Criminal matters are brought to the courts by a government prosecuting agency, which is generally the Director of Public Prosecutions, but can also be the Attorney-General, the police, regulatory agencies, local councils and traffic camera branches. Information on defendants brought before the courts is recorded by the court administration authorities in each state and territory for operational and case management purposes in the adjudication and sentencing process. Criminal Courts statistics are based on data extracted from these administrative records. Data are supplied to the ABS by the courts administering agency for all states and territories except for Queensland (where they are supplied via the Office of Economic and Statistical Research), and New South Wales (where they are supplied via the Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research).
Criminal Courts statistics are produced by the National Criminal Courts Statistics Unit (NCCSU) of the ABS. The NCCSU functions under an intergovernmental agreement between the ABS, the Australian Government Attorney General's department and state and territory departments responsible for justice issues. One of the major functions of the NCCSU is to compile, analyse, publish and disseminate uniform national criminal courts statistics, subject to the provisions of the Census and Statistics Act 1905(Cth).
Criminal Courts, Australia(cat. no. 4513.0) presents statistics about defendants dealt with by the criminal jurisdiction of the Higher, Magistrates' and Children's Courts of Australia. Defendants include persons as well as organisations (for the Higher and Magistrates' Courts only) charged with criminal offences. Comparable statistics are provided for each of the states and territories and for Australia on the offences and sentence types associated with defendants dealt with by the Criminal Courts. If a person or organisation is a defendant in a number of criminal cases finalised within the courts during the reference period, this person or organisation will be counted more than once within that reference period.
The Criminal Courts collection is conducted annually and defendants who had criminal cases finalised within the Higher, Magistrates' and Children's Courts during the reference period of 1 July - 30 June are included. Information from the collection is released approximately seven months after the reference period.
In order to ensure consistency in the data for each state and territory, criminal courts statistics are compiled according to national standards and classifications. However, some differences still occur due to state and territory legislative requirements or to limitations of the various administrative data bases that are used to extract the data.
Revisions to published data are irregular. Revisions to historical data are made when new information about the comparability of data over time is identified. This may occur when errors or omissions are identified in the administrative data supplied to the ABS in prior years.
The Magistrates' and Children's Courts data include defendants finalised for all states and territories except New South Wales where finalised appearances are provided instead. This means that where charges are finalised at different court appearances in the same case for a defendant, these are counted as finalised defendants at each appearance rather than being aggregated as a single finalised defendant at the latest charge finalisation date. This counting method may result in higher defendant counts for New South Wales.
Queensland's finalised defendant count for the Higher, Magistrates' and Children's Criminal Courts may be undercounted. This small undercount (less than 1%) is due to an internal business process that results in a lag in the verification of finalised defendant records included in data supplied for the Criminal Courts publication.
Due to differing scope and counting rules the data in the Criminal Courts publication may not be comparable to data published in other national and state/territory publications. Given the high degree of conceptual complexity in the operation of the courts systems in Australia, and the variation in the capacity of the states and territories to supply statistical information, a staged approach was adopted in the development of the Criminal Courts collection. The publication presents results from several development stages of the collection. Information relating to criminal cases heard in the Supreme and Intermediate (Higher) Courts has been available since the mid 1990's. National information about defendants finalised in the Magistrates' Courts is available from 2003–04 onwards, and in the Children's Courts from 2006-07.
The Criminal Courts publication contains detailed Explanatory Notes, Appendices and Glossary that provide information on the data sources, counting rules, terminology, classifications and other technical aspects associated with these statistics.
A data dictionary, the National Criminal Courts Data Dictionary, 2005 (cat. no. 4527.0) has also been developed by the ABS in collaboration with key stakeholders. It is a reference document which defines national data items and outlines methods for the use of 27 data elements and concepts that underpin the ABS and Council of Australian Governments (COAG) criminal courts collections. The data dictionary relates to the Higher and Magistrates' Criminal Courts and it is anticipated that an updated version of the data dictionary will extend the scope of the data dictionary to the Children's Criminal Courts.
In addition to the information provided in the publication, a series of supplementary Data Cubes are also available providing detailed breakdowns by states and territories.
If the information you require is not available from the publication or the Data Cubes, then the National Centre for Crime and Justice Statistics may be able to help you with a customised service to suit your needs. Email: <firstname.lastname@example.org>