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2 Additional data and analysis has been included to add further context in the main findings.
3 These estimates explore concepts and methods while also assessing the quality and limitations of available data sources. The timing and frequency of future WAA will be determined in consultation with stakeholders and the availability of data and resources.
4 The WAA integrates data from different sources into a consolidated framework making it possible to link physical data on waste to economic data, such as those contained in Australia’s National Accounts.
ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING FRAMEWORK
5 The WAA was developed using the SEEA, which is a measurement framework that provides a range of metrics that link information on the environment and the economy. The SEEA was first published by the United Nations in 1993 and was adopted as an international statistical standard in 2012 by the United Nations Statistical Commission. For further information on the SEEA and the ABS environmental accounts program please see Completing the Picture - Environmental Accounting in Practice, May 2012 (cat. no. 4628.0.55.001) and Australian Environmental-Economic Accounts, 2014 (cat. no. 4655.0).
PHYSICAL SUPPLY AND USE OF SOLID WASTE IN THE WAA
6 The physical supply table records the total supply of solid waste products within the economy (including imports). The physical use table records the total use of solid waste materials within the economy (including exports).
7 The supply and use methodology is based on the fundamental economic identity that supply of products equals use of products.
8 The physical waste supply and use tables present aggregates of all available physical data (tonnes) in terms of the supply and use of solid waste in the Australian economy for the financial year 2010-11.
9 The SEEA defines solid waste as "discarded materials that are no longer required by the owner or user. Where the unit discarding the materials receives no payment for the discarded materials that are no longer required by the owner or user. Where the unit discarding the materials receives no payment for the materials then the flow is considered a residual flow of solid waste. Where the unit discarding the materials receives a payment but the actual residual value of the material is small, for example in the case of scrap metal sold to a recycling firm, this flow is considered a product flow of solid waste."
10 Data on the physical supply and use of waste are primarily derived from Waste Generation and Resource Recovery in Australia (WGRRA) 2014 commissioned by the
Australian Government Department of Environment (DoE). The WGRRA compiles solid waste and recycling data published by the states, territories and industry for the 2010-11 financial year. It presents data on the recycling of solid waste, energy recovery from solid waste, and the disposal of solid waste to landfill. The report presents data by material category and material type in terms of solid waste streams. The ABS uses the SEEA to transform this data into a framework to enable linkages between waste supply, waste use and the various economic aggregates contained in the Australian National Accounts.
11 Coverage for both the physical supply and use tables includes the following waste materials:
12 The following waste materials were out of scope and were excluded in the physical supply and use tables:
13 Industry classifications used for the physical supply and use tables follow the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006 (cat. no. 1292.0). The categories used in the tables are:
14 All Other Industry consists of the following industries:
15 In the WAA the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) stream is used to estimate household waste. MSW includes waste collected directly (e.g. kerbside collections of recycling and waste to landfill) and indirectly (e.g. householder drop off at transfer stations, householder self-haul to landfill) from households. It also includes some Commercial and Industrial (C&I) waste where local governments provide (directly or indirectly) a collection service that covers businesses and households.
16 The physical estimates contained in this publication are drawn from a wide range of ABS and non-ABS data sources, including:
Physical supply (generation) of waste
17 Before allocating data to industries and the household sectors a total waste generated amount was derived from WGRRA with the inclusion of additional data sources (see non-ABS data sources above) considered in scope of the WAA.
18 The Australian National Accounts Input-Output tables (cat. no. 5209.055.001) was used to allocate waste generated to industries. Each product balance describes the supply (domestic output + imports) and the use (intermediate consumption and final demand) of the product at a detailed level. The Intermediate Use of specific products were aggregated to certain waste flow categories for specific industries as presented in Waste Account, Australia (cat. no. 4602.0.55.006) Tables 1-4.
Waste generation by the Mining Industry
19 Estimates of total non-mineral waste generated by the mining industry were estimated using publicly available annual sustainability reports sourced from Australian mining companies. These reports also provided employment numbers (including contractors), which were used to approximate the average amount of non-mineral waste generated per employee. A total non-mineral waste generated amount was then derived using Australian Industry (cat no. 8155.0). The total waste generated was allocated using the relative proportions of waste materials in the Mining industry estimated by Waste Account, Australia, Experimental Estimates, (cat. no. 4602.0.55.005) 2013 report.
Waste Generation by the Agricultur
20 Data from the Organics Recycling in Australia Report 2011 relating to primary production was used to estimate organic waste generation, recovery and disposal. The total organic waste generated was allocated to the agricultural sector of the WAA.
Waste generation by Households
21 The quality of Information available on household waste from the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) stream varies across states and territories. The WAA used the WGRRA data for the MSW stream for New South Wales (NSW) as the benchmark for the allocation of waste materials for households across Australia. The data for NSW covered a large sample area consisting of 152 Local Government Areas. Solid waste disposal and recycling data was collected for masonry materials, metals, organics, plastics, paper and cardboard, glass, leather and textiles, tyres and other rubber and hazardous waste. Data was also collected for other materials which included non-recyclable materials and mixed recyclables.
22 The MSW stream includes wastes from the operations of local governments despite some wastes from households classified as C&I or Construction and Demolition (C&D). Household demolition or construction activities undertaken by households but collected by skip operators are produced by the MSW stream but allocated to the C&D stream. As a result of this practice part of the MSW materials were allocated to industries as "Inseparable/Unknown" waste.
23 The WGRRA data does not provide sufficient data on E-waste which was allocated across industries and households using data from the Study of Australia’s Current and Future E-Waste Recycling Infrastructure Capacity and Needs, 2010, commissioned by DoE.
24 For plastics, the Plastics and Chemicals Industries Association (PACIA) identifies specific generators of plastic waste in its annual National Plastics Recycling Survey on consumption, recovery and recycling of plastics. The WAA allocated 44% of plastics waste to households based on this survey and the remaining 56% of plastic waste was allocated to industries using the Australian National Accounts Input-Output Tables (cat. no. 5209.0.55.001).
25 Inseparable/Unknown was allocated to industries using the Australian National Accounts: Input-Output Tables 2009-10 (cat. no. 5209.0.55.01).
Physical waste use (management)
26 The WAA physical use table was based on WGRRA, 2011 National Plastics Recycling Survey, The Study of Australia’s Current and Future E-Waste Recycling Infrastructure Capacity and Needs, 2010 and ABS Waste Management Services 2009-10 (cat. no. 8698.0). The total physical waste use was balanced to equal total waste generation.
27 WGRRA, data workbook v3.4 disaggregates relevant waste streams by destination (landfill, recycling and energy recovery) for each state and territory. This breakdown, calculated as a proportion of waste materials disposed to landfill or recovery, was applied to the totals estimated in physical waste generation.
28 Data from ABS Waste Management Services, Australia (cat. no. 8698.0) was used to estimate total waste treated (by landfill and recovery) by ANZSIC subdivision 29 (Waste Management Services ).
29 The exports of waste materials is considered to be part of domestic recovery as these have undergone sorting and stockpiling before being sent for reprocessing or export. For further information please see Waste Imports and Exports (below).
30 Organic wastes reported in the WGRRA includes food, garden wastes, timber and biosolids from sewage treatment works but excludes paper and cardboard, rubber and leather. The NSW data segregates timber wastes from other types of organics waste.
31 The WAA used WGRRA data for NSW timber waste to estimate the amount of timber waste contained in organic waste that was generated, landfilled and recovered.
32 The Plastics and Chemicals Industries Association (PACIA) represents the chemical and plastic industry and conduct an annual National Plastics Recycling Survey on the consumption, recovery and recycling of plastics. The results from the 2011 survey provide a comprehensive picture of consumption, flow and recycling in plastics and were used in the production of estimates in the WAA.
33 Where data sources were not available for every year, estimates were derived using the proportions for the available time periods. The physical supply and use WAA tables for 2010-11 were extrapolated using Australian National Accounts (cat. no. 5204.0) Table 5: Gross Value Added (GVA) by Industry, to calculate the GVA movement from 2009-10 to 2010-11.
34 The relative proportions of E-waste materials generated by each industry sector and households for 2009-10 were used for 2010-11 estimates. This also applied to the use of E-waste services by industries for landfill and recovery purposes.
35 Data for both imports and exports of waste materials were obtained from international trade data and are included in the 2010-11 waste supply and use physical tables. See waste imports and exports (below) for further information.
MONETARY SUPPLY AND USE
36 The Monetary supply and use tables present aggregates in monetary terms ($million) for the supply and use of waste goods and services within the Australian economy for the financial year 2010-11. Monetary supply and use tables illustrate the economic transactions associated with the income generated by the supply of waste management services and sales of recovered waste material and expenditure on the use of waste management services and purchase of recovered waste material.
37 Coverage for both the monetary supply and use tables includes the following:
38 Coverage for waste management expenditure included:
39 Coverage for waste management expenditure for "All other service industries" included:
40 Coverage for income from waste management services and sales of recyclable/recoverable material included:
41 Coverage for income from waste management services and sales of recyclable/recoverable material for "All other service industries" included:
*Waste income from these service industries was assumed to be zero.
42 The monetary estimates contained in this publication are drawn from ABS and non-ABS data sources, including:
43 Income from supply of waste management services was compiled from Waste Management Services (WMS) 2009-10 (cat. no. 8698.0) for the Waste Management Services industry and the Economic Activity Survey (EAS) 2010-11 for other industries.
44 Income from supply of waste management services (by recyclables/non-recyclables) and sales of recyclable/recovered material for the Waste Management Services industry is derived from Tables 4 and 5 of Waste Management Services, Australia, 2009-10 (cat. no. 8698.0). Note that "Private" refers to Private and Public Trading Enterprises, and "Public" refers to the waste management activities of local government.
45 Income data from the ABS Economic Activity Survey, 2010-11 for industries other than Waste Management Services in 2009-10 was estimated using the Industry Sales and Service income movement from Australian Industry, 2010-11 (cat. no. 8155.0).
46 Income from the sales of recyclable/recoverable material has been calculated as a trade margin because these products are typically sold after undergoing only relatively minor processing (such as grading, cleaning etc.). Following the principles of the 2008 SNA, trade margins have been calculated as the difference between the price realised on the sale of the good, and the price paid for the good. However, data sources used within this publication indicate that prices paid to acquire the recyclable/recoverable material are negligible and therefore the trade margin is effectively equal to the price realised on the sale of these goods. For further information on Supply and Use tables and the concept of margins, see Australian National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods, Edition 3 (cat no. 5126.0).
47 Income from the sales of recyclable/recoverable material was only available at an aggregated level for industries outside the Waste Management Services industry. Therefore, the ABS Input-Output Tables Product details have been used to estimate the totals of each type of these materials. Income from the sales of each type of recyclable/recoverable material for the manufacturing industry has also been estimated using the same information source.
48 Intermediate consumption expenditure of waste management services (by recyclables/non-recyclables) by the Waste Management Services industry were sourced from Tables 8 and 9 of Waste Management Services, Australia, 2009-10 (cat. no. 8698.0)."Private" refers to Private and Public Trading Enterprises, and "Public" refers to local government.
49 In-scope expenditure items included:
50 Intermediate consumption expenditure of waste management services (by recyclables/non-recyclables) for Other industries were estimated based on payments to contractors and subcontractors for waste management services derived from the ABS Economic Activity Survey, 2010-11. Fees for the treatment/processing/disposal of waste and waste disposal levies/contributions paid to the EPA for "Other Industries" providing waste management services were estimated based on the same information source used for private sector businesses in the waste management services industry.
51 No data was available for intermediate consumption expenditure on recyclable/recovered materials. Therefore, the ABS Input-Output Tables Product Details data have been used to estimate the totals of each waste material for "Other Industries"
52 Household final consumption (expenditure on waste management services) was derived from annual financial reports of Local Government Authorities (LGA's). LGA's are responsible for the provision of waste services for households and household waste services charges are included in annual rates charges.
53 Household final consumption expenditure on purchase of recyclable/recovered materials by type has been estimated based on the ABS Input-Output Tables Product Details data.
CHANGES AND REVISIONS FROM PREVIOUS PUBLICATION WASTE ACCOUNT, AUSTRALIA, EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATES
54 There were a number of improvements made to the methodology in compiling the WAA. These improvements relate primarily to the new WGRRA data source and National Accounts Input-Output 2009-10.
55 The physical supply tables for 2009-10 have been revised to align more closely with National Accounts Input-Ouput tables for 2009-10 which were not available at the time of publication of the WAAEE. Industry headings have been updated from 'Services' to 'All Other Industries' and 'General Government' to 'Public Administration' to align with the System of National Accounts (SNA) concepts.
56 The physical use table in the WAA has been updated to include exports as part of total waste recovery consisting of the sum of domestic use and exports.
57 Additional data has been included for the sale and expenditure of recyclable/recoverable materials for industries outside the waste management industry. National Accounts Input-Output tables were used to estimate the income and expenditure of recyclable/recoverable waste materials for industries other than waste management services industry.
58 Final consumption expenditure by Households on purchases of recyclable/recoverable waste material was not included in the WAAEE but has been included in the WAA monetary use table.
59 Data for recyclable and non-recyclable expenditure on waste services for industries outside the Waste Management Services has not been published in the monetary use table.This table will be reviewed in future publications following further analysis of data sources.
WASTE IMPORTS AND EXPORTS
International Trade Classifications
60 Australia applies the international Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS) for the classification of internationally traded goods. The HS is a 6-digit hierarchical classification designed by the World Customs Organization (WCO).
61 Information provided by importers, exporters and their agents to the Australian Customs and Border Protection Service was used in the WAAEE as a source of information for import and export data in the physical and monetary supply and use tables. Australia expands the HS to produce two different classifications for imports and exports. These classifications are the Harmonized Tariff Item Statistical Code (HTISC), also known as the Customs Tariff and the Australian Harmonised Export Commodity (AHECC) (cat. no. 1233.0).
62 The following information can be obtained or derived from export documentation for all goods exporters:
63 The following information can be obtained or derived from import documentation for all goods importers:
Waste product classification for imports and exports
64 In the WAA, imports and exports of waste products are components of the physical supply and use tables.
65 Imports and exports classified as being waste were identified by using AHECC, HTISC and the Central Product Classification (CPC) Version 2 in order to calculate amounts of wastes (by weight and dollars) entering and exiting Australia. This data is available from ABS International Trade in Goods and Services, Australia (cat. no 5368.0).
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