School Teacher)

    Teaches and coordinates curriculum activities in the Māori language for children at primary school level.

    Skill Level: 1

    241212 Pouako Kura Kaupapa Māori (Māori-medium Primary School Senior Teacher)

    Teaches and coordinates curriculum activities in the Māori language for students at primary school level. This is a senior level teaching position.

    Skill Level: 1

    241213 Primary School Teacher

    Teaches and coordinates a range of subjects within a prescribed curriculum to primary school students. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Primary School Teacher-Librarian
    Unit Group

    2413 Middle School Teachers / Intermediate School Teachers

    Middle School Teachers or Intermediate School Teachers teach one or more subjects within a prescribed curriculum to middle school or intermediate school students and promote students' social, emotional, intellectual and physical development.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • presenting prescribed curriculum using a range of teaching techniques and materials
    • developing students' interests, abilities and coordination by way of creative activities
    • guiding discussions and supervising work in class
    • preparing, administering and marking tests, projects and assignments to evaluate students' progress and recording the results
    • discussing individual progress and problems with students and parents, and seeking advice from Student Counsellors and senior teachers
    • maintaining discipline in classrooms and other school areas
    • participating in staff meetings, educational conferences and workshops
    • liaising with parent, community and business groups
    • maintaining class and scholastic records
    • performing extra-curricular tasks such as assisting with sport, school concerts, excursions and special interest programs
    • supervising student teachers on placement

    Occupation:

    • 241311 Middle School Teacher / Intermediate School Teacher

    241311 Middle School Teacher / Intermediate School Teacher

    Teaches one or more subjects within a prescribed curriculum to middle school or intermediate school students and promotes students' social, emotional, intellectual and physical development. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2414 Secondary School Teachers

    Secondary School Teachers teach one or more subjects within a prescribed curriculum to secondary school students and promote students' social, emotional, intellectual and physical development.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • presenting prescribed curriculum using a range of teaching techniques and materials
    • developing students' interests, abilities and coordination by way of creative activities
    • guiding discussions and supervising work in class
    • preparing, administering and marking tests, projects and assignments to evaluate students' progress and recording the results
    • discussing individual progress and problems with students and parents, and seeking advice from Student Counsellors and senior teachers
    • maintaining discipline in classrooms and other school areas
    • participating in staff meetings, educational conferences and workshops
    • liaising with parent, community and business groups
    • maintaining class and scholastic records
    • performing extra-curricular tasks such as assisting with sport, school concerts, excursions and special interest programs
    • supervising student teachers on placement

    Occupation:

    • 241411 Secondary School Teacher

    241411 Secondary School Teacher

    Teaches one or more subjects within a prescribed curriculum to secondary school students and promotes students' social, emotional, intellectual and physical development. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Kaiako Kura Tuarua (NZ)
    • Secondary School Teacher-Librarian
    Unit Group

    2415 Special Education Teachers

    Special Education Teachers teach primary, middle or intermediate, and secondary school students with learning difficulties, hearing impairment and sight impairment, and promote students' social, emotional, intellectual and physical development.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • assessing students' abilities and limitations with regard to intellectual, physical, social and emotional disabilities, exceptional intellectual gifts, or specific problems of language and culture
    • planning, organising and implementing special programs to provide remedial or advanced tuition
    • administering various forms of assessment and interpreting the results
    • teaching basic academic subjects, and practical and self-help skills to hearing and sight impaired students
    • devising instructional materials, methods and aids to assist in training and rehabilitation
    • advising, instructing and counselling parents and teachers on the availability and use of special techniques
    • stimulating and developing interests, abilities, manual skills and coordination
    • conferring with other staff members to plan and schedule lessons for special needs students
    • preparing and maintaining student data and other records and submitting reports

    Occupations:

    • 241511 Special Needs Teacher
    • 241512 Teacher of the Hearing Impaired
    • 241513 Teacher of the Sight Impaired
    • 241599 Special Education Teachers nec

    241511 Special Needs Teacher

    Teaches academic and living skills to primary, middle or intermediate, and secondary school students with particular learning difficulties using various techniques, and promotes students' social, emotional, intellectual and physical development. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Behaviour Support Teacher
    • Remedial Teacher
    • Teacher of Gifted Students

    241512 Teacher of the Hearing Impaired

    Teaches academic and living skills to hearing impaired students, and promotes students' social, emotional, intellectual and physical development. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    241513 Teacher of the Sight Impaired

    Teaches academic and living skills to sight impaired students, and promotes students' social, emotional, intellectual and physical development. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    241599 Special Education Teachers nec

    This occupation group covers Special Education Teachers not elsewhere classified. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Aboriginal Education Teacher
    • Correspondence School Teacher
    • Distance Education Teacher
    Minor Group

    242 Tertiary Education Teachers

    Tertiary Education Teachers educate tertiary students in one or more subjects within a prescribed course of study at universities, polytechnics, technical and further education (TAFE) institutes and other vocational training providers, and teach adult and community education courses.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • preparing and delivering lectures to tertiary students in one or more subjects within a prescribed course of study
    • conducting tutorials, seminars, and laboratory sessions
    • preparing and marking essays, assignments and examinations
    • participating in course development and in meetings on departmental, budgetary, curriculum and policy matters
    • attending conferences and seminars, and conducting research into a particular field of knowledge
    • providing feedback to students on progress and advising students on courses and related matters
    • consulting with Education Managers, Librarians, Student Counsellors and other support staff
    Unit Group

    2421 University Lecturers and Tutors

    University Lecturers and Tutors prepare and deliver lectures and conduct tutorials in one or more subjects within a prescribed course of study at a university and conduct research in a particular field of knowledge.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • preparing and delivering lectures, and conducting tutorials, seminars, and laboratory sessions
    • preparing and marking essays, assignments and examinations
    • advising students on academic and related matters
    • attending departmental and faculty meetings, conferences and seminars
    • supervising work programs of postgraduate and honours students and tutorial staff
    • participating in setting course and degree requirements, curriculum revision and academic planning
    • serving on council, senate, faculty and other committees and professorial boards
    • conducting research and undertaking consultancies in a particular field of knowledge
    • stimulating and guiding class discussions
    • compiling bibliographies of specialised materials for reading assignments

    Occupations:

    • 242111 University Lecturer
    • 242112 University Tutor

    242111 University Lecturer

    Lectures students and conducts tutorials in one or more subjects within a prescribed course of study at a university and conducts research in a particular field of knowledge.

    Skill Level: 1

    242112 University Tutor

    Conducts tutorials in one or more subjects within a prescribed course of study at a university.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • University Demonstrator
    Unit Group

    2422 Vocational Education Teachers / Polytechnic Teachers

    Vocational Education Teachers / Polytechnic Teachers teach one or more subjects within a prescribed course of study at technical and further education (TAFE) institutes, polytechnics and other training institutes to tertiary students for vocational education and training purposes.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification or a postgraduate diploma in adult education. In some instances relevant industry and vocational education experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1). staff

    Tasks Include:

    • identifying the various needs of students and creating effective learning options to meet these needs
    • liaising with individuals, industry and education sectors to ensure provision of relevant programs and services
    • planning, designing and developing course curriculum and method of instruction
    • advising students on courses and related matters
    • teaching students using teaching aids including presentation of lesson materials, discussions, workshops, laboratory sessions, multimedia aids and computer tutorials
    • marking and grading students' assignments, papers and exams and providing feedback to students about their progress
    • maintaining records of students' progress, attendance and training activities
    • consulting with Education Managers, Librarians, Student Counsellors and other support

    Occupation:

    • 242211 Vocational Education Teacher / Polytechnic Teacher

    242211 Vocational Education Teacher / Polytechnic Teacher

    Teaches one or more subjects within a prescribed course of study at a technical and further education (TAFE) institute, polytechnic or other training institute to tertiary students for vocational education and training purposes. Registration or licensing may be required

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Adult Education Teacher
    • TAFE Lecturer
    • TAFE Teacher
    • Workplace Trainer and Assessor
    Minor Group

    249 Miscellaneous Education Professionals

    This minor group covers Education Professionals not elsewhere classified. It includes Education Advisers and Reviewers, Private Tutors and Teachers, and Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Unit Group

    2491 Education Advisers and Reviewers

    Education Advisers and Reviewers conduct educational research, develop course curricula and associated teaching materials for use by educational institutions, and review and examine the work of teachers and the results from curriculum programs in school settings.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • consulting with teachers, principals and administrative officials of educational institutions to coordinate educational programs and provide advice
    • identifying and evaluating developments in education by conducting research into educational systems
    • serving on committees to identify present and future needs within the educational system, and planning, developing and modifying facilities and programs
    • documenting subjects and courses developed, and evaluating new courses
    • organising and conducting workshops and conferences to train teachers in new programs and methods
    • applying knowledge of learning processes and school structures to develop operational and training programs, and submitting them for decision and funding
    • visiting schools and observing teachers in the classroom, noting pupil response, motivation and teaching techniques
    • discussing programs, records and teachers with School Principals to record academic performance of schools, welfare of pupils and performance of individual teachers
    • making suggestions to government officials about improvements to educational facilities, equipment, buildings and staff to ensure continued standards of education

    Occupations:

    • 249111 Education Adviser
    • 249112 Education Reviewer

    249111 Education Adviser

    Conducts educational research and develops course curricula and associated teaching materials for use by educational institutions.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Curriculum Advisory Teacher
    • Education Officer
    • Home-School Liaison Officer
    • Preschool Adviser

    249112 Education Reviewer

    Reviews and examines the work of teachers in classrooms and schools, and observes the results of the application of curriculum programs in primary, middle or intermediate school, or secondary educational institutions.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • School Inspector
    Unit Group

    2492 Private Tutors and Teachers

    Private Tutors and Teachers teach students in the practice, theory and performance of subjects, such as art, dance, drama and music, in private training establishments.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. At least five years of relevant experience may substitute for the formal qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • planning programs of study for individual students and groups
    • preparing and presenting material on the theory of the subject area
    • instructing and demonstrating practical aspects of the subject area
    • assigning problems and exercises relative to students' training needs and talents
    • assessing students and offering advice, criticism and encouragement
    • revising curricula, course content, course materials and methods of instruction
    • preparing students for examinations, performance and assessments
    • keeping abreast of developments in the subject area by attending professional conferences, seminars and courses, reading current literature, and talking with colleagues
    • may arrange visits and tours to professional exhibitions and performances
    • may organise for exhibitions or performances of students' work

    Occupations:

    • 249211 Art Teacher (Private Tuition)
    • 249212 Dance Teacher (Private Tuition)
    • 249213 Drama Teacher (Private Tuition)
    • 249214 Music Teacher (Private Tuition)
    • 249299 Private Tutors and Teachers nec

    249211 Art Teacher (Private Tuition)

    Teaches students in the practice and theory of art in private training establishments.

    Skill Level: 1

    249212 Dance Teacher (Private Tuition)

    Teaches students in the practice, theory and performance of dance in private training establishments.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Ballet Teacher (Private Tuition)

    249213 Drama Teacher (Private Tuition)

    Teaches students in the practice, theory and performance of drama in private training establishments.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Elocution Teacher

    249214 Music Teacher (Private Tuition)

    Teaches students in the practice, theory and performance of music in private training establishments.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Singing Teacher (Private Tuition)

    249299 Private Tutors and Teachers nec

    This occupation group covers Private Tutors and Teachers not elsewhere classified.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Craft Teacher (Private Tuition)
    • Dressmaking Teacher (Private Tuition)
    • Language Tutor (Private Tuition)
    • Maths Tutor (Private Tuition)
    Unit Group

    2493 Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages

    Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages teach classes in English to students whose first language is a language other than English.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • assessing the extent of language difficulties in students for whom English is a second language
    • teaching students individually and in small groups out of the regular classroom, and assisting students within normal classroom settings
    • teaching students English language skills using a variety of methods including lecture and visual demonstration
    • providing assistance to other classroom teachers by designing special teaching programs for students with English language difficulties
    • designing and producing teaching materials and adapting existing materials
    • preparing course outlines and goals
    • assigning lessons, correcting homework, and preparing and grading exams
    • analysing, recording and reporting progress to regular classroom teachers, parents and students

    Occupation:

    • 249311 Teacher of English to Speakers of Other Languages

    249311 Teacher of English to Speakers of Other Languages

    Alternative Title:

    • English as a Second Language Teacher

    Teaches classes in English to students whose first language is a language other than English.

    Skill Level: 1

    Sub-major Group

    25 Health Professionals

    Health Professionals develop health care programs and policies, conduct tests, diagnose and treat physical and physiological disorders, and provide nursing care, advice and counselling to patients to maintain, promote and restore good health and safe and healthy working environments.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this sub-major group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • examining patients to establish the nature of their complaint and performing or ordering diagnostic procedures
    • selecting and administering appropriate treatment, medication and therapy
    • prescribing prosthetic and corrective devices
    • providing remedial therapy, rehabilitation and nursing care
    • advising on individual, community and population health measures and health promotion, and safe working environments
    Minor Group

    251 Health Diagnostic and Promotion Professionals

    Health Diagnostic and Promotion Professionals conduct diagnostic tests and operate equipment to assess illnesses, incapacities and disabilities, provide health advice and develop programs and policies which promote good health, safe and healthy working environments, and administer pharmaceuticals. Chiropractors and Osteopaths, Complementary Health Therapists, Dental Practitioners, Occupational Therapists, Physiotherapists, Podiatrists, and Speech Professionals and Audiologists are excluded from this minor group.

    Chiropractors and Osteopaths, Complementary Health Therapists, Dental Practitioners, Occupational Therapists, Physiotherapists, Podiatrists, and Speech Professionals and Audiologists are included in Minor Group 252 Health Therapy Professionals.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • developing, implementing, reviewing, examining, testing and raising awareness of diets, menus and nutrition intervention programs, the nature and extent of vision problems, and patients' medicine therapy
    • planning, implementing and reviewing strategies and procedures for safe, economic and suitable disposal of various wastes, and for safe work practices
    • conducting research and assessing data relating to health and nutrition status of individuals, groups and communities, and to develop and improve pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and related chemical products
    • producing images to assist Medical Practitioners diagnose patients' illnesses and diseases, and administering radiation treatment
    • consulting with other Health Professionals, Chemists, Engineering Professionals and other professionals
    Unit Group

    2511 Nutrition Professionals

    Nutrition Professionals apply the science of human nutrition to assist people to attain better health and to help prevent and treat various illnesses and diseases.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing is required in New Zealand.

    Tasks Include:

    • planning diets and menus, and instructing people on the requirements and importance of diet and on the planning and preparation of food
    • collecting, organising and assessing data relating to health and nutritional status of individuals, groups and communities
    • interpreting and communicating scientific information and providing advice, education and professional opinion to individuals, groups and communities
    • monitoring food intake and quality to provide nutritional care
    • calculating nutritional values of food served
    • planning, conducting and evaluating nutrition intervention programs and compiling educational material
    • providing nutrition assessments, nutrition management, and nutrition education, research and training
    • consulting with other Health Professionals and related workers to manage the dietary and nutritional needs of patients

    Occupations:

    • 251111 Dietitian
    • 251112 Nutritionist

    251111 Dietitian

    Applies the science of human nutrition to help people understand the relationship between food and health and make appropriate dietary choices to attain and maintain health, and to prevent and treat illness and disease. Registration or licensing is required in New Zealand.

    Skill Level: 1

    251112 Nutritionist

    Integrates, disseminates and applies knowledge drawn from the relevant sciences to enhance positive effects of food on the health and well-being of human populations.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2512 Medical Imaging Professionals

    Medical Imaging Professionals operate X-ray and other radiation producing and imaging equipment for diagnostic, monitoring and treatment purposes under the direction of Radiologists and other Medical Practitioners.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • receiving referrals from Medical Practitioners to perform medical imaging and radiation treatment of patients
    • determining the appropriate equipment to use, such as X-ray equipment, radiation scanners, fluoroscopes, ultrasound equipment, nuclear instrumentation, angiography equipment and computed tomography (CT) equipment, and selecting the appropriate equipment settings to provide the diagnostic information requested by Medical Practitioners
    • calculating details of procedures such as length and intensity of exposure to radiation, size and strength of dosage of isotopes, and settings of recording equipment
    • explaining procedures to patients and answering patients' inquiries about processes
    • ensuring patients' welfare during procedures
    • positioning patients, screens and equipment preparatory to procedures
    • viewing the screen and deciding if images are satisfactory for diagnostic purposes, and selecting images to show Medical Practitioners
    • conveying findings of procedures to Medical Practitioners

    Occupations:

    • 251211 Medical Diagnostic Radiographer
    • 251212 Medical Radiation Therapist
    • 251213 Nuclear Medicine Technologist
    • 251214 Sonographer

    251211 Medical Diagnostic Radiographer

    Alternative Title:

    • Medical Imaging Technologist

    Operates X-ray and other medical imaging equipment to produce images for medical diagnostic purposes in conjunction with Diagnostic and Interventional Radiologists or other Medical Practitioners. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Magnetic Resonance Technologist

    251212 Medical Radiation Therapist

    Operates high energy X-ray and other radiation and electron generating and monitoring equipment to administer radiation treatment for medical purposes in conjunction with Radiation Oncologists or other specialist Medical Practitioners. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    251213 Nuclear Medicine Technologist

    Performs or assists in performing diagnostic examinations using radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals, and administers radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutic purposes under the direction of specialist Medical Practitioners. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    251214 Sonographer

    Alternative Title:

    • Ultrasonographer

    Operates ultrasound equipment to acquire, interpret and selectively record anatomical images, physical data and real-time physiological information for medical diagnostic purposes in conjunction with Medical Practitioners.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2513 Occupational and Environmental Health Professionals

    Occupational and Environmental Health Professionals develop, implement and evaluate policies and programs to monitor environmental health and occupational health and safety and related legislation to ensure safe and healthy working conditions, and assist injured staff through the workers' compensation and rehabilitation process.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • developing, implementing and reviewing environmental health management plans and occupational health and safety plans
    • preparing and implementing plans and strategies for the safe, economic, and suitable disposal of commercial, industrial, medical and household wastes
    • advising on and enforcing legislation, implementing prevention programs and strategies for communicable diseases, food safety, waste water treatment and disposal systems, recreation and domestic water quality, contaminated and hazardous substances, and minimising air, sea, water and noise pollution to improve health outcomes
    • identifying hazards, and assessing and controlling risks in the workplace
    • developing, implementing and monitoring programs minimising workplace and environmental pollution involving chemical and physical hazards
    • promoting ergonomic principles within the workplace such as matching furniture, equipment and work activities to the needs of employees
    • inspecting and auditing workplaces, processes, plant, and chemical and physical hazards for legislative compliance
    • training employees in personal protective equipment and safe working procedures
    • recording and investigating injuries and equipment damage, and reporting safety performance
    • coordinating the return of injured workers into the workplace

    Occupations:

    • 251311 Environmental Health Officer
    • 251312 Occupational Health and Safety Adviser

    251311 Environmental Health Officer

    Develops, enforces and evaluates environmental health policies, programs and strategies to improve health outcomes, and oversees the implementation and monitoring of environmental health legislation. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Food Safety Auditor
    • Food Safety Officer

    251312 Occupational Health and Safety Adviser

    Alternative Titles:

    • Occupational Health and Safety Coordinator
    • Occupational Health and Safety Officer

    Develops, implements and evaluates risk management policies and programs, trains employees in occupational health and safety procedures, monitors and audits the workplace, and records and investigates incidents to ensure safe and healthy working conditions.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Occupational Hygienist
    • Workplace Rehabilitation Officer
    Unit Group

    2514 Optometrists and Orthoptists

    Optometrists and Orthoptists perform eye examinations and vision tests, prescribe lenses, other optical aids and therapy, and diagnose and manage eye movement disorders and associated sensory problems.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • examining patients' eyes and setting tests to determine the nature and extent of vision problems and abnormalities
    • assessing ocular health and visual function by measuring visual acuity and refractive error, and testing the function of visual pathways, visual fields, eye movements, freedom of vision and intraocular pressure, and performing other tests using special eye test equipment
    • detecting, diagnosing and managing eye disease, referring patients to, and receiving referrals from other health providers, and prescribing medications for the treatment of eye disease
    • diagnosing eye movement disorders and defects of binocular function
    • prescribing lenses, contact lenses and low vision aids, and checking suitability and comfort
    • prescribing exercises to coordinate movement and focusing of eyes
    • managing programs for eye movement disorders, and instructing and counselling patients in the use of corrective techniques and eye exercises
    • advising on visual health matters such as contact lens care, vision care for the elderly, optics, visual ergonomics, and occupational and industrial eye safety
    • conducting preventative screening programs
    • conducting rehabilitation programs for the visually impaired

    Occupations:

    • 251411 Optometrist
    • 251412 Orthoptist

    251411 Optometrist

    Performs eye examinations and vision tests to determine the presence of visual, ocular and other abnormalities, ocular diseases and systemic diseases with ocular manifestations, and prescribes lenses, other optical aids, therapy and medication to correct and manage vision problems and eye diseases. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    251412 Orthoptist

    Diagnoses and manages eye movement disorders and associated sensory deficiencies. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2515 Pharmacists

    Pharmacists ensure safe and quality use of medicines, and optimise health outcomes by contributing to selecting, prescribing, monitoring and evaluating medicine therapy, and researching, testing and developing pharmaceuticals and medical products.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification and a one year traineeship (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • receiving prescriptions, checking patients' medicine histories, and ensuring optimal dosage and methods of administration and drug compatibility before dispensing
    • preparing or supervising the preparation and labelling of liquid medicines, ointments, powders, tablets and other medications to fill prescriptions
    • advising prescribers on drug incompatibility and contra-indications
    • reviewing and monitoring the medicine therapy of individual patients, and assessing the effectiveness of the total medicine therapy
    • maintaining prescription files and recording issue of narcotics, poisons and habit-forming drugs
    • storing and preserving vaccines, serums and other drugs subject to deterioration
    • supplying non-prescription medicines, and diagnostic and therapeutic aids
    • supervising and coordinating the work of Pharmacy Technicians, pharmacy interns and Pharmacy Sales Assistants
    • conducting research to develop and improve pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and related chemical products
    • conferring with Chemists, Engineering Professionals and other professionals about manufacturing techniques and ingredients
    • testing and analysing drugs to determine their identity, purity and strength in relation to specified standards
    • developing standards for drugs used in pharmaceuticals

    Occupations:

    • 251511 Hospital Pharmacist
    • 251512 Industrial Pharmacist
    • 251513 Retail Pharmacist

    251511 Hospital Pharmacist

    Prepares and dispenses pharmaceuticals, drugs and medicines in a hospital pharmacy. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Pharmaceutical Officer (Army)

    251512 Industrial Pharmacist

    Undertakes research, testing and analysis related to the development, production, storage, quality control and distribution of drugs and related supplies. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    251513 Retail Pharmacist

    Alternative Title:

    • Community Pharmacist

    Dispenses prescribed pharmaceuticals to the public, educates customers on health promotion, disease prevention and the proper use of medicines, and sells non-prescription medicines and related goods in a community pharmacy. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2519 Other Health Diagnostic and Promotion Professionals

    This unit group covers Health Diagnostic and Promotion Professionals not elsewhere classified. It includes Health Promotion Officers and Orthotists or Prosthetists.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Most occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Occupations:

    • 251911 Health Promotion Officer
    • 251912 Orthotist or Prosthetist
    • 251999 Health Diagnostic and Promotion Professionals nec

    251911 Health Promotion Officer

    Alternative Titles:

    • Community Health Worker
    • Health Educator

    Assists health and community groups to improve the health of individuals and the community by raising awareness of healthy lifestyles, disease and disability, and other health-related issues.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Asthma Educator
    • Childbirth Educator
    • Diabetes Educator

    251912 Orthotist or Prosthetist

    Designs, builds, fits and repairs splints, braces, callipers, artificial limbs and related appliances to restore function or compensate for muscular and skeletal disabilities. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    251999 Health Diagnostic and Promotion Professionals nec

    This occupation group covers Health Diagnostic and Promotion Professionals not elsewhere classified.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Genetic Counsellor
    Minor Group

    252 Health Therapy Professionals

    Health Therapy Professionals assess, diagnose and treat illnesses and disabilities, and provide therapeutic services such as chiropractic, osteopathy, complementary health, dentistry, occupational therapy, physical therapy, podiatry, speech pathology and audiology. Dietitians, Medical Imaging Professionals, Occupational and Environmental Health Professionals, Optometrists and Orthoptists, Pharmacists, Health Promotion Officers, and Orthotists or Prosthetists are excluded from this minor group.

    Dietitians, Medical Imaging Professionals, Occupational and Environmental Health Professionals, Optometrists and Orthoptists, Pharmacists, Health Promotion Officers, and Orthotists or Prosthetists are included in Minor Group 251 Health Diagnostic and Promotion Professionals.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • questioning, examining, observing and testing patients to identify and determine nature of disease, disorder, illness or problem
    • designing, developing and implementing treatment plans to address patients' problems
    • providing exercise, dietary, lifestyle and hygiene guidelines and advice, adaptive equipment and correctional aids
    • recording patients' medical histories such as previous injuries, surgeries, general health and lifestyle
    • evaluating and documenting patients' treatment response and progress
    Unit Group

    2521 Chiropractors and Osteopaths

    Chiropractors and Osteopaths diagnose and treat physiological and mechanical disorders of the locomotor system and tissue strain, stress and dysfunction that impede normal neural, vascular and biochemical mechanisms, and provide advice on preventing these disorders.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • administering a variety of neurological, musculoskeletal and functional tests to identify and assess physical problems and ailments of patients
    • planning and discussing effective management of patients' dysfunction
    • designing, reviewing, monitoring, assessing and evaluating treatment programs
    • assisting and improving the function of all body systems such as musculoskeletal, neurological, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, endocrine and genitourinary systems
    • recording detailed patient medical histories, treatments delivered and the patients' responses and progress to treatments
    • referring patients to specialists and liaising with other Health Professionals in relation to patients' problems, needs and progress
    • educating patients, their partners, family and friends in therapeutic procedures, such as home exercises and lifestyle changes, to enhance patients' health and wellbeing

    Occupations:

    • 252111 Chiropractor
    • 252112 Osteopath

    252111 Chiropractor

    Diagnoses and treats physiological and mechanical disorders of the human locomotor system, particularly neuromuscular skeletal disorders, and provides advice on preventing these disorders. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    252112 Osteopath

    Diagnoses and treats tissue strains, stresses and dysfunctions which impede normal neural, vascular and biochemical mechanisms, and provides advice on preventing these disorders. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2522 Complementary Health Therapists

    Complementary Health Therapists treat patients with physical, mental, spiritual and emotional needs by considering the whole person rather than focusing on specific symptoms and by using various therapies, techniques and practices.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing may be required.

    Tasks Include:

    • assessing patients to determine the nature of the disorder, illness, problem or need by questioning, examining and observing
    • developing and implementing treatment plans using applications such as acupuncture, homoeopathic and herbal medicine, and dance, drama, hypnotic and music therapies
    • evaluating and documenting patients' progress through treatment plans
    • providing dietary and lifestyle advice and guidelines
    • prescribing natural medicines, such as herbal, mineral and animal extracts, to stimulate the body's capacity for self-healing

    Occupations:

    • 252211 Acupuncturist
    • 252212 Homoeopath
    • 252213 Naturopath
    • 252214 Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioner
    • 252215 Traditional Māori Health Practitioner
    • 252299 Complementary Health Therapists nec

    252211 Acupuncturist

    Treats disorders and illnesses by stimulating the body's defence mechanisms through inserting fine needles into the skin. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    252212 Homoeopath

    Treats the body's immune and defence systems by assessing the whole person and using minute amounts of natural remedies made from substances such as plants, minerals and animal sources. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    252213 Naturopath

    Treats internal health problems, metabolic disorders and imbalances through treatment of the whole person using natural therapies. Registration or licensing may be required.

    Skill Level: 1

    252214 Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioner

    Alternative Titles:

    • Chinese Medicine Practitioner
    • Oriental Medicine Practitioner

    Treats imbalances of energy flows through the body by assessing the whole person and using techniques and methods such as acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, massage, diet, exercise and breathing therapy. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Chinese Herbalist

    252215 Traditional Māori Health Practitioner

    Diagnoses, assesses and treats patients in accordance with Tikanga Māori (Māori culture and custom) and with the participation of whanau (family).

    Skill Level: 1

    252299 Complementary Health Therapists nec

    This occupation group covers Complementary Health Therapists not elsewhere classified.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Dance Therapist
    • Drama Therapist
    • Hypnotherapist
    • Music Therapist
    • Play Therapist
    Unit Group

    2523 Dental Practitioners

    Dental Practitioners diagnose and treat dental disease, restore normal oral function using a broad range of treatments, such as surgery and other specialist techniques, and advise on oral health.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • diagnosing dental diseases using a range of methods such as radiographs, salivary tests and medical histories
    • providing preventative oral health care such as periodontal treatments, fluoride applications and oral health promotion
    • providing restorative oral care such as implants, complex crown and bridge restorations, and orthodontics, and repairing damaged and decayed teeth
    • providing oral surgical treatments such as biopsy of tissue and prescription of medication
    • performing routine orthodontic treatment
    • restoring oral function with removable and fixed oral prostheses
    • assisting in diagnosing general diseases having oral manifestations such as diabetes
    • educating patients to take care of their mouth and teeth
    • leading a dental team which may comprise Dental Hygienists, Dental Therapists, Dental Assistants and other Dental Specialists

    Occupations:

    • 252311 Dental Specialist
    • 252312 Dentist

    252311 Dental Specialist

    Diagnoses and treats diseases, injuries, irregularities and malformations of teeth and associated structures in the mouth and jaw using surgery and other specialist techniques. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Endodontist
    • Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon
    • Oral Pathologist
    • Orthodontist
    • Paedodontist
    • Periodontist
    • Prosthodontist

    252312 Dentist

    Alternative Titles:

    • Dental Practitioner
    • Dental Surgeon

    Diagnoses and treats dental disease, injuries, decay and malformations of the teeth, periodontal tissue (gums), hard and soft tissue found on the mouth and other dento-facial structures using surgery and other techniques. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2524 Occupational Therapists

    Occupational Therapists assess functional limitations of people resulting from illnesses and disabilities, and provide therapy to enable people to perform their daily activities and occupations.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • assessing clients' emotional, psychological, developmental and physical capabilities using clinical observations and standardised tests
    • assessing clients' functional potential in their home, leisure, work and school environments, and recommending environmental adaptations to maximise their performance
    • planning and directing programs through the use of vocational, recreational, remedial, social and educational activities on an individual and group basis
    • providing advice to family members, carers, employers and teachers about adapting clients' home, leisure, work and school environments
    • providing adaptive equipment, such as wheelchairs and splints, to assist clients to overcome their functional limitations
    • working with other Health Professionals in overall case management of clients
    • working with other professionals in providing specialist advice to specific client groups such as those requiring driver rehabilitation, third-party compensation and medico-legal representation
    • recording clients' progress and maintaining professional relationships in accordance with relevant legislative requirements and ethical guidelines

    Occupation:

    • 252411 Occupational Therapist

    252411 Occupational Therapist

    Assesses functional limitations of people resulting from illnesses and disabilities, and provides therapy to enable people to perform their daily activities and occupations. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2525 Physiotherapists

    Physiotherapists assess, treat and prevent disorders in human movement caused by injury or disease.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • administering muscle, nerve, joint and functional ability tests to identify and assess physical problems of patients
    • designing treatment programs to address patients' problems
    • treating patients to reduce pain, improve circulation, strengthen muscles, improve cardiothoracic, cardiovascular and respiratory functions, restore joint mobility, and improve balance and coordination
    • using the therapeutic properties of exercise, heat, cold, massage, manipulation, hydrotherapy, electrotherapy, ultraviolet and infra-red light and ultrasound in the treatment of patients
    • reviewing, continually monitoring, assessing and evaluating programs and treatments
    • consulting with other Health Professionals as required about patients' problems, needs and progress
    • instructing patients and their families in procedures to be continued at home
    • recording treatments given and patients' responses and progress
    • developing and implementing screening and preventative health promotion programs

    Occupation:

    • 252511 Physiotherapist

    252511 Physiotherapist

    Alternative Title:

    • Physical Therapist

    Assesses, treats and prevents disorders in human movement caused by injury or disease. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Aquatic Physiotherapist
    • Cardiothoracic Physiotherapist
    • Continence and Women's Health Physiotherapist
    • Gerontological Physiotherapist
    • Māori Physiotherapist (NZ)
    • Musculoskeletal Physiotherapist
    • Neurological Physiotherapist
    • Occupational Health Physiotherapist
    • Paediatric Physiotherapist
    • Sports Physiotherapist
    Unit Group

    2526 Podiatrists

    Podiatrists prevent, diagnose and treat disorders of the feet.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • examining patients' feet to determine the nature and extent of conditions, deformities and injuries
    • examining and treating foot disabilities caused by diseases such as diabetes, peripheral vascular disorders, rheumatoid arthritis and other neuropathies
    • prescribing and arranging the fabrication of footwear to correct foot abnormalities
    • performing minor surgery to remove and improve abnormal conditions
    • prescribing and fitting replaceable pads, palliative and functional supports and other devices for the protection and correction of foot abnormalities
    • advising patients about continued treatment and foot care
    • may provide rehabilitation services to the physically handicapped
    • may refer patients to or have patients referred from Medical Practitioners

    Occupation:

    • 252611 Podiatrist

    252611 Podiatrist

    Prevents, diagnoses and treats disorders of the feet. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Podiatric Surgeon
    Unit Group

    2527 Audiologists and Speech Pathologists / Therapists

    Audiologists and Speech Pathologists or Therapists provide diagnostic assessment, treatment, rehabilitative services and management of human hearing defects, and communication and swallowing impairments.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • assessing and diagnosing the extent of client hearing loss using a wide range of techniques, including audiometric tests
    • reporting results of assessments and tests in writing and making referrals to medical practitioners
    • recommending solutions to those with hearing impairment including amplification, implantable devices, medical interventions and assistive listening devices and providing aural rehabilitation programs
    • providing counselling, advice and information to clients and families as a part of overall treatment
    • assisting with the development and management of noise control and hearing conservation strategies
    • administering standardised and informal tests and observing clients to determine the nature and extent of their communication disorders or swallowing difficulties
    • providing treatment and management of speech, language, learning and communication disorders that may be developmental, part of a disability, or acquired as a result of injury or disease
    • advising on the positioning of the body and on the textures of food and fluids which assists an individual to eat and swallow safely without choking
    • providing information and education to health professionals, early childhood educators and teachers, and support and counselling to individuals affected by communication and swallowing difficulties, and to their families and carers.

    Occupations:

    • 252711 Audiologist
    • 252712 Speech Pathologist / Speech Language Therapist

    252711 Audiologist

    Provides diagnostic assessment and rehabilitative services related to human hearing defects.

    Skill Level: 1

    252712 Speech Pathologist / Speech Language Therapist

    Alternative Title:

    • Speech Therapist

    Provides diagnostic assessment and management of disorders of communication and swallowing through direct intervention, education, consultancy, advocacy, or a combination of these approaches.

    Skill Level: 1

    Minor Group

    253 Medical Practitioners

    Medical Practitioners diagnose physical and mental illnesses, disorders and injuries, provide medical care to patients, and prescribe and perform medical and surgical treatments to promote and restore good health.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification and one to two years hospital-based training. In some instances at least five years specialist study and training are also required (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • examining patients to establish the nature of their complaints, and performing and ordering tests, X-rays and other diagnostic procedures
    • determining diagnosis based on examination and results of tests
    • selecting and administering appropriate treatments and therapies, and advising patients of further treatment options and preventative and therapeutic measures
    • prescribing, administering, preparing and dispensing medication and prosthetic and corrective devices
    • monitoring patients' progress and response to treatment
    • recording patients' illnesses, treatment given and patients' responses and progress
    • advising on diet, exercise and other measures to prevent and aid treatment of diseases and disorders
    Unit Group

    2531 General Practitioners and Resident Medical Officers

    General Practitioners and Resident Medical Officers diagnose and treat physical and mental illnesses, disorders and injuries, recommend preventative action and refer patients to specialist Medical Practitioners, other health care workers, and social, welfare and support workers.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification and at least one year of hospital-based training (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • conducting examinations and questioning patients to determine the nature of disorders and illnesses, and recording patients' medical information
    • ordering laboratory tests, X-rays and other diagnostic procedures, and interpreting findings to assist in diagnosis
    • providing overall care for patients, and prescribing and administering treatments, medications and other remedial measures
    • monitoring patients' progress and response to treatment
    • advising on diet, exercise and other habits which aid prevention and treatment of disease and disorders
    • referring patients to, and exchanging medical information with, specialist Medical Practitioners
    • reporting births, deaths and notifiable diseases to government authorities
    • arranging the admission of patients to hospitals

    Occupations:

    • 253111 General Practitioner
    • 253112 Resident Medical Officer

    253111 General Practitioner

    Alternative Title:

    • General Medical Practitioner

    Diagnoses, treats and prevents human physical and mental disorders and injuries. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Medical Officer (Navy)

    253112 Resident Medical Officer

    Diagnoses, treats and prevents human physical and mental disorders and injuries under the supervision of medical specialists or senior general practitioners. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Medical Intern
    Unit Group

    2532 Anaesthetists

    Anaesthetists provide direct medical care to patients requiring general or local anaesthesia for surgical, diagnostic and other procedures such as prevention of pain and maintenance of body function. Anaesthetic Registrars training as Anaesthetists are included in this unit group.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification, two years hospital-based training, and at least five years specialist study and training (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • performing pre-operative examinations of patients to determine appropriate anaesthetic and sedation in concurrence with Specialist Physicians and Surgeons
    • discussing the anaesthetic process with patients and obtaining their informed consent prior to surgery
    • administering local, regional and general anaesthetics using a variety of methods such as inhalational and intravenous administration
    • supervising the transfer of patients to operating theatres, positioning on operating tables, keeping patients warm, and responding quickly and accurately if any problems arise
    • monitoring patients throughout surgical procedures and in immediate post-operative procedures
    • recording details of anaesthetic and sedation administered, and the condition of patients before, during and after anaesthesia
    • liaising with other health care workers to provide diagnosis and treatment for patients with chronic pain, and to diagnose and treat patients requiring intensive care or resuscitation
    • may instruct medical, nursing, student and ancillary staff on the signs, symptoms and diagnosis of allergic and anaphylactic reactions to anaesthetic agents, and supervision and treatment of life-threatening emergencies

    Occupation:

    • 253211 Anaesthetist

    253211 Anaesthetist

    Provides direct medical care to patients requiring general or local anaesthesia for surgical, diagnostic and other procedures such as prevention of pain and maintenance of body function. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Intensive Care Anaesthetist
    • Obstetric Anaesthetist
    • Pain Management Specialist
    Unit Group

    2533 Specialist Physicians

    Specialist Physicians diagnose and treat internal human disorders and diseases using specialist testing, diagnostic and medical techniques. Medical Registrars training as Specialist Physicians are included in this unit group.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification, two years hospital-based training, and at least five years specialist study and training (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • examining patients to determine the nature and extent of problems after referral from General Medical Practitioners and other medical specialists, and undertaking laboratory tests and diagnostic procedures
    • analysing test results and other medical information to make diagnoses
    • prescribing and administering drugs, and remedial and therapeutic treatment and procedures
    • recording medical information and data
    • reporting specified contagious and notifiable diseases to government health and immigration authorities
    • may admit or refer patients to hospitals
    • may consult other medical specialists

    Occupations:

    • 253311 Specialist Physician (General Medicine)
    • 253312 Cardiologist
    • 253313 Clinical Haematologist
    • 253314 Medical Oncologist
    • 253315 Endocrinologist
    • 253316 Gastroenterologist
    • 253317 Intensive Care Specialist
    • 253318 Neurologist
    • 253321 Paediatrician
    • 253322 Renal Medicine Specialist
    • 253323 Rheumatologist
    • 253324 Thoracic Medicine Specialist
    • 253399 Specialist Physicians nec

    253311 Specialist Physician (General Medicine)

    Investigates and diagnoses internal human disorders and diseases, and administers treatment. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    253312 Cardiologist

    Investigates, diagnoses and treats diseases of the human heart. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    253313 Clinical Haematologist

    Investigates and diagnoses blood and other genetic disorders by studying cellular composition of blood and blood-producing tissues. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    253314 Medical Oncologist

    Alternative Title:

    • Medical Oncology Physician

    Investigates, diagnoses and treats patients with cancer using chemotherapy and biological therapy. Registration or licensing is required.

    Gynaecological, Radiation and Surgical Oncologists are excluded from this occupation. Gynaecological Oncologists are included in Unit Group 2539 Other Medical Practitioners, in Occupation 253913 Obstetrician and Gynaecologist. Radiation Oncologists are included in Unit Group 2539 Other Medical Practitioners, in Occupation 253918 Radiation Oncologist. Surgical Oncologists are included in Unit Group 2535 Surgeons, in Occupation 253511 Surgeon (General).

    Skill Level: 1

    253315 Endocrinologist

    Investigates, diagnoses and treats disorders of the human glandular and hormonal systems. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Diabetologist

    253316 Gastroenterologist

    Investigates, diagnoses and treats diseases and disorders of the human liver, stomach and associated organs. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    253317 Intensive Care Specialist

    Alternative Titles:

    • Intensive Care Medicine Specialist
    • Intensivist

    Investigates, diagnoses and treats patients in need of intensive and critical care. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    253318 Neurologist

    Investigates, diagnoses and treats diseases and injuries of the human brain, spinal cord, nervous system and muscle tissue. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    253321 Paediatrician

    Investigates, diagnoses and treats internal diseases and disorders in children from birth up to, and including, adolescence. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Neonatologist
    • Paediatric Thoracic Physician

    253322 Renal Medicine Specialist

    Alternative Titles:

    • Nephrologist
    • Renal Medicine Physician

    Investigates, diagnoses and treats disorders of the human kidney. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    253323 Rheumatologist

    Investigates, diagnoses and treats diseases, injuries and deficiencies of human joints, muscles and soft tissue. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    253324 Thoracic Medicine Specialist

    Alternative Titles:

    • Respiratory Medicine Physician
    • Thoracic Medicine Physician

    Investigates, diagnoses and treats diseases and disorders of the human respiratory system. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Pulmonary Specialist
    • Respiratory Physician

    253399 Specialist Physicians nec

    This occupation group covers Specialist Physicians not elsewhere classified. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Clinical Allergist
    • Clinical Geneticist
    • Clinical Immunologist
    • Clinical Pharmacologist
    • Geriatrician
    • Infectious Diseases Physician
    • Musculoskeletal Physician (NZ)
    • Occupational Medicine Physician
    • Palliative Medicine Physician
    • Public Health Physician
    • Rehabilitation Medicine Physician
    • Sexual Health Physician
    • Sleep Medicine Physician
    Unit Group

    2534 Psychiatrists

    Psychiatrists diagnose, assess, treat and prevent human mental, emotional and behavioural disorders. Psychiatric Registrars training as Psychiatrists are included in this unit group.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification, two years hospital-based training, and at least five years specialist study and training (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • assessing patients' mental and physical status to determine the nature and extent of mental, emotional and behavioural disorders
    • assessing patients' medical, psychiatric and psychological histories
    • examining patients to determine general physical condition
    • ordering laboratory tests, imaging, neuropsychological tests and other diagnostic procedures
    • examining the results of tests and examinations to determine the most appropriate forms of treatment
    • prescribing and administering medication, psychotherapy, and other physical treatments and rehabilitation programs
    • arranging admission to hospitals and providing in-patient treatment
    • consulting, supervising and working with other Medical Practitioners and Health Professionals
    • determining whether patients require involuntary treatment in accordance with relevant mental health acts
    • assisting courts and other statutory bodies in managing patients in legal and forensic settings
    • teaching medical students and registrars, and assessing their progress by administering tests

    Occupation:

    • 253411 Psychiatrist

    253411 Psychiatrist

    Diagnoses, assesses, treats and prevents human mental, emotional and behavioural disorders. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Adolescent Psychiatrist
    • Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist
    • Child Psychiatrist
    • Forensic Psychiatrist
    • Geriatric Psychiatrist
    • Medical Psychotherapist
    Unit Group

    2535 Surgeons

    Surgeons perform surgery to correct deformities, repair injuries, prevent and treat diseases, and improve human functioning and appearance. Medical Registrars training as Surgeons are included in this unit group.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification, two years hospital-based training, and at least five years specialist study and training (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Tasks Include:

    • examining patients to determine the necessity of operations, estimating and explaining risks to patients, and selecting the best operational procedures
    • reviewing reports on patients' general physical condition, reactions to medications and medical histories
    • consulting with Anaesthetists regarding the correct anaesthesia for patients
    • performing surgical operations
    • examining instruments, equipment, and surgical set-up to ensure that antiseptic and aseptic methods have been followed
    • instructing other medical, nursing and associated staff regarding the preparation of patients and instrument and equipment requirements
    • prescribing post-operative care, and observing and investigating patients' progress
    • maintaining records of operations performed
    • may specialise in particular types of operations

    Occupations:

    • 253511 Surgeon (General)
    • 253512 Cardiothoracic Surgeon
    • 253513 Neurosurgeon
    • 253514 Orthopaedic Surgeon
    • 253515 Otorhinolaryngologist
    • 253516 Paediatric Surgeon
    • 253517 Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon
    • 253518 Urologist
    • 253521 Vascular Surgeon

    253511 Surgeon (General)

    Performs surgery to correct diseases and disorders covering a broad range of medical conditions. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    253512 Cardiothoracic Surgeon

    Performs heart and lung surgery. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    253513 Neurosurgeon

    Performs surgery to correct disorders of the brain, spine and nervous system. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    253514 Orthopaedic Surgeon

    Performs surgery to treat muscular and skeletal diseases and injuries. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    253515 Otorhinolaryngologist

    Alternative Titles:

    • Ear, Nose and Throat Specialist
    • Head and Neck Surgeon

    Performs surgery to correct diseases and disorders of the ear, nose and throat. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Laryngologist
    • Otologist
    • Rhinologist

    253516 Paediatric Surgeon

    Provides surgical care and treatment to children from birth up to, and including, adolescence. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    253517 Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon

    Performs surgery to repair and reconstruct muscle and tissue injuries and congenital deformities. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    253518 Urologist

    Provides medical and surgical treatment to patients with disorders of the kidney, urinary bladder and urethra, and treats disorders of the male sex organs. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    253521 Vascular Surgeon

    Performs surgery to treat patients with conditions affecting their arteries and veins. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Unit Group

    2539 Other Medical Practitioners

    This unit group covers Medical Practitioners not elsewhere classified. It includes Dermatologists, Emergency Medicine Specialists, Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, Ophthalmologists, Pathologists, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiologists, and Radiation Oncologists. Medical Registrars training in these specialties are included in this unit group.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Occupations in this unit group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification, two years hospital-based training, and at least five years specialist study and training (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Registration or licensing is required.

    Occupations:

    • 253911 Dermatologist
    • 253912 Emergency Medicine Specialist
    • 253913 Obstetrician and Gynaecologist
    • 253914 Ophthalmologist
    • 253915 Pathologist
    • 253917 Diagnostic and Interventional Radiologist
    • 253918 Radiation Oncologist
    • 253999 Medical Practitioners nec

    253911 Dermatologist

    Provides diagnostic, treatment and preventative medical services related to disorders of the human skin. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    253912 Emergency Medicine Specialist

    Alternative Title:

    • Emergency Physician

    Provides diagnostic medical services, and manages patients with acute and urgent illness and injury. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    253913 Obstetrician and Gynaecologist

    Provides diagnostic, treatment and preventative medical and surgical services related to the care of women, foetuses and children during pregnancy and childbirth, and to disorders of the female genital, urinary, rectal and reproductive organs. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Gynaecological Oncologist
    • Reproductive Endocrinologist
    • Urogynaecologist

    253914 Ophthalmologist

    Alternative Titles:

    • Eye Specialist
    • Eye Surgeon

    Provides diagnostic, treatment and preventative medical services related to diseases, injuries and deficiencies of the human eye and associated structures. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    253915 Pathologist

    Identifies the cause and processes of disease and illness by examining changes in body tissue and in blood and other body fluids, and conducts tests on samples of tissues, blood and body secretions. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisations:

    • Clinical Cytopathologist
    • Forensic Pathologist
    • Immunologist

    253917 Diagnostic and Interventional Radiologist

    Provides diagnostic and treatment medical services, and monitors patients with various diseases utilising imaging techniques such as general radiography, angiography, fluoroscopy, mammography, ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine and bone densitometry. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Specialisation:

    • Medical Imaging Specialist

    253918 Radiation Oncologist

    Provides medical care and management of patients with cancer and other medical conditions through the conduct and supervision of radiation treatment; and advice on the provision of palliative and other supportive care of patients with cancer. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    253999 Medical Practitioners nec

    This occupation group covers Medical Practitioners not elsewhere classified. Registration or licensing is required.

    Skill Level: 1

    Occupations in this group include:

    • Nuclear Medicine Physician
    • Sports Physician
    Minor Group

    254 Midwifery and Nursing Professionals

    Midwifery and Nursing Professionals provide care to mothers and their babies, the elderly, and physically and mentally ill patients in hospitals, nursing homes, medical centres and the community; provide clinical education to midwives and nurses; conduct research into clinical nursing practice; and manage health service units and sub-units.

    Indicative Skill Level:

    In Australia and New Zealand:

    Occupations in this minor group have a level of skill commensurate with a bachelor degree or higher qualification. In some instances relevant experience and/or on-the-job training may be required in addition to the formal qualification (ANZSCO Skill Level 1).

    Tasks Include:

    • assisting in examining patients, administering prescribed treatment, monitoring patients' progress, and facilitating lifestyle options and treatment plans in conjunction with patients' families, other carers and the community
    • evaluating nurses' ongoing educational needs and planning relevant syllabus structures
    • directing and controlling the allocation of human and material resources for a health service unit such as recruiting staff, human resource management, preparing budgets and financial management
    • providing care and management of pregnancy and birth
    • undertaking and promoting nursing and interdisciplinary research projects, and promoting uptak