4604.0 - Energy Account, Australia, 2012-13 Quality Declaration 
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 20/02/2015   
   Page tools: Print Print Page Print all pages in this productPrint All



1 The ABS Energy Account, Australia (EAA) is one of the set of environmental-economic accounts produced by the ABS based on the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA). It consists of :

  • physical supply and use tables that identify physical volumes by industry and energy product
  • physical energy assets tables that identify economically demonstrated reserves of non-renewable primary energy assets
  • energy indicators based on the Energy Account Australia.
When available, information on energy supply and use in monetary terms will be added to this publication.

2 The aim of the EAA is to integrate data from different sources into a consolidated information set, making it possible to link physical data on energy to economic data in Australia's System of National Accounts (SNA).

3 Environmental-economic accounts provide information and an improved understanding on a range of issues including:
  • patterns of consumption of natural resources by industries and households
  • relationship between consumption of natural resources and gross value added by industry
  • relationship between value of natural resource and consumption
  • patterns of depletion of natural resources and its effect on the environment.


4 The EAA is based on the SEEA Central Framework. The SEEA Central Framework is a conceptual framework designed to support an understanding and the measurement of the interactions between the economy and the environment, and the stocks and changes in stocks of environmental assets. The SEEA Central Framework was adopted by the UN Statistical Commission as an international statistical standard in 2012.

5 The SEEA Central Framework uses a systems approach to organise environmental and economic information, covering, as completely as possible, the stocks and flows that are relevant to the analysis of environmental and economic issues. In using this approach, the SEEA Central Framework applies the accounting concepts, structures, rules and principles of the SNA. Environmental-economic accounts ('environmental accounts') deliver important extensions to SNA accounts. In practice these accounts may include physical supply and use tables, functional accounts (such as environmental expenditure accounts), and asset accounts for natural resources.


6 The energy accounts provide a framework to link physical information to core components of the SNA. The production of physical energy supply and use tables as well as energy asset tables are consistent with the approaches used in the construction of the Australian System of National Accounts. This allows for consistent analysis of the contribution of energy to the economy, the impact of the economy on the energy resources, and the efficiency of the use of energy resources within the economy.


7 The supply table records the total supply of energy products within the economy, including imports. The use table records the total use of energy products within the economy and for export. The supply and use tables can be compiled in both physical and monetary terms.

8 The supply and use methodology is based on the fundamental economic identity that supply of products equals use of products.


9 This edition of EAA presents information on the net supply and use of energy in physical terms for the Australian economy for the years 2008-09 to 2012-13. A 'hybrid' (physical and monetary) table of gross energy use will be presented at a later date.

10 Data on the physical supply and use of energy products are primarily derived from the Department of Industry and Science Australian Energy Statistics - Energy Update 2014 (AES). The ABS transforms AES into the SEEA framework to enable linkages between energy supply, energy use and the SNA.

11 This edition of EAA includes revisions to the net supply and use data for the years 2008-09 to 2011-12. The Department of Industry and Science has released revised AES data for 2011-12 and ABS used this information and data supplied by Department of Industry and Science to revise the published information for the years 2008-09 to 2010-11. The most notable changes were to natural gas use by the mining industry and primary indigenous supply of natural gas and black coal. The revisions to AES data resulted in a decrease to stocks and discrepancies for all revised financial years.

12 To estimate monetary use of energy (when published), the ABS uses implicit unit prices and expenditure data drawn from a number of sources, including ABS surveys.

Net Energy Flow Accounts

13 Net energy flow accounts record only energy 'entering' the economy (imports and extraction) and energy 'leaving' the economy (exports, energy used for final purposes and energy losses in conversion processes), within a supply-use framework.

14 The supply table of the net energy flow accounts shows the different energy products extracted within Australia and supplied from the rest of the world (imports). Note that, in line with the SNA guidelines, direct extraction by households is treated as supply by the relevant industry, but is also identified separately.

15 The use table shows the different energy products consumed for final purposes (final use of energy plus energy losses due to conversions) and supplied to the rest of the world (exports), along with inventory changes. The main accounting identity underlying the net flow accounts for energy is:
      Supply (Imports + Direct extraction) = Use (Exports + Final use of energy + Energy losses due to conversions + Inventory changes)

16 This accounting identity is only valid for the sum of all energy products in the economy and not for individual energy products. This is because the net supply table balances all energy use, whereas supply of an individual product will generally not equal use of that product due to losses and transformations.

17 Data contained in the net supply and use tables of this publication are used to compile the energy intensity time series estimates, and the household energy Indicators.

Gross Energy Flow Accounts and the Hybrid (physical-monetary) Energy Use Table

18 Gross energy flow accounts record total energy products extracted from nature and energy products processed from that energy. For example, a gross energy account includes electricity, in addition to fuels (e.g. coal) combusted to generate that electricity. The total gross energy use by industry is, therefore, not equal to total 'net' energy consumption, which is energy consumed for 'final purposes'. In this electricity generation example, only the electricity is considered as 'net' use by the industry, as it can no longer be used for any other energy purpose. The fuels used to generate electricity are treated separately as conversions and losses.

19 In any aggregation of physical gross data by industry, totals are subject to double counting of energy flows.

20 Gross energy flows are used in the Hybrid Energy Use Account (Hybrid table). This table combines valuations of various energy products with the associated physical use from which implicit energy prices can be derived. This allows analysis of differentials in unit prices paid by industry for various energy products. Gross energy accounts are consistent with national accounting principles and with relevant monetary measures from the SNA. While the monetary valuations of energy products can be summed to calculate the total monetary value of energy use, physical use should not be summed due to double-counting of repeated uses of the same energy in different forms.

Monetary valuations and non-market use

21 Significant use of many energy products occurs without an explicit monetary transaction. This includes, for example, the use of own energy production and energy losses which are recorded as physical use by an energy-producing industry. In keeping with SEEA and SNA principles, the monetary valuations presented in the Hybrid Energy Use table represent all energy use, including non-purchased energy, rather than showing only explicit expenditure on energy. Nevertheless, some relatively minor energy products have been excluded from the Hybrid Energy Use table due to lack of data on unit prices.

Territory principle

22 Information contained in this publication is based on data collected on a 'territory basis', rather than on the SNA's 'residency basis'. While some adjustments have been made to exports to move closer to the preferred residency basis, insufficient data are currently available to make comprehensive adjustments to the supply and use of all products affected. The ABS will continue to review data availability to improve the compliance with the SNA residency principle.



23 Coverage for physical supply and use tables includes the following energy products:
  • Black coal
  • Brown coal
  • Coal by-products (including blast furnace gas, coal tar, benzene/toluene/xylene feedstock and coke oven gas)
  • Brown coal briquettes
  • Metallurgical coke
  • Natural gas (includes coal seam gas)
  • Crude oil and feedstocks (including refinery feedstock, ethane and other petrochemical feedstocks)
  • Propane, butane, LPG
  • Petrol
  • Diesel
  • Other refined products (including aviation turbine fuel, aviation gasoline, kerosene, heating oil, and fuel oil)
  • Biofuels (including ethanol, biodiesel, landfill and sludge biogas, and other biofuels)
  • Wood and wood waste
  • Bagasse
  • Electricity
      • solar electricity
      • wind electricity
      • hydro-electricity
      • other (i.e. that are generated from fossil fuels)
  • Solar hot water
  • Uranium.

24 Wherever possible, data related to the refined petroleum products (petrol and diesel) have been shown separately.

25 The Hybrid Energy Use table, when published, also separates liquefied natural gas (LNG) from natural gas. At present, this separation is not made in the net physical supply and use tables.


26 Industry classifications used in this publication follow the 2006 edition of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industry Classification (ANZSIC).
  • Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
  • Mining
  • Manufacturing
  • Construction
  • Transport
  • Electricity, Gas, Water Supply and Waste Services
  • Commercial and Services (see below).

27 Several industries are further broken down on an energy use significance basis into the following groupings, with the relevant ANZSIC codes listed in brackets:

28 Manufacturing:
  • Food, beverages and textiles (subdivisions 11-13)
  • Wood, paper and printing (subdivisions 14-16)
  • Petroleum and chemical products (subdivisions 17-19)
  • Iron and steel (groups 211, 212)
  • Non-ferrous metals (groups 213-214)
  • Other manufacturing (subdivisions 20, 22-25).

29 Electricity, Gas, Water Supply and Waste Services:
  • Electricity supply (subdivision 26)
  • Gas supply (subdivision 27)
  • Water supply and waste services (subdivisions 28-29).

30 Transport:
  • Road transport (subdivision 46)
  • Rail transport (subdivision 47)
  • Water transport (subdivision 48)
  • Air transport (subdivision 49)
  • Other transport, storage and services (subdivisions 50-53).

31 Commercial and Services covers a broad grouping of thirteen ANZSIC division level service industries. These industries have been grouped together because the energy consumption of each individually is relatively small and the Department of Industry and Science statistical coverage of such industries is not as detailed as for other industries. Commercial and Services corresponds to the grouping of the same name used in the AES and consists of the following ANZSIC divisions:
  • Wholesale Trade
  • Retail Trade
  • Accommodation and Food Services
  • Information Media and Telecommunications
  • Financial and Insurance Services
  • Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services
  • Professional, Scientific and Technical Services
  • Administrative and Support Services
  • Public Administration and Safety
  • Education and Training
  • Health Care and Social Assistance
  • Arts and Recreation Services
  • Other Services.

General Government as an industry

32 Government energy use as identified in the physical supply use tables refers to General Government industries. This industry covers the Commonwealth Government, state governments and local government municipalities, as well as associated agencies and non-departmental bodies. Public universities are also included in this industry.

33 Further information about the definitions of the General Government is available in the explanatory notes for the Government Finance Statistics (cat. no. 5512.0) publication.

Data Sources

34 The estimates contained in this publication are drawn from a wide range of ABS and non-ABS data sources, including:

35 ABS sources:
36 Non ABS sources:
  • Department of Industry and Science, Australian Energy Statistics - Energy Update 2014
  • Clean Energy Regulator, National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Scheme (NGERS).

37 A range of other data sources were used in EAA for validation, as an input to developing estimation methodologies, or for developing relevant indicators.

38 ABS data sources:
39 Non-ABS sources:
  • Australian Institute of Petroleum, Terminal Gate Prices (Wholesale) and Pump Prices (Retail)
  • Annual reports containing energy use data, published by various state, territory and local governments
  • Department of Industry and Science, Australian petroleum statistics
  • Department of Industry and Science, Resources and energy statistics
  • Department of Industry, Energy Use in the Australian Government's Operations 2011-12
  • Energy Supply Association of Australia, Electricity Gas Australia 2014
  • Energyrating.gov.au, Street Lighting Strategy, July 2011.

Methods for Calculating Energy Supply and Use

40 These notes are intended as a general guide to the method of calculating estimates of energy supply and use. For more detail on the methods please contact the Director, Environmental Accounts Section, Australian Bureau of Statistics (email address: Environmental_Accounts_WDB@abs.gov.au).

41 Data on the physical supply and use of energy products are primarily derived from the Australian Energy Statistics (AES) - Energy Update 2014.

42 ABS Energy Account, Australia domestic net energy consumption figures do not align with AES Total Final Energy Consumption (TFEC) although both of these are 'net' measures of energy use, due to differing treatments of distribution and extraction losses and own use of energy within industries. TFEC excludes distribution and extraction losses and own use of energy within 'conversion sectors' while EAA treat these as part of intermediate consumption. The largest contributors to the difference between the two measures are in consumption of electricity and natural gas, because distribution and extraction losses are recorded in Energy Account, Australia as use by the relevant industries but are excluded from TFEC in the AES.

43 While the EAA draws on data from the AES, data from the ABS Energy, Water and Environment Survey (EWES) 2011-12 and Energy Use, Electricity Generation and Environmental Management 2011-12 were used to allocate the supply and use of energy products between industries.

44 The following changes have been applied to allow linkages between energy supply, energy use and the SNA:

Reallocation of Petrol, Diesel and LPG use by Industry and Households

45 In the AES, the physical use of land transport fuels (petrol, diesel and LPG) is assigned on the basis of activity type, rather than 'industry of ownership'. For example, fuel used by a truck owned by a mining company and operating between mining sites would likely be treated as transport activity in AES but an industry-based view would assign this use to the mining industry. In practice, application of the fuel use re-allocation methodology impacts significantly on derived estimates of fuel use.

46 EAA uses the EWES and Survey of Motor Vehicle Use data to reallocate land transport fuels, to align with SEEA and SNA industry recording principles.

47 The reallocation methodology impacts significantly on AES fuel use figures. For example, the proportion of refined fuel use attributed to households ('residential') in AES is negligible. However, when usage is recorded on the basis of ownership, households are the largest single user of refined fuels. The implications are also significant for industry-based measures of energy intensity.

Partial reallocation of Electricity and Natural Gas

48 In the AES, the physical use of fuels is allocated on an activity basis. This means that some businesses and activities are classified to different industries. In particular, estimates for the Construction, Transport and Commercial and services industries' energy use are not compatible with ABS estimates and have been reallocated accordingly.

49 EAA uses the EWES data to reallocate electricity and natural gas between selected industries to align with expenditure data in these surveys better.

Treatment of chemical feedstocks

50 Chemical industry feedstocks are not separately identified in the AES and are included in 'petroleum products not elsewhere classified'. For the purpose of closer concordance with the SNA, these have been identified and reallocated to the energy product category Crude Oil and Feedstocks.

Treatment of biofuels

51 Biofuels identified in Energy Account, Australia include biodiesel, ethanol, and landfill and sludge biogas. This treatment differs to AES treatment in that biogas which currently includes biogas within natural gas. In addition, AES assigns bio-diesel and ethanol as consumed by activities such as transport, while Energy Account, Australia shows these fuels as consumed (ie, blended) in the production of petrol and diesel. Consumption of these blended fuels is then contained within general final use of petrol and diesel.

Treatment of Household production of energy

52 Energy Account, Australia follows SEEA and SNA principles for recording so-called 'backyard' production by households. A value is imputed for the value of goods produced and consumed by households. For example: "The gross value of agricultural production includes an allowance for backyard production of fruit and vegetables and the value of meat produced from livestock raised for household use". (https://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/2f762f95845417aeca25706c00834efa/AC6C11A0F11910FBCA2569A40006164B?opendocument)

53 An analogous approach is used to assign energy production within the SEEA framework: "following the general principles from the national accounts, if households extract or produce energy, the energy extraction or production should be recorded as part of the product output of the industry that would otherwise have produced the energy. At the same time a corresponding private consumption of energy products should be recorded for the households". (Draft SEEA-Energy chapter 5 http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/seeae/chapterList.asp)

54 Following these principles, in Energy Account, Australia, household production of energy is assigned to the relevant industry to which the activity would normally be classified, but also identified separately within the Supply-Use Tables to maintain information detail.

55 Specifically, within EAA, wood extraction by households is considered part of Division A, Agriculture, forestry and fisheries. Similarly, solar energy extracted within households for the production of electricity is assigned to Subdivision 26, Electricity supply. Solar energy extracted for hot water production is assigned to Subdivision 28, Water supply. This is following the concordance identified between ANZSIC 2811 Water Supply and ISIC 4030 Steam and hot water supply. More detail on ANZSIC-ISIC concordance can be found here: https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/52BEB156847842FACA257B9500133D97?opendocument

Treatment of Bitumen, Solvents, Lubricants and Greases

56 Bitumen, solvents, lubricants and greases are classified by Department of Industry and Science as derived energy within petroleum refining. These products, while containing energy, are not consumed for energy purposes. Their production is classified as final use within Petroleum and chemical products manufacturing.

Netting of Secondary Fuels

57 Secondary fuels (which are then re-consumed) are netted out when producing net flow accounts.

58 The following sources were used to assist in the process of netting out secondary fuels:
Adjustment to imports, exports and production to align with the SNA 'residency' view of the boundaries of the Australian economy

59 Adjustments have been made to the EAA to align with the residency view for activity in the Timor Gap as described in the feature article Statistical Treatment of Economic Activity in the Timor Sea (Feature article, Australian National Accounts, ABS cat. no. 5206.0 , September 2003). A territory view would exclude this activity entirely from the Australian economy but the residency treatment results in 50% of all activity included as part of the Australian economy.

Adjustment to total electricity supply and use

60 Total electricity supply and use has been modelled based on the following sources and thus deviates from estimates contained in Tables A, F and O of the Australian Energy Statistics:
  • Energy Supply Association of Australia, Energy Gas Australia 2013
  • Energy Use, Electricity Generation and Environmental Management (ABS cat. no. 4660.0)
  • Household Energy Consumption Survey, Australia, 2012 (ABS cat. no. 4670.0) including Business Survey of Residential Electricity Distribution (BSRED) Experimental Estimates
  • Department of Industry and Science Australian Energy Statistics -Table A Australian energy supply and consumption and Table F Australian energy consumption by industry and fuel type
  • Clean Energy Regulator, National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Scheme (NGERS).

Data Quality and Reliability

61 Due to recent revisions in the AES methodology, data for 2008-09 to 2011-12 supply and use figures have been adjusted from previously published figures.



62 Energy indicators are used to provide a greater understanding or consequences of the production and use of energy.

63 Energy indicators may relate to social, economic and environmental dimensions. Information contained in the Energy Account combined with additional demographic and economic information provides insights into energy efficiency and energy productivity. Indicators used in the Energy Account can be divided into three sectors; total economy indicators, industry indicators and household indicators.

64 Due to recent revisions in the AES methodology, data for 2008-09 to 2011-12 supply and use figures used within indicators have been adjusted from previously published figures.

Total economy indicators

65 The degree of self sufficiency (or dependence on imports) measures the proportion of domestically produced energy compared to net energy use plus losses (equivalent to net domestic use plus exports). A self-sufficiency rating of over 100 indicates a net exporter of energy products.

66 One of the means of extending the life of energy products is to use those products which can be renewed through natural processes. The indicator share of renewable energy in net energy inputs measures the renewable content of non-renewable and renewable net energy supply. The indicator is calculated by dividing the net renewable energy supply by net energy supply.

67 Energy decoupling refers to a break in the link between the use of energy products and economic growth. Economic growth, chain volume measures of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), is compared to the growth rate of energy use and decoupling is said to occur when the economic growth rate of GDP is greater than the growth rate of energy use.

Industry indicators

68 Energy intensity is a ratio of energy consumed per unit of economic output (GJ/$m IGVA). The energy intensity analysis is based on the ratios of physical net energy consumption to industry gross value added (IGVA) data. The converse of this measure (unit of output per unit of energy consumption) is energy productivity. Energy productivity is defined as the Gross Domestic Product per unit of energy used and is a measure of the economic value associated with energy use. Energy productivity was derived using Australian National Accounts (cat. no. 5206.0) Table 5: Gross Value Added by Industry. Energy intensity and energy productivity indicators use a net view of intermediate energy use (i.e. total industry domestic energy use less household energy, energy exports, and conversions and losses).

69 Energy consumption figures are based on Table F of Department of Industry and Science AES, with adjustments from the Net Supply and Use tables in Energy Account, Australia applied for all years from 2002-03 onwards. ABS industry gross value added is drawn from the Australian System of National Accounts (ASNA) and is based on the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC 2006).

70 AES presents comprehensive data on energy consumption by industry. This data has been applied to ABS IGVA data, after the application of reallocation and netting adjustments as described above.

71 EAA uses annually reweighted "chain volume" estimates of IGVA in the estimation of energy intensity from Australian System of National Accounts (ABS cat. no. 5204.0). These give constant price values for all years included in the series. For example, all figures contained in Energy Account Australia 2012-13 estimates of energy intensity are recorded in 2012-13 prices and are thus directly comparable over time. IGVA estimates are re-weighted each year and therefore energy intensity measures are updated with each annual estimation cycle.

Household indicators

72 The household energy indicator is defined as the total net household energy use per total the number of Australian households. Household numbers were estimated using Household and Family Projections, Australia, 2006 to 2031 (cat. no. 3236.0).

73 The indicator for household energy use was compared with Household Final Consumption Expenditure (HFCE) for food; transport; electricity, gas and other fuels; and total HFCE. HFCE was derived from Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product (cat. no. 5206.0) Table 8: Household Final Consumption Expenditure.

74 Energy use per capita measures the net energy use per person. Energy use per capita is calculated by dividing the net energy use by households by the Australian population. Population numbers were estimated using Australian Demographic Statistics, June 2014 (cat. no. 3101.0).

Data Sources - Energy indicators

75 The primary source of data for energy indicators was the Energy Account Australia 2012-13 and supplementary sources:

76 ABS sources:
77 Non ABS sources:
  • Department of Industry and Science, Australian Energy Statistics - Energy Update 2013.



78 Asset accounts for energy resources consolidate relevant information including the levels and values of stocks and the changes in these over time. Flows of extraction, depletion and discoveries are central to the asset account and these provide valuable information about energy resources.

Australia's National Classification System for Mineral Resources (2009 edition)

79 The ABS has adopted Australia's National Classification System for Mineral Resources (Geoscience Australia) to assign physical stocks based on Economic Demonstrated Resources (EDR) data.

80 EDRs are resources judged to be economically extractable and for which the quantity and quality are computed partly from specific measurements, and partly from extrapolation for a reasonable physical distance on geological evidence. Figure 1 illustrates where ABS energy asset stocks align with Australia’s National Classification System for Mineral Resources (Geoscience Australia).

Figure A1
Figure 1 illustrates where ABS energy asset stocks align with Australia’s National Classification System for Mineral Resources (Geoscience Australia)
Source: Australia’s Identified Mineral Resources 2013, Geoscience Australia.


81 Coverage for the physical energy asset account includes the following energy assets:
  • Black Coal
  • Brown Coal
  • Crude Oil
  • Condensate
  • Liquefied Petroleum Gas
  • Natural Gas
  • Uranium.

Data sources

82 The estimates contained in the Physical Energy Asset tables are drawn from the following data sources:


83 These notes are intended as a general guide to the method of calculating estimates Physical Energy Asset Account. For more detail on the methods please contact the Director, Environmental Accounts Section, Australian Bureau of Statistics (email address: Environmental_Accounts_WDB@abs.gov.au).

Physical Stock Account of Energy Assets

84 Economic Demonstrated Resources (EDR) data from the Australian System of National Accounts (cat. no. 5204.0) Table 62, Value of Demonstrated Mineral and Energy Resources, by Commodity was converted from weight/volume into energy units (petajoules). The conversion into petajoules allows comparability with the flow accounts (supply and use tables).

Physical Energy Asset Account

85 Annual production stocks were applied from the Australian System of National Accounts and converted from weight/volume to energy units (petajoules). The weight/volume changes are a measure of the change in output of raw production. The changes in production do not reflect data in the physical supply and use tables due to changes in stock as a result of conversion losses, new discoveries, revaluations and reclassifications. Work is being undertaken on physical energy asset accounts to reconcile Australian System of National Accounts data with Australian Identified Mineral Resources used by Geoscience Australia.

86 The Net Present Value (NPV) was applied from the Australian System of National Accounts (cat. no. 5204.0) and is the expected value of the resource based on current resource prices, current extraction methods and costs, and on present physical rates of extraction.

87 The extraction rate measures the rate at which assets are being depleted and the remaining resource life measures life of a resource at current production rates.

88 The EDR/extraction rate ratio provides an indicator of years of availability of a resource under current levels of EDR’s and extractions.

Further information

89 For further information on the compilation of energy asset accounts please see the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) - Energy (draft), which is available from the United Nations Statistical Division.


90 Where necessary, tables have had values suppressed to protect confidentiality.


91 The next release of the EAA (the 2013–14 edition) is scheduled for February 2016.