Latest release

Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas

Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) Edition 3
Reference period
July 2021 - June 2026

The Main Structure of the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) is developed by the ABS and is used to release and analyse a broad range of social, demographic and economic statistics. It is also widely used by other organisations. The structure is broadly based on the concept of a functional area. A functional area is an area within which many people commute or travel to access services.

The structure has seven hierarchical levels listed below in descending order:

  • Australia (AUS)
  • States and Territories (S/T)
  • Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4s)
  • Statistical Areas Level 3 (SA3s)
  • Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2s)
  • Statistical Areas Level 1 (SA1s)
  • Mesh Blocks (MBs)

Each level directly aggregates to the level above. For example, SA1s are aggregates of Mesh Blocks and they in turn aggregate to SA2s. This principle continues up through the remaining levels of the hierarchy. At each hierarchical level, all of Geographic Australia is covered without gaps or overlaps.

Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSAs), while not a part of the Main Structure hierarchy, are geographic regions that are also designed to represent functional areas.

For ASGS Edition 3, the number of records within each region type by State and Territory and Australia wide, is shown below.

Number of records by region
RegionNSWVic.QldSAWATas.NTACTOTAust.Total*
S/T111111111910
GCCSA4444444333435
SA43019219126433107108
SA394688430361711126358359
SA26445245481762671017013662,4722,473
SA119,75015,48212,5494,3296,3521,4826491,2292261,84461,845
MB112,73888,73971,86228,43143,32213,0343,3616,662136368,285368,286

*Total varies from the Australia count by one as it includes a new special purpose code for Outside Australia.

For information on how the Main Structure and GCCSAs relate to the whole ASGS, refer to the ASGS diagram.

Mesh Blocks

Mesh Blocks are the smallest geographic areas defined by the ABS and form the building blocks for the larger regions of the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS). They broadly identify land use such as residential, commercial, primary production and parks. Statistical Areas Level 1 (SA1s) are generally the smallest geographic unit used to release Census of Population and Housing data; however, for ASGS Edition 3, limited Census of Population and Housing data may also be available at the Mesh Block level.

ASGS Edition 3 contains 368,286 Mesh Blocks covering the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. This includes 114 non-spatial special purpose codes including a new Outside Australia code. These non-spatial Mesh Blocks represent populations that are difficult to define geographically such as people who are in transit or have no fixed address. Migratory and No Usual Address are examples of this type of Mesh Block.

The Non ABS structures that will be approximated from Mesh Blocks include Local Government Areas, Postal Areas, Suburbs and Localities (formerly State Suburbs), Commonwealth Electoral Divisions, State Electoral Divisions, Australian Drainage Divisions and Destination Zones.

As Mesh Blocks are very small they can be combined together to accurately approximate a large range of other geographies.

Mesh Block design criteria

Mesh Blocks for ASGS Edition 3 are designed according to a standard set of criteria first developed for ASGS 2011. All of the criteria considered are listed below in approximate order of importance.

Please note that the order of importance for some criteria may change depending on whether an area is urban or rural. For example, in urban areas, the requirement for dwelling counts over 30 takes precedence over the requirement to match locality boundaries. In rural areas however, matching locality boundaries sometimes takes precedence over minimum dwelling requirements because of the flow on effect Mesh Block design has on other structures in the hierarchy. 

Land use

Mesh Blocks reflect dominant land use where possible. For example, residential areas are separated from commercial or industrial areas. Wherever possible, each Mesh Block is designed to have a single land use, for example parkland, but this is not always possible. Land use is recorded in the Mesh Block category attribute according to the criteria below. 

  • Residential: will mainly contain houses, duplexes, apartments, townhouses, gated communities, caravan parks, retirement villages, residential military bases, and prisons. Where possible, residential areas are separated from other land uses.
  • Commercial: will contain a number of businesses, and where possible, will have a zero population count. Some commercial Mesh Blocks may contain population, for example, where a residential flat is above a shop.
  • Industrial: will contain a number of businesses, and where possible, will have a zero population count.
  • Parkland: will mainly contain parks, nature reserves, public open space, and other minimal use protected or conserved areas and, where possible, will have a zero population count. Parkland Mesh Blocks may also include sporting arenas or facilities, including racecourses, golf courses and stadiums. These facilities may not be open to the public.
  • Education: will contain education facilities, and may contain population in non-private dwellings such as boarding schools or universities.
  • Hospital/Medical: will contain hospital or medical facilities. This may include aged care facilities, which are distinguished from larger retirement villages.
  • Transport: will contain road or rail features and, where possible, will have a zero population count.
  • Primary Production: a Mesh Block is classified as Primary Production when available information indicates that more than half of the area is used for primary production.
  • Water: will mainly contain various bodies of water including lakes, rivers and canals, and where possible will have a zero population count.
  • Other: includes Mesh Blocks which could not be easily placed in one of the other nine categories due to the nature of the land use, or due to evidence of high mixed use. Many Mesh Blocks which were classified as agricultural in earlier editions of the ASGS are now classified as other.

Dwellings

Mesh Blocks are designed where possible to contain between 30 and 60 dwellings, with some low dwelling count Mesh Blocks permitted to accommodate other design criteria. The minimum dwelling count of Mesh Blocks is designed to be small enough to aggregate accurately to a wide range of areas and to enable a ready comparison of statistics between geographic regions. The Mesh Block target size helps the ABS protect against accidental disclosure of confidential information.

Zero Mesh Blocks

Zero Mesh Blocks are created to capture areas with no population, such as airports, commercial or industrial developments, and large shopping complexes.

Growth

Mesh Blocks are created in anticipation of development which is likely to occur before the date of the 2021 Census of Population and Housing.

Cadastre

Where practical, Mesh Block boundaries do not cross cadastral (property) boundaries. Mesh Blocks are designed to be an aggregation of land parcels.

Roads

Mesh Blocks follow road centre lines where possible. Roads, particularly major roads such as highways and motorways, are used as Mesh Block boundaries where possible.

Single polygon

Each Mesh Block is a single area, for example every island is a single Mesh Block.

Suburbs and Localities (or rural suburbs)

Where possible, Mesh Blocks are designed to contain or aggregate to whole officially gazetted suburbs or localities, especially in rural areas.

Major facility

Mesh Blocks, where possible, contain an entire major facility. This includes hospitals, universities, airports, correctional centres, and retirement villages, which occupy a large area of land, extend across both sides of a street, or have an internal road network.

High density housing

High density housing (such as apartment blocks) have been identified and are included in individual Mesh Blocks of compact shape, where possible. This means that some Mesh Blocks have more than 60 dwellings.

Communities of interest

Mesh Blocks aim to group communities of interest together. For example, a whole apartment building, residential complex, parking lot, shopping complex or retirement village is contained in one Mesh Block, if possible.

Town blocks

Where possible in urban areas, Mesh Blocks reflect town blocks.

Accessibility

Where possible, all dwellings/buildings are to be accessible by road or pathway from within the Mesh Block so that communities of interest are grouped together. For example the houses on a cul-de-sac are contained in one Mesh Block and therefore boundaries may follow a back fence.

Shape

Where practical, Mesh Blocks are designed to be compact in size and shape, especially in urban areas.

Continuity

Natural and man-made barriers, such as main roads, are used as boundaries in order to keep communities together. This means that if a Mesh Block boundary runs along a main road then adjacent Mesh Block boundaries will follow the same road if possible. This will provide consistency and continuity in the aggregated regions made from Mesh Blocks.

Topography

Mesh Block boundaries reflect topographic, or landscape, features where practical.
The topographic features used for Mesh Block design include:

  • water bodies such as rivers and lakes
  • transportation such as roads and rail
  • open space such as parkland, nature reserves and forest
  • major mountain ranges or escarpments

Mesh Block name criteria

Mesh Blocks are not named. 

Mesh Block coding structure

The 11-digit Mesh Block code comprises: State and Territory identifier (1 digit), and a Mesh Block identifier (10 digits).

Coding structure example for 60106840000
S/TMB
60106840000

 

Mesh Block changes

Some Mesh Block redesign has occurred for the release of ASGS Edition 3. This redesign is necessary to ensure that Mesh Blocks continue to meet the criteria set out above, and so that they remain relevant by reflecting the growth and change in Australia's population, economy and infrastructure.

Changes to Mesh Block boundaries occur where growth and development have taken place since the last edition of the ASGS in 2016. Boundaries were modified in the simplest way possible to facilitate comparison over time. Where changes were made, they were undertaken to ensure long term stability into the future.

This redesign has in turn affected the coding of the Mesh Blocks. Where a 2016 Mesh Block has been split or significantly redesigned, the original 2016 Mesh Block code has been retired and replaced with a new, previously unused code for ASGS Edition 3.

Some design changes to boundaries that reflect changes to physical infrastructure, such as realigned roads, do not result in the movement between Mesh Blocks of substantial numbers of households or businesses, or land area. These changes have been made for cartographic purposes to ensure that the ASGS boundaries can be used with standard mapping data. They are not considered to be significant and have not resulted in code changes.

Statistical Area Level 1

Statistical Areas Level 1 (SA1s) are geographic areas built from whole Mesh Blocks. Whole SA1s aggregate to form Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2s). SA1s are designed to maximise the geographic detail available for Census of Population and Housing data. However, limited Census of Population and Housing data may also be available at the Mesh Block level for ASGS Edition 3.

There are 61,845 SA1 regions covering the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. This includes 34 non-spatial special purpose codes including a new Outside Australia code. These non-spatial SA1s represent populations that are difficult to define geographically such as people who are in transit or have no fixed address. Examples include the Migratory and No Usual Address SA1s.

SA1s are also used as the building blocks for some ASGS geographies, including the Indigenous Structure, Significant Urban Areas, Urban Centres and Localities, Section of State Structure, and the Remoteness Structure.

SA1 design criteria

SA1s are designed using multiple criteria, listed below in approximate order of importance.

Population

SA1s generally have a population of 200 to 800 people, and an average population of about 400 people. SA1s in remote and regional areas generally have smaller populations than those in urban areas. Some low population count SA1s were permitted to accommodate other design criteria.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population

SA1s are designed to represent Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities as accurately as possible, particularly in remote areas.

Urban and rural

SA1s are designed to be either urban or rural in character.

Urban SA1s contain one or more of the following:

  • residential development with a density of over 200 people per square kilometre
  • built infrastructure including: ports, airports with paved runways, industrial, commercial and retail development, large sporting complexes, education campuses, places of worship, military camps and research stations
  • local parks and playgrounds
  • local sports facilities and ovals
  • vegetation corridors
  • golf courses
  • cemeteries
  • lakes, rivers, riverbanks, creeks and drainage reserves surrounded by development of an urban character
  • sewerage facilities, waste disposal facilities, hospitals, transport hubs, and grain storage

Rural SA1s contain one or more of the following:

  • residential development with a density of less than 200 people per square kilometre
  • agriculture
  • national parks
  • defence reserves
  • indigenous lands
  • mines
  • stockyards
  • lakes, rivers, riverbanks, creeks and drainage reserves not surrounded by development of an urban character

Transport

SA1s are generally internally connected by road transport. Exceptions include islands, which are either combined with the nearest onshore SA1 or grouped with other islands.

Suburbs and localities (or rural suburbs)

Where possible, SA1s are designed to contain, or aggregate to, whole gazetted suburbs or rural localities. In urban areas, the gazetted suburbs usually consist of one or more SA1s.

In regional and remote areas, gazetted localities are sometimes too small to represent as an SA1. Smaller localities are grouped together based on their Local Government Area, the use of shared road networks, the use of shared community facilities, and landscape features such as location within a valley.

Growth

SA1s are created in anticipation of development which is likely to occur before the date of the 2021 Census of Population and Housing.

Prisons

Prisons, remand centres and juvenile detention centres with a population of over 200 people are generally represented by their own SA1.

Defence bases

Defence bases with a population of over 200 people are generally represented by their own SA1.

Zero SA1s

Zero SA1s are SA1s with a nil population. They are created to represent large unpopulated areas that are not easily combined with surrounding populated SA1s.

They may include one or more of the following:

  • airports
  • ports
  • commercial developments
  • industrial developments
  • large shopping complexes
  • large sporting complexes
  • large educational campuses
  • research stations
  • large cemeteries
  • golf courses
  • national parks
  • large urban parks
  • defence reserves
  • restricted Commonwealth land
  • groups of unpopulated islands
  • very large areas of land which are unlikely to ever be populated, for example extreme desert or otherwise inhospitable terrain
  • lakes

SA1 name criteria

SA1s are not named.

SA1 coding structure

SA1s are identified by an 11-digit fully hierarchical code, comprising the 1-digit State and Territory, and Statistical Areas Level 1-4 identifiers. The SA1 identifier is a 2-digit code, assigned within an SA2. An SA1 code is only unique within a State or Territory when it is preceded by the State or Territory identifier.

Coding structure example for 50302104118
S/TSA4SA3SA2SA1
50302104118

 

The ABS previously provided an additional, short 7-digit code for SA1s. Short codes are not included in ASGS Edition 3 to reduce confusion. Support is available via statistical consultancies for users that need support to transition from using 7-digit to 11-digit codes.

In the future, it may be necessary to allocate new codes. If an SA1 is discontinued, or changes significantly for new editions of the ASGS, the SA1 identifier will be retired and the replacement SA1s will be given the next available previously unused SA1 identifier within the SA2.

Statistical Area Level 2

Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2s) are medium-sized general purpose areas built up from whole Statistical Areas Level 1 (SA1s). Their purpose is to represent a community that interacts together socially and economically.

There are 2,473 SA2s covering the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. This includes 19 non-spatial special purpose codes including a new Outside Australia code. These non-spatial SA2s represent populations that are difficult to define geographically such as people who are in transit or have no fixed address. These are represented by Migratory – Offshore – Shipping and No Usual Address SA2s.

SA2s are generally the smallest areas used for the release of ABS non-Census of Population and Housing statistics, including Estimated Resident Population and Health and Vitals data. Whole SA2s aggregate to form Statistical Areas Level 3 (SA3s). SA2s are also used to build Significant Urban Areas and to approximate Tourism Regions.

SA2 design criteria

SA2s are designed using multiple criteria, listed below in approximate order of importance.

Population

SA2s generally have a population between 3,000 and 25,000 with an average of about 10,000 people. SA2s in remote and regional areas generally have smaller populations than those in urban areas. There are some SA2s outside these target population ranges due to other considerations including:

  • The relative sparseness of the population in remote regions (an SA2 with a population of 3,000 may cover too large and diverse a geographic area to be meaningful).
  • The benefit of preserving recognisable areas for which there is a considerable amount of historical data.
  • Isolated geographic areas, such as islands or other isolated populations.
  • The need to avoid subdivisions of otherwise coherent regions, such as very large suburbs or regional towns.

Functional areas

A functional area is the area from which people come to access services at a centre. This centre may be a rural town, a regional city, a commercial and transport hub within a major city, or the major city itself. The concept of a functional area is used at all levels of the ABS Main Structure and is particularly essential to the design of SA2s outside of major urban areas.

A centre and its functional area are represented by one or more SA2s. A rural town and its functional area may be combined into a single SA2. A larger town may be identified by a single SA2 and its functional area around the town by a second SA2. Larger towns and regional cities may be represented by several SA2s.

Within cities, SA2s represent gazetted suburbs rather than functional areas.

In remote areas, SA2s are designed to represent meaningful regions, useful for statistical analysis.

Growth

SA2s containing regional towns or on the fringes of larger cities are designed to contain the urban area, any immediately associated semi urban development, and likely growth areas in the next 10 to 20 years. This is to ensure that the SA2 boundaries remain stable over several population and housing censuses.

Suburbs and Localities (or rural suburbs)

Where possible, SA2s consist of whole gazetted suburbs or rural localities. This is to make the regions as meaningful as possible to users unfamiliar with statistical geography and to facilitate address coding to other ASGS units.

In regional and remote areas, gazetted localities are usually too small to be represented by a single SA2 and are combined with neighbouring areas to represent a functional area or other meaningful region.

In major cities, SA2s often represent single suburbs. Suburb size is variable within and between cities and they do not always make a convenient region to be used directly as an SA2. Where this occurs, five general criteria are used to cluster smaller suburbs together or break up extremely large suburbs:

  • shared road networks
  • shared community facilities
  • Local Government Areas
  • shared historical or social links
  • socio-economic similarity

Local Government Areas

Local Government Areas (LGAs) are considered in the design of SA2s and are often adopted where the LGA boundary satisfies one or more of the following:

  • it closely aligns with gazetted suburb boundaries
  • it reflects the underlying settlement pattern
  • it represents the functional area of a regional town or city
  • it has a high degree of recognition among stakeholders
  • it aligns to a significant recognisable geographic feature

Zero SA2s

Zero SA2s have a nil population. They are created to represent large unpopulated areas that are not easily combined with surrounding populated SA2s.

They may include:

  • major infrastructure (such as ports and airports)
  • significant bodies of water
  • major commercial and industrial zones
  • national parks
  • defence land
  • very large urban parks
  • very large sporting precincts

SA2 name criteria

The key criteria for SA2 names are that they be: 

  • meaningful
  • have a maximum of 50 characters
  • unique, that is not shared by any other SA2 in Australia

In large urban areas, SA2s are named for the gazetted suburbs they contain.

  • Where an SA2 is made from a single suburb, it will retain the name of the suburb, for example “Curtin”.
  • Where a single large suburb is split into more than one SA2, it will retain the name of the suburb and a geographic identifier, for example “Mount Waverley – North”.
  • Where an SA2 is made up from 2 or 3 suburbs, the SA2 name is a concatenation of the suburb names, for example “Greenfield Park – Prairiewood”.
  • Where an SA2 is made up of 4 or more suburbs it will be named for the larger or more prominent suburbs, or given a local identifier, for example “Belgrave - Selby”.

In rural areas, SA2s are named for the gazetted localities they contain, or the towns, cities, or regions with which they are associated, for example:

  • Benalla Surrounds
  • Townsville – South
  • Bulahdelah – Stroud

In previous editions of the ASGS, SA2s surrounding towns have been referred to as “X Region”, even when the town was not included in that SA2. In ASGS Edition 3, SA2s which do not include the town have been renamed to “X Surrounds” to reduce confusion. For example, “Cooma Region”, does not include the town of Cooma so it has been renamed to “Cooma Surrounds”.

Where an SA2 name appears in two or more State and Territories, the State or Territory abbreviation is attached to the SA2 name, for example:

  • O’Connor (ACT)
  • O’Connor (WA)

SA2 coding structure

An SA2 is identifiable by a 9-digit fully hierarchical code comprising the 1-digit State or Territory identifier, and Statistical Areas Level 2-4 identifiers. The SA2 identifier is a 4-digit code, assigned in alphabetical order within an SA3. An SA2 code is only unique within a State or Territory if it is preceded by the State or Territory identifier.

Coding structure example for 503021295 East Perth
S/TSA4SA3SA2SA2 Name
503021295East Perth

 

The ABS previously provided a short, 5-digit code for SA2s. Short codes are not included in ASGS Edition 3 to reduce confusion. Support is available via statistical consultancies for users that need support to transition from using 5-digit to 9-digit codes.

In the future, it may be necessary to allocate new codes. If an SA2 is discontinued, or changes significantly for new editions of the ASGS, the SA2 identifier will be retired and the replacement SA2s will be given the next available previously unused SA2 identifier within the State or Territory.

Statistical Area Level 3

Statistical Areas Level 3 (SA3s) are geographic areas built from whole Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2s). They are designed for the output of regional data, including 2021 Census of Population and Housing data. SA3s create a standard framework for the analysis of ABS data at the regional level through clustering groups of SA2s that have similar regional characteristics. Whole SA3s aggregate to form Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4s).

There are 359 SA3s covering the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. This includes 19 non-spatial special purpose codes including a new Outside Australia code. These non-spatial SA3s represent populations that are difficult to define geographically, such as people who are in transit or have no fixed address. These are represented by Migratory – Offshore – Shipping and No Usual Address SA3s.

The Other Territories of Jervis Bay, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Christmas Island and Norfolk Island are each represented by individual SA3s.

SA3 design criteria

SA3s are designed using multiple criteria, listed below in approximate order of importance.

Population

In general, SA3s are designed to have populations between 30,000 and 130,000 people. However, the creation of meaningful regional areas takes priority over population criteria. As a result, there are some SA3s with populations above 130,000 or below 30,000.

Functional areas

SA3s are often the functional areas of regional towns and cities with a population in excess of 20,000 or clusters of related suburbs around urban commercial and transport hubs within the major urban areas.

Identifying regions

SA3s create a standard framework for the analysis of ABS data at the regional level through clustering groups of SA2s that have similar geographic and socio-economic characteristics. In many cases, these areas are defined by existing administrative boundaries, such as State Regional Development Areas or one or more Local Government Areas.

Zero SA3

Zero SA3s have a nil population. They are created to represent large unpopulated areas that are not easily combined with surrounding populated SA3s, such as large national parks on the fringes of large urban areas.

SA3 name criteria

The key criteria for SA3 names are that they be: 

  • meaningful
  • have a maximum of 50 characters
  • unique, that is not shared by any other SA3 in Australia

SA3s are named according to the areas they represent.

  • Where an SA3 represents a well-known regional area or a State Regional Development Area it is named after that region, for example “Southern Highlands”.
  • Where an SA3 represents the functional area of a regional city it is named after that city, for example “Wagga Wagga”. In some cases the name of an associated town or region is also included, for example “Griffith - Murrumbidgee (West)”.
  • Where an SA3 represents an economic hub within a major city it is generally named to reflect that hub, for example “Parramatta”.
  • Where an SA3 represents a group of related suburbs it is named after one or more of those suburbs that reflect its location, for example “North Sydney – Mosman”.
  • Where an SA3 name is not unique within Australia, it is followed by the State and Territory abbreviation in brackets, for example “Central Highlands (Tas.)”.

SA3 coding structure

SA3s are identified by 5-digit hierarchical codes. This comprises a 1-digit State or Territory identifier followed by a 2-digit SA4 identifier, unique within each State and Territory, and a 2-digit SA3 identifier, unique within each SA4.

Coding structure example for 11401 Shoalhaven
S/TSA4SA3SA3 Name
11401Shoalhaven

 

Statistical Area Level 4

Statistical Area Level 4 (SA4s) are geographic areas built from whole Statistical Areas Level 3 (SA3s). SA4s are the largest sub-state regions in the Main Structure of the ASGS and are designed for the output of a variety of regional data, including data from the 2021 Census of Population and Housing. SA4 boundaries represent labour markets and the functional area of Australian capital cities respectively. They are designed with an emphasis on stability over time to support the time series of statistical releases such as the Quarterly Labour Force publication. These areas represent labour markets or groups of labour markets within each state and territory.

Whole SA4s aggregate to Greater Capital City Statistical Areas and States and Territories. There are 108 SA4s covering the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. This includes 19 non-spatial special purpose codes including a new Outside Australia code. These non-spatial SA4s represent populations that are difficult to define geographically such as people who are in transit or have no fixed address. These are represented by Migratory – Offshore – Shipping and No Usual Address SA4s.

The Other Territories of Jervis Bay, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Christmas Island and Norfolk Island are together represented by a single SA4.

SA4 design criteria

SA4s are designed using multiple criteria, listed below in approximate order of importance.

Population

Most SA4s have a population above 100,000 people to provide sufficient sample size for Labour Force estimates. In regional areas, SA4s tend to have smaller populations of 100,000 to 300,000 people. In cities, SA4s tend to have larger populations of 300,000 to 500,000 people.

Labour markets

SA4s are designed to incorporate both labour supply (where people live) and demand (where people work). This enhances the quality of statistical outputs related to labour markets.

The ABS consulted with experts on labour market geography and undertook analysis of the Census of Population and Housing travel to work data to identify labour markets within Australia. The resulting labour markets are characterised by a large number of very small regional labour markets, a smaller number of medium sized labour markets around regional centres, and very large labour markets representing the major city centres. While this may be an accurate reflection of Australian labour markets, many of the regions did not meet the minimum population criterion.

SA4s are designed to represent the labour markets of the largest regional cities such as Wollongong, Bendigo and Townsville. SA4s present specific labour force data on these cities’ labour markets.

In outer regional and remote areas, labour markets tend to be small and localised around regional towns. SA4s in these areas represent aggregations of these labour markets based on geographic, social and economic similarities. SA4s which contain only remote and regional areas enable a picture of regional and remote labour force activity to be presented.

Smaller regional labour markets are combined based on travel to work interactions, as well as industry and regional similarities, to create SA4s of about 100,000 to 300,000 people. Medium sized regional centre labour markets that exceeded 100,000 people (for example Cairns, Qld) are preserved as far as possible as SA4s that directly represent the labour market, though in some cases small closely related labour markets are included in these SA4s. Very large labour markets of 300,000 to 500,000 people are split to reflect major employment hubs and their main labour supply catchments.

SA4 name criteria

The key criteria for SA4 names are that they be: 

  • meaningful
  • have a maximum of 50 characters
  • unique, that is not shared by any other SA4 in Australia

SA4s are named according to the areas they represent:

  • Where an SA4 represents a labour market of a major city it is named after that city, for example “Bendigo”.
  • Where an SA4 represents an employment centre within a larger city it is generally named to reflect both the larger city and the employment centre or part of the city that it represents, for example “Melbourne - Inner South”.
  • Where an SA4 represents a collection of labour markets in regional areas it is named using either a description of that part of the state and territory or after one or more well-known regional areas that it closely replicates, for example “Latrobe – Gippsland”.
  • Where the name does not identify it within Australia, it is generally preceded by the State or Territory name, for example “Western Australia - Wheat Belt”.

SA4 coding structure

SA4s are identified by a 3-digit hierarchical code. This comprises a 1-digit State or Territory identifier, which precedes a 2-digit SA4 identifier, unique within each State and Territory.

Coding structure example for 102 Central Coast
S/TSA4SA4 name
102Central Coast

 

Greater Capital City Statistical Areas

Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSAs) are geographic areas built from Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4s). GCCSA boundaries represent labour markets and the functional area of Australian capital cities respectively. They are designed with an emphasis on stability over time to support the time series of statistical releases such as the Quarterly Labour Force publication.

There are 16 GCCSAs covering the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. The GCCSA boundaries may differ from official or commonly applied area boundaries. There are 8 regions covering each of the Australian state and territory capital cities; 7 regions covering the rest of each state and the Northern Territory (ACT only has one GCCSA region for the entire Territory); and a region covering Other Territories which includes Jervis Bay, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Norfolk Island.

In addition to these 16 GCCSA regions are 19 non-spatial special purpose codes, for a total of 35 GCCSAs. These non-spatial GCCSAs represent populations that are difficult to define geographically such as people who are in transit or have no fixed address. These special purpose codes include Migratory – Offshore – Shipping and No Usual Address for each State and Territory, as well as a new Outside Australia code.

GCCSA design criteria

GCCSAs are designed to represent the functional area of each of the eight State and Territory capital cities which includes populations who regularly socialise, shop or work within the city, but may live either in the city or in the small towns and rural areas surrounding the city. Within each State and Territory, the area not included in the GCCSA is represented by a Rest of State region. GCCSAs do not have population criteria.

GCCSA name criteria

GCCSAs are named according to the cities they represent, for example “Greater Sydney”. The remainder of the State and Territory is named Rest of <State>, for example “Rest of NSW”. The exceptions to this are the ACT, as the whole of the ACT is included in the GCCSA, and the Other Territories, which do not have a capital city.

GCCSA coding structure

A GCCSA is identified by a 5-character alphanumeric code. This comprises a 1-digit State or Territory identifier followed by a 4-character GCCSA identifier that is unique within each State and Territory.

Coding structure example for 1GSYD Greater Sydney
S/TGCCSA identifier
1GSYD

 

Australia and State/Territory

Australia is the largest geographic area in the Main Structure of the ASGS. The ASGS uses the geographic definition of Australia described in further detail in the definition of Australia section of this publication.

To align with the ISO 3166 standard, the ASGS Edition 3 code for Geographic Australia is identified by the unique three-character alpha code of AUS which replaces the three-digit numeric code of 036 (also ISO 3166 standard) as used in ASGS 2016.

Australia is broken up into the States and Territories that are separately recognised in the ASGS: 

  • New South Wales
  • Victoria
  • Queensland
  • South Australia
  • Western Australia
  • Tasmania
  • Northern Territory
  • Australian Capital Territory
  • Other Territories (Jervis Bay Territory, Territory of Christmas Island, Territory of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Norfolk Island)

The ASGS State and Territory boundaries are a cartographic representation of legally designated boundaries and therefore should not be used for legal purposes. In general, the total area of each State and Territory, including their offshore islands, is used for statistical purposes as a separate geographic area in the ASGS. However, the Jervis Bay Territory, and the Territories of Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Norfolk Island are included as one geographic area at the State and Territory level under the category of Other Territories.

States and Territories consist of one or more Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4). In aggregate, they cover Australia without gaps or overlaps.

Australia and State/Territory coding structure

States and Territories are identified by unique one-digit codes as follows:

State and Territory codes and names
CodeState or Territory name
1New South Wales
2Victoria
3Queensland
4South Australia
5Western Australia
6Tasmania
7Northern Territory
8Australian Capital Territory
9Other Territories

 

Special purpose codes

Special purpose codes allow address data to be coded to a non-spatial value. This occurs where there is insufficient information to code to a physical geographic area. For example, where someone is in transit on Census of Population and Housing night or where an incomplete address has been supplied.

Types of special purpose codes

  • Migratory - used to code people who are in transit on long distance trains, buses, aircraft and long haul road transport vehicles on Census of Population and Housing night.
  • Offshore - used to code people living offshore for example on oil rigs and drilling platforms. It is also used for expeditioners in the Australian Antarctic Territory.
  • Shipping - used to code people who are on board vessels in Australian waters which are in, or between, Australian ports on Census of Population and Housing night. For Mesh Blocks there are multiple Shipping special purpose codes that represent individual ports.
  • Outside Australia - used to facilitate particular ABS statistical releases. It does not have a geographic region and has a code of “ZZZZ” so that it can be easily distinguished from all other geographies.
  • No Usual Address - used to code people with no fixed residential address.

Special purpose coding structure

The following examples show the special purpose code structure for Mesh Blocks in NSW.

Migratory, Offshore and Shipping example
S/TMesh BlocksDescription
18000000778MIGRATORY
19000000779OFFSHORE
17000005777SHIPPING
17000004777SHIPPING
17000003777SHIPPING
17000002777SHIPPING
17000001777SHIPPING

 

No Usual Address example
S/TMesh BlocksDescription
10000009499No Usual Address

 

Outside Australia example
S/TMesh BlocksDescription
ZZZZZZZZZZZOutside Australia

 

Collection specific coding conventions

ABS collections use various conventions to denote circumstances such as: not applicable, and overseas visitors.

Changes from the previous edition of the ASGS

Overall, the Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSAs) provides high stability and good statistical comparability to ASGS 2016. Changes to Mesh Blocks, Statistical Areas Level 1 (SA1s) and Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2s) mainly reflect population growth, largely on the edge of urban areas. In this edition there are no major changes to Statistical Areas Level 3 (SA3s), Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4s), or GCCSAs.

All boundaries have been aligned with updated state and territory borders. Figure 2 shows an example of this type of change. There may also be other alignment changes to align with source data. These are very minor differences in cartographic representations to the ASGS boundaries and are not considered significant.

Figure 2 - Example of Mesh Block change along the Qld/NSW border

This image shows how 2016 Mesh Blocks have been realigned to match updated state and territory borders.

This figure shows aerial imagery of a section of the Queensland/New South Wales state border with three different sets of boundaries. The white boundaries show 2016 Mesh Blocks. The blue boundaries show Edition 3 (2021) Mesh Blocks. The black dotted line is the up to date state and territory borders. The Edition 3 (2021) Mesh Block boundaries match the up to date state and territory borders while the 2016 Mesh Blocks do not.

World imagery source: Esri, Digital Globe, GeoEye, i-cubed, USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo, and the GIS User Community.

State Border source: Geoscience Australia

Alignment shifts for state and territory borders will be evident in area correspondences between ASGS Edition 3 and previous ASGS editions. However, most population based correspondences will not be affected as alignment has not affected any dwellings.

When analysing population data, ASGS Edition 3 can be successfully compared to previous editions of the ASGS for time series. There may be some cases, for example when using environmental data, where alignment changes will need to be considered.

Significant changes

Alterations to Mesh Blocks, SA1s and SA2s are made, primarily through splitting areas, to mirror changes occurring on the ground, such as new housing developments or altered transport infrastructure. These changes reflect recent population growth, and allow users to access meaningful statistics on communities of interest. The resulting net increase in numbers of Mesh Blocks, SA1s and SA2s is shown below.

Net increase to Main Structure
 Mesh BlockSA1SA2
ASGS 2016358,12257,5232,310
ASGS Edition 3 (2021)368,28661,8452,473
Net increase10,1644,322163
Percentage increase2.8%7.5%7%

 

The number of both Mesh Blocks and SA1s has increased, by 2.8% and 7.5% respectively. A relatively small number have changed; 1% of Mesh Blocks and 4% of SA1s changed since ASGS Edition 2 (2016), as shown in Figure 3. This very small amount of change is mainly due to splitting large areas in growth areas into two or more smaller areas.

Changes to SA2s are similar, with an increase of 7% for ASGS Edition 3. Only 8% of 2016 SA2s changed as shown in Figure 2. These changes were made to improve data accessibility and reflect high growth, particularly in some inner city SA2s which were previously close to the 25,000 person threshold.

The only changes to the boundaries for SA3s, SA4s and GCCSAs are minor alignment changes. A net increase of 1 for SA3s, SA4s and GCCSAs is due to the creation of a new Outside Australia special purpose code.

Reasons for change

The boundaries for a region have not changed unless they no longer met the design criteria.

The following principles apply to Main Structure and GCCSA design:

  • Where possible, changes are accommodated by simple splits of existing regions.
  • Where a simple split is not possible, they are based on merges and redistribution of whole regions from the next level down in the hierarchy.
  • Regions are designed with a view to them remaining stable.
  • Minor boundary alignment changes are made to maintain alignment to the underlying State and Territory boundaries, and source data for physical infrastructure and physical geography.

Types of change

Splits

In accordance with these principles most of the change in ASGS Edition 3 is the result of simple splits. Figures 4a and 4b show an example of one large Mesh Block that was split into 176 smaller Mesh Blocks. This kind of design is typical for growth areas on the edge of large cities. Figures 5a and 5b show a similar design process where two large SA2s have been split into 6 smaller SA2s.

Figure 4a - 2016 Mesh Blocks in Mickleham - Yuroke

This image shows a large 2016 Mesh Block where there has been significant population growth.

This image is part 1 of a comparison between 2016 and Edition 3 (2021) Mesh Blocks for the same geographic area to show how simple splits have been used to create new Mesh Blocks in growth areas.

The picture shows aerial imagery overlaid with 2016 Mesh Blocks. There is one Mesh Block covering a large area. The imagery shows a large area that has been developed with new roads and houses.

World imagery source: Esri, Digital Globe, GeoEye, i-cubed, USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo, and the GIS User Community.

Figure 4b - Edition 3 (2021) Mesh Blocks in Mickleham - Yuroke

This image shows many new small Edition 3 (2021) Mesh Blocks where there has been significant population growth.

This image is part 2 of a comparison between 2016 and Edition 3 (2021) Mesh Blocks for the same geographic area to show how simple splits have been used to create new Mesh Blocks in growth areas.

The picture shows aerial imagery overlaid with Edition 3 (2021) Mesh Blocks. There are 176 Mesh Blocks that have been split from one 2016 Mesh Block covering the same area.

World imagery source: Esri, Digital Globe, GeoEye, i-cubed, USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo, and the GIS User Community.

Figure 5a - 2016 SA2s in Riverstone - Marsden Park (NSW)

This image shows three 2016 Statistical Areas Level 2 in Sydney prior to being split in Edition 3.

This image is part 1 of a comparison between 2016 and Edition 3 (2021) Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2s) for the same geographic area to show how SA2s have been split in high growth areas.

The picture shows aerial imagery of a region of Sydney overlaid with 2016 SA2 boundaries showing three large areas in Sydney prior to being split in Edition 3. The largest is called Riverstone – Marsden Park.

World imagery source: Esri, Digital Globe, GeoEye, i-cubed, USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo, and the GIS User Community.

Figure 5b - Edition 3 (2021) SA2s in Riverstone - Marsden Park (NSW)

This image shows seven 2021 Statistical Areas Level 2 in Sydney after being split in Edition 3, reflecting new emerging suburbs.

This image is part 2 of a comparison between 2016 and Edition 3 (2021) Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2s) for the same geographic area to show how SA2s have been split in high growth areas.

The picture shows aerial imagery of a region of Sydney overlaid with Edition 3 (2021) SA2 boundaries showing seven smaller areas. New areas have been created to reflect new, intensive urban growth. For example Riverstone – Marsden Park has been split into four new areas reflecting existing suburbs. They are called Riverstone, Marsden Park – Shanes Park, Schofields (West) - Colebee and Schofields – East.

World imagery source: Esri, Digital Globe, GeoEye, i-cubed, USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo, and the GIS User Community.

Merges

Merges were minimised in ASGS Edition 3. Where necessary, boundaries were merged to avoid cutting through existing infrastructure or a new growth area. Figures 6a and 6b show an example of two Mesh Blocks that have been merged together to ensure two halves of a showground can be address coded more accurately.

Figure 6a - 2016 Mesh Blocks in Claremont (WA)

This image shows that in 2016, some Mesh Blocks intersected infrastructure or dwellings. These Mesh Blocks have been altered in Edition 3.

This image is part 1 of a comparison between 2016 and Edition 3 (2021) Mesh Blocks for the same geographic area to show how simple merges have been used in ASGS design for Edition 3.

This picture shows aerial imagery of the Claremont showgrounds in Western Australia overlaid with 2016 Mesh Blocks. There is a Mesh Block boundary that cuts through the middle of several buildings.

World imagery source: Esri, Digital Globe, GeoEye, i-cubed, USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo, and the GIS User Community.

Figure 6b - 2021 Mesh Block in Claremont (WA)

This image shows that in Edition 3, Mesh Blocks that intersected infrastructure or dwellings have been merged to improve address coding accuracy.

This image is part 2 of a comparison between 2016 and Edition 3 (2021) Mesh Blocks for the same geographic area to show how simple merges have been used in ASGS design for Edition 3.

This picture shows aerial imagery of the Claremont showgrounds in Western Australia overlaid with Edition 3 (2021) Mesh Blocks. The previous 2016 Mesh Blocks have been merged together so that the whole showground is represented by only one Mesh Block.

World imagery source: Esri, Digital Globe, GeoEye, i-cubed, USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo, and the GIS User Community.

Redesign

In some circumstances, simple splits and merges are not enough to account for growth and change on the ground. Where 2016 boundaries had to be both merged and split, areas are considered ‘redesigned’. This typically occurs in high growth areas where old features on the ground have been replaced by new development.

Figures 7a and 7b show an example of SA1 redesign on the edge of Caloundra on the Sunshine Coast. The 2016 SA1 boundary followed an old suburb boundary which has since been revised to accommodate new housing developments. The original areas were merged and then split into new SA1s. Redesigning boundaries in this way has minimal effect on the comparability of data over time as in previous editions of the ASGS, growth areas generally contained little or no population.

Figure 7a - 2016 SA1s in Caloundra

This image shows that in 2016, some Statistical Areas Level 1 cut through areas that have since been developed.

This image is part 1 of a comparison between 2016 and Edition 3 (2021) Statistical Areas Level 1 (SA1s) for the same geographic area in Caloundra to show how redesign has occurred in high growth areas.

This picture shows aerial imagery of an outer area of Caloundra in Queensland. The 2016 SA1 boundary cuts through a large area of new residential development.

World imagery source: Esri, Digital Globe, GeoEye, i-cubed, USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo, and the GIS User Community.

Figure 7b - Edition 3 (2021) SA1s in Caloundra

This image shows that in Edition 3 (2021), some Statistical Areas Level 1 have been redesigned to avoid crossing through new residential development.

This image is part 2 of a comparison between 2016 and Edition 3 (2021) Statistical Areas Level 1 (SA1s) for the same geographic area in Caloundra to show how redesign has occurred in high growth areas.

This picture shows aerial imagery of an outer area of Caloundra in Queensland. The Edition 3 (2021) SA1 boundary has been redesigned to avoid crossing through houses and the new boundaries now appropriately include the urban area.

World imagery source: Esri, Digital Globe, GeoEye, i-cubed, USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo, and the GIS User Community.

Alignment

Alignment refers to small area changes that do not affect population. This type of change will be evident in area based correspondences between ASGS Edition 3 and other ASGS editions, but will not affect population based correspondences. Unlike other boundary changes, alignment does not trigger a code change.

In this edition the most significant alignment occurred along state and territory borders. All Mesh Blocks next to state borders were aligned to the official state land borders released by Geoscience Australia in 2020. These official state land borders are endorsed by the Surveyors General of each state and territory, the Spatial Information Council (ANZLIC) and the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM). These changes will help ensure geospatial comparability to other State and Federal Government datasets. Future updates to state borders and the coastline, as agreed by the Surveyors General, ANZLIC and ICSM, will be adopted where applicable in future editions of the ASGS.

Changes to ASGS codes

The codes and names associated with statistical areas change when an area is split, merged, or redesigned.

Changes in higher level statistical areas also result in code changes to the lower level regions contained within, except for Mesh Blocks as these are the building blocks. The smaller area may also be split, merged, redesigned, or may remain unchanged. This is due to the hierarchical coding system.

Alignment changes do not result in code or name changes at any level.

For more information on the ASGS code changes please refer to the tables below in the list of changes section. 

Identifying change

The ABS provides several resources to help users understand changes to boundaries and codes, and to help them manage the transformation of data across different ASGS editions and other geographies. These resources include ABS Maps, various correspondences and the list of changes section. 

In ASGS Edition 3, change flags have been included on all Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical boundaries as an attribute. This attribute informs users whether an area has changed since ASGS 2016 and what the nature of that change is.

Change flag descriptions
CHANGE_FLAG_2021CHANGE_LABEL_2021Description
0No changeBoundary remains the same as 2016. Code and name (if applicable) remain the same. Some of these areas will have minor alignment adjustments. They have been recorded as no change because no population has been affected and the primary land use has also been maintained.
1NewA new, or redesigned, area for ASGS for Edition 3. This feature has a new code and name (where applicable). In some instances with significant SA2 change, the 2016 name is maintained as it continues to accurately describe the area or locality. To understand changes at the SA2 level, both codes and names should always be used together.
2Code changeThe Edition 3 code has changed due to a code change at a higher level of the ASGS. However, there has been no change to the boundary and direct comparison can be made with ASGS 2016.
3Name changeAn Edition 3 (2021) area has been re-named to reflect the local area it represents and/or fix name and spelling errors. In these cases, no code change has occurred. There has also been no change to the boundary.

 

List of changes

SA3 changes from 2016
SA3 Label changes
From (2016): To (Edition 3): 
80111 Urriarra - Namadgi80111 Uriarra - Namadgi
SA2 splits from 2016
SA2 splits
From (2016): To (Edition 3): 
101021011 Queanbeyan Region101021610 Googong
 101021611 Queanbeyan Surrounds
103011058 Bathurst103011612 Bathurst - South
 103011613 Bathurst - West
106021117 Maitland - West106021615 Rutherford (North) - Aberglasslyn
 106021616 Rutherford (South) - Telarah
108041163 Port Macquarie - East108041619 Port Macquarie - East
 108041620 Port Macquarie - South
116021310 Parklea - Kellyville Ridge116021628 Kellyville Ridge - The Ponds
 116021633 Stanhope Gardens - Parklea
116021312 Riverstone - Marsden Park116021629 Marsden Park - Shanes Park
 116021632 Schofields - East
 116021630 Riverstone
 116021631 Schofields (West) - Colebee
117011322 Mascot - Eastlakes117011634 Eastlakes
 117011635 Mascot
117021326 Marrickville117021637 Marrickville - South
 117021636 Marrickville - North
117031332 Newtown - Camperdown - Darlington117031640 Newtown (NSW)
 117031638 Camperdown - Darlington
117031334 Pyrmont - Ultimo117031641 Pyrmont
 117031646 Ultimo
117031335 Redfern - Chippendale117031642 Redfern
 117031639 Chippendale
117031337 Sydney - Haymarket - The Rocks117031645 Sydney (South) - Haymarket
 117031644 Sydney (North) - Millers Point
117031338 Waterloo - Beaconsfield117031643 Rosebery - Beaconsfield
 117031648 Zetland
 117031647 Waterloo
118011343 Double Bay - Bellevue Hill118011649 Bellevue Hill
 118011650 Double Bay - Darling Point
118021348 Coogee - Clovelly118021654 South Coogee
 118021651 Coogee - Clovelly
118021350 Malabar - La Perouse - Chifley118021653 Matraville - Chifley
 118021652 Malabar - La Perouse
119011357 Greenacre - Mount Lewis119011655 Greenacre - North
 119011656 Greenacre - South
119011359 Panania - Milperra - Picnic Point119011657 Panania (North) - Milperra
 119011658 Panania (South) - Picnic Point
119021363 Canterbury (South) - Campsie119021661 Canterbury - South
 119021659 Campsie - North
 119021660 Campsie - South
119021364 Kingsgrove (North) - Earlwood119021663 Kingsgrove - North
 119021662 Earlwood
119031368 Hurstville119031664 Hurstville - Central
 119031665 Hurstville - North
119031369 Mortdale - Penshurst119031666 Mortdale - Oatley
 119031667 Penshurst
119041375 Arncliffe - Bardwell Valley119041668 Arncliffe - Bardwell Valley
 119041671 Wolli Creek
119041376 Bexley119041670 Bexley - South
 119041669 Bexley - North
120011384 Concord West - North Strathfield120011673 Rhodes
 120011672 Concord West - North Strathfield
120021388 Leichhardt - Annandale120021674 Annandale (NSW)
 120021675 Leichhardt
120031390 Ashfield120031677 Ashfield - South
 120031676 Ashfield - North
120031391 Burwood - Croydon120031679 Croydon
 120031678 Burwood (NSW)
120031575 Strathfield120031681 Strathfield - West
 120031680 Strathfield - East
121011398 Chatswood (East) - Artarmon121011684 Chatswood - East
 121011682 Artarmon
121011400 Lane Cove - Greenwich121011686 Lane Cove
 121011685 Greenwich - Riverview
121011402 Willoughby - Castle Cove - Northbridge121011683 Castle Cove - Northbridge
 121011687 Willoughby
121041415 Mosman121041689 Mosman - South
 121041688 Mosman - North
122021423 Warriewood - Mona Vale122021691 North Narrabeen - Warriewood (South)
 122021690 Mona Vale - Warriewood (North)
122031426 Dee Why - North Curl Curl122031695 Dee Why - North
 122031694 Dee Why (South) - North Curl Curl
122031428 Frenchs Forest - Belrose122031696 Frenchs Forest - Oxford Falls
 122031692 Belrose
122031431 Narrabeen - Collaroy122031693 Collaroy - Collaroy Plateau
 122031697 Narrabeen - Wheeler Heights
123011434 Elderslie - Harrington Park123011700 Harrington Park
 123011699 Elderslie - Narellan
123011435 Mount Annan - Currans Hill123011701 Mount Annan
 123011702 Spring Farm
 123011698 Currans Hill
123021442 Macquarie Fields - Glenfield123021704 Glenfield
 123021706 Macquarie Fields
124031458 Castlereagh - Cranebrook124031708 Jordan Springs - Llandilo
 124031707 Cranebrook - Castlereagh
125011473 Homebush Bay - Silverwater125011710 Wentworth Point - Sydney Olympic Park
 125011709 Silverwater - Newington
125021476 Carlingford125021712 Carlingford - West
 125021711 Carlingford - East
125031485 Merrylands - Holroyd125031714 Merrylands - Holroyd
 125031716 South Wentworthville
125041492 Parramatta - Rosehill125041717 Parramatta - North
 125041718 Parramatta - South
 125041719 Rosehill - Harris Park
126011495 Epping - North Epping126011720 Epping (East) - North Epping
 126011721 Epping (NSW) - West
126021497 Eastwood - Denistone126021722 Denistone
 126021723 Eastwood
126021591 Ryde126021724 Ryde - North
 126021725 Ryde - South
127031598 Liverpool127031731 Liverpool - East
 127031732 Liverpool - West
201011003 Ballarat - North201011481 Ballarat East - Warrenheip
 201011482 Ballarat North - Invermay
201011004 Ballarat - South201011483 Canadian - Mount Clear
 201011484 Sebastopol - Redan
203021038 Corio - Norlane203021486 Corio - Lovely Banks
 203021488 Norlane
203021041 Grovedale203021485 Charlemont
 203021487 Grovedale - Mount Duneed
203031050 Ocean Grove - Barwon Heads203031489 Barwon Heads - Armstrong Creek
 203031490 Ocean Grove
204031074 Wodonga204031491 Baranduda - Leneva
 204031492 Wodonga
205041097 Traralgon205041493 Traralgon - East
 205041494 Traralgon - West
206011105 Brunswick206011495 Brunswick - North
 206011496 Brunswick - South
206011108 Coburg206011497 Coburg - East
 206011498 Coburg - West
206021111 Northcote206021499 Northcote - East
 206021500 Northcote - West
206031114 Essendon - Aberfeldie206031501 Essendon (West) - Aberfeldie
 206031502 Essendon - East
206041122 Melbourne206041503 Melbourne CBD - East
 206041504 Melbourne CBD - North
 206041505 Melbourne CBD - West
206041123 North Melbourne206041506 North Melbourne
 206041510 West Melbourne - Residential
206051133 St Kilda206051513 St Kilda - Central
 206051514 St Kilda - West
206061137 South Yarra - East206061515 South Yarra - North
 206061516 South Yarra - South
206071144 Richmond (Vic.)206071517 Richmond (South) - Cremorne
 206071518 Richmond - North
207011151 Hawthorn207011519 Hawthorn - North
 207011520 Hawthorn - South
207011153 Kew207011521 Kew - South
 207011522 Kew - West
209021207 Reservoir - East209021523 Reservoir - North East
 209021525 Reservoir - South East
209021208 Reservoir - West209021524 Reservoir - North West
 209021526 Reservoir - South West
209041219 Lalor209041529 Lalor - East
 209041530 Lalor - West
209041430 Doreen209041527 Doreen - North
 209041528 Doreen - South
209041434 Mernda209041531 Mernda - North
 209041532 Mernda - South
210011229 Keilor East210011533 Avondale Heights
 210011534 Keilor East
210031239 Pascoe Vale210031537 Oak Park
 210031538 Pascoe Vale
210031438 Glenroy210031535 Glenroy - East
 210031536 Glenroy - West
210041241 Sunbury - South210041539 Diggers Rest
 210041540 Sunbury - South
 210041541 Sunbury - West
210051249 Roxburgh Park - Somerton210051544 Roxburgh Park (South) - Somerton
 210051545 Roxburgh Park - North
212021294 Berwick - South212021553 Berwick - South East
 212021554 Berwick - South West
212031301 Cranbourne East212031555 Clyde North - North
 212031556 Clyde North - South
 212031557 Cranbourne East - North
 212031558 Cranbourne East - South
212031302 Cranbourne North212031559 Cranbourne North - East
 212031560 Cranbourne North - West
212031305 Hampton Park - Lynbrook212031561 Hampton Park - East
 212031562 Hampton Park - West
212041311 Dandenong212041563 Dandenong - North
 212041564 Dandenong - South
212041314 Keysborough212041565 Keysborough - North
 212041566 Keysborough - South
212051320 Clayton212051567 Clayton (North) - Notting Hill
 212051568 Clayton - Central
213011330 Deer Park - Derrimut213011569 Deer Park
 213011570 Derrimut
213041355 Hillside213041574 Fraser Rise - Plumpton
 213041575 Hillside
213041356 Melton213041576 Kurunjang - Toolern Vale
 213041577 Melton
213041357 Melton South213041571 Brookfield
 213041572 Cobblebank - Strathtulloh
 213041573 Eynesbury - Exford
 213041578 Melton South - Weir Views
213051365 Tarneit213051582 Tarneit (West) - Mount Cottrell
 213051583 Tarneit - Central
 213051584 Tarneit - North
 213051585 Tarneit - South
213051366 Truganina213051586 Truganina - North
 213051587 Truganina - South East
 213051588 Truganina - South West
213051369 Wyndham Vale213051579 Manor Lakes - Quandong
 213051589 Wyndham Vale - North
 213051590 Wyndham Vale - South
213051465 Point Cook - North213051580 Point Cook - North East
 213051581 Point Cook - North West
214021380 Mornington214021591 Mornington - East
 214021592 Mornington - West
216031417 Shepparton - South216031593 Kialla
 216031594 Shepparton - South East
301021527 Redland Islands301021550 North Stradbroke Island
 301021551 Southern Moreton Bay Islands
309071255 Ormeau - Yatala309071552 Ormeau (East) - Stapylton
 309071553 Ormeau (West) - Yatala
309081261 Robina309081559 Robina - East
 309081560 Robina - West
309101270 Surfers Paradise309101561 Surfers Paradise - North
 309101562 Surfers Paradise - South
310011273 Forest Lake - Doolandella310011563 Doolandella
 310011564 Forest Lake - Ellen Grove
310041296 Bellbird Park - Brookwater310041565 Augustine Heights - Brookwater
 310041566 Bellbird Park
311041320 Greenbank311041568 Flagstone (West) - New Beith
 311041569 Greenbank - North Maclean
311041321 Jimboomba311041567 Flagstone (East) - Riverbend
 311041570 Jimboomba - Glenlogan
 311041571 Yarrabilba
313021365 Caboolture313021572 Caboolture - East
 313021573 Caboolture - West
313051542 Scarborough - Newport - Moreton Island313051574 Moreton Island
 313051575 Scarborough - Newport
314021388 Dakabin - Kallangur314021576 Dakabin
 314021577 Kallangur
314021390 North Lakes - Mango Hill314021578 Mango Hill
 314021579 North Lakes
318021473 Deeragun318021582 Burdell - Mount Low
 318021583 Deeragun - Jensen
402031037 Northgate - Oakden - Gilles Plains402031175 Northgate - Northfield
 402031176 Valley View - Gilles Plains
403041087 Seaford (SA)403041177 Seaford - Seaford Meadows
 403041178 Seaford Rise - Moana
501011002 Busselton501011293 Busselton - East
 501011294 Busselton - West
503021041 Perth City503021295 East Perth
 503021296 Perth (North) - Highgate
 503021297 Perth (West) - Northbridge
504031059 Ellenbrook504031298 Aveley
 504031299 Brabham - Henley Brook
 504031300 Ellenbrook
505021086 Dianella505021301 Dianella - North
 505021302 Dianella - South
505031103 Madeley - Darch - Landsdale505031304 Landsdale
 505031305 Madeley - Darch
505031108 Wanneroo505031303 Hocking - Pearsall
 505031306 Wanneroo - Sinagra
506011113 Forrestdale - Harrisdale - Piara Waters506011307 Harrisdale
 506011308 Piara Waters - Forrestdale
506021122 Rivervale - Kewdale - Cloverdale506021309 Cloverdale
 506021310 Kewdale
 506021311 Rivervale
507051185 Baldivis507051312 Baldivis - North
 507051313 Baldivis - South
 507051314 Karnup
801011112 West Belconnen801011142 Macnamara
 801011143 Strathnairn
 801011144 West Belconnen
801101138 Molonglo - North801101145 Molonglo - East
 801101146 Whitlam
SA2 redesign from 2016
SA2 redesign
From (2016): To (Edition 3): 
106021115 Maitland - East106021614 East Maitland - Metford
 106021617 Tenambit - East Maitland
106021118 Thornton - Millers Forest106021618 Thornton - Millers Forest
115011559 Kellyville115011621 Kellyville - East
 115011622 Kellyville - West
115041302 Rouse Hill - Beaumont Hills115041623 Box Hill - Nelson
 115041624 North Kellyville
 115041625 Rouse Hill - Beaumont Hills
116011308 Seven Hills - Toongabbie116011626 Seven Hills - Prospect
 116011627 Toongabbie - West
123021440 Ingleburn - Denham Court123021703 Denham Court - Bardia
 123021705 Ingleburn
125031482 Greystanes - Pemulwuy125031713 Greystanes - South
 125031715 Pemulwuy - Greystanes (North)
127011506 Cobbitty - Leppington127011726 Cobbitty - Bringelly
 127011727 Gledswood Hills - Gregory Hills
 127011728 Leppington - Catherine Field
 127011729 Oran Park
127031600 Prestons - Edmondson Park127031730 Edmondson Park
 127031733 Prestons
206041126 Southbank206041507 Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria
 206041508 Southbank (West) - South Wharf
 206041509 Southbank - East
206051131 Port Melbourne Industrial206051511 Port Melbourne Industrial
206051132 South Melbourne206051512 South Melbourne
210051444 Craigieburn - West210051542 Craigieburn - North West
 210051543 Craigieburn - West
212011287 Beaconsfield - Officer212011546 Beaconsfield - Officer
212011288 Bunyip - Garfield212011547 Bunyip - Garfield
212011290 Koo Wee Rup212011548 Koo Wee Rup
212011291 Pakenham - North212011549 Pakenham - North East
 212011550 Pakenham - North West
 212011551 Pakenham - South East
 212011552 Pakenham - South West
309071257 Pimpama309071554 Pimpama - North
 309071555 Pimpama - South
309071258 Upper Coomera - Willow Vale309071556 Upper Coomera (South) - Wongawallan
 309071557 Upper Coomera - North
 309071558 Willow Vale - Pimpama (West)
316021420 Caloundra - West316021580 Caloundra West - Baringa
 316021581 Meridan Plains - Little Mountain (North)
SA2 label changes from 2016
SA2 label change
From (2016): To (Edition 3): 
101031015 Cooma Region101031015 Cooma Surrounds
101051540 Goulburn Region101051540 Goulburn Surrounds
101061542 Yass Region101061542 Yass Surrounds
101061544 Young Region101061544 Young Surrounds
103011060 Bathurst Region103011060 Bathurst Surrounds
103021064 Cowra Region103021064 Cowra Surrounds
103021068 Parkes Region103021068 Parkes Surrounds
103031071 Lithgow Region103031071 Lithgow Surrounds
103031073 Mudgee Region - East103031073 Mudgee Surrounds - East
103031074 Mudgee Region - West103031074 Mudgee Surrounds - West
103041079 Orange Region103041079 Orange Surrounds
104011081 Grafton Region104011081 Grafton Surrounds
105031103 Dubbo Region105031103 Dubbo Surrounds
106011109 Cessnock Region106011109 Cessnock Surrounds
106011113 Singleton Region106011113 Singleton Surrounds
106041127 Muswellbrook Region106041127 Muswellbrook Surrounds
106041129 Scone Region106041129 Scone Surrounds
108011153 Forster-Tuncurry Region108011153 Forster-Tuncurry Surrounds
108021156 Kempsey Region108021156 Kempsey Surrounds
108021159 Nambucca Heads Region108021159 Nambucca Heads Surrounds
108041165 Port Macquarie Region108041165 Port Macquarie Surrounds
108051170 Taree Region108051170 Taree Surrounds
109011175 Albury Region109011175 Albury Surrounds
109031181 Corowa Region109031181 Corowa Surrounds
109031183 Deniliquin Region109031183 Deniliquin Surrounds
110011187 Armidale Region - North110011187 Armidale Surrounds - North
110011188 Armidale Region - South110011188 Armidale Surrounds - South
110021192 Inverell Region - East110021192 Inverell Surrounds - East
110021193 Inverell Region - West110021193 Inverell Surrounds - West
110031196 Moree Region110031196 Moree Surrounds
110031198 Narrabri Region110031198 Narrabri Surrounds
110041200 Gunnedah Region110041200 Gunnedah Surrounds
110041205 Tamworth Region110041205 Tamworth Surrounds
112011237 Ballina Region112011237 Ballina Surrounds
112021245 Casino Region112021245 Casino Surrounds
112021249 Lismore Region112021249 Lismore Surrounds
112031252 Murwillumbah Region112031252 Murwillumbah Surrounds
112031551 Terranora - North Tumblegum112031551 Terranora - North Tumbulgum
113011257 Griffith Region113011257 Griffith Surrounds
113021262 Tumut Region113021262 Tumut Surrounds
113031271 Wagga Wagga Region113031271 Wagga Wagga Surrounds
114011283 Ulladulla Region114011283 Ulladulla Surrounds
115011290 Baulkham Hills (East)115011290 Baulkham Hills - East
116011560 Blacktown (South)116011560 Blacktown - South
116011561 Blacktown (West)116011561 Blacktown - West
121021579 Waitara - Wahroonga (West)121021579 Wahroonga (West) - Waitara
128011606 Woolaware - Burraneer128011606 Woolooware - Burraneer
201021009 Bacchus Marsh Region201021009 Bacchus Marsh Surrounds
201031017 Maryborough Region201031017 Maryborough Surrounds
202021026 Bendigo Region - South202021026 Bendigo Surrounds - South
202021028 Castlemaine Region202021028 Castlemaine Surrounds
202031032 Bendigo Region - North202031032 Bendigo Surrounds - North
204011060 Seymour Region204011060 Seymour Surrounds
204021064 Benalla Region204021064 Benalla Surrounds
204021067 Wangaratta Region204021067 Wangaratta Surrounds
206041127 West Melbourne206041127 West Melbourne - Industrial
206071145 Yarra - North206071145 Clifton Hill - Alphington
207021424 Doncaster East (North)207021424 Doncaster East - North
207021425 Doncaster East (South)207021425 Doncaster East - South
207031165 Burwood207031165 Burwood (Vic.)
208011171 Cheltenham - Highett (West)208011171 Highett (West) - Cheltenham
208021426 Bentleigh East (North)208021426 Bentleigh East - North
208021427 Bentleigh East (South)208021427 Bentleigh East - South
208031188 Cheltenham - Highett (East)208031188 Highett (East) - Cheltenham 
209041433 Epping - West209041433 Epping (Vic.) - West
209041435 South Morang (North)209041435 South Morang - North
209041436 South Morang (South)209041436 South Morang - South
211011447 Ferntree Gully (North)211011447 Ferntree Gully - North
212031457 Narre Warren South (East)212031457 Narre Warren South - East
212031458 Narre Warren South (West)212031458 Narre Warren South - West
215011387 Ararat Region215011387 Ararat Surrounds
215011389 Horsham Region215011389 Horsham Surrounds
215021398 Mildura Region215021398 Mildura Surrounds
215031405 Swan Hill Region215031405 Swan Hill Surrounds
216031418 Shepparton Region - East216031418 Shepparton Surrounds - East
216031419 Shepparton Region - West216031419 Shepparton Surrounds - West
217031473 Colac Region217031473 Colac Surrounds
307011177 Roma Region307011177 Roma Surrounds
307031188 Stanthorpe Region307031188 Stanthorpe Surrounds
308031218 Rockhampton Region - East308031218 Rockhampton Surrounds - East
308031219 Rockhampton Region - North308031219 Rockhampton Surrounds - North
308031220 Rockhampton Region - West308031220 Rockhampton Surrounds - West
311061330 Kingston (Qld.)311061330 Kingston (Qld)
318011465 Ingham Region318011465 Ingham Surrounds
318021468 Annandale318021468 Annandale (Qld)
319011498 Bundaberg Region - North319011498 Bundaberg Surrounds - North
319011499 Bundaberg Region - South319011499 Bundaberg Surrounds - South
319021506 Kingaroy Region - North319021506 Kingaroy Surrounds - North
319021507 Kingaroy Region - South319021507 Kingaroy Surrounds - South
319031514 Gympie Region319031514 Gympie Surrounds
319051525 Maryborough Region - South319051525 Maryborough Surrounds - South
401021008 Mount Barker Region401021008 Mount Barker Surrounds
401031012 Glenside - Beaumont401031012 Beaumont - Glen Osmond
405031123 Port Pirie Region405031123 Port Pirie Surrounds
407011147 Strathalbyn Region407011147 Strathalbyn Surrounds
407021155 Naracoorte Region407021155 Naracoorte Surrounds
407031163 Loxton Region407031163 Loxton Surrounds
407031166 Murray Bridge Region407031166 Murray Bridge Surrounds
407031168 Renmark Region407031168 Renmark Surrounds
501011003 Busselton Region501011003 Busselton Surrounds
507031169 Bertram - Wellard (West)507031169 Wellard (West) - Bertram
509011226 Albany Region509011226 Albany Surrounds
511011275 Esperance Region511011275 Esperance Surrounds
604011076 Burnie - Ulverstone Region604011076 Burnie - Ulverstone Surrounds