HIGHER EDUCATION RESOURCES DEVOTED TO RESEARCH AND EXPERIMENTAL DEVELOPMENT (R&D)
During the 2014 calendar year, higher education expenditure on R&D (HERD) was $10,145 million. This represents an increase of $535 million (6%) from $9,610 million in 2012.
HIGHER EDUCATION EXPENDITURE ON R&D, summary statistics: values and proportions 

   EXPENDITURE ON R&D  PROPORTION OF TOTAL EXPENDITURE ON R&D 
   2012  2014  2012  2014 
   $m  $m  %  % 

Type of expenditure     
 Capital expenditure     
  Land, buildings and other structures  732  549  7.6  5.4 
  Other capital expenditure  299  283  3.1  2.8 
  Total(a)  1 031  832  10.7  8.2 
 Current expenditure     
  Labour costs  3 890  4 310  40.5  42.5 
  Scholarships  609  737  6.3  7.3 
  Other current expenditure  4 079  4 266  42.5  42.0 
  Total(a)  8 579  9 313  89.3  91.8 
    
Total expenditure on R&D(a)  9 610  10 145  100.0  100.0 

(a) Where figures have been rounded, discrepancies may occur between the sum of the component items and totals. 
In 2014, HERD showed an increase of 6% in current price terms from 2012, and 0.1% in chain volume terms.
HIGHER EDUCATION RESOURCES DEVOTED TO R&D 

   2004  2006  2008  2010  2012  2014 

Expenditure on R&D        
 Current prices  $m  4 327  5 434  6 844  8 161  9 610  10 145 
 Chain volume measures(a)  $m  6 099  7 104  8 281  9 141  10 132  10 145 
Human resources devoted to R&D  PYE  55 204  58 905  61 773  69 392  74 669  78 038 

(a) The reference year for chain volume measures is 2014. See Explanatory Notes for details. 
Subsequent expenditure figures and supporting commentary relate to current price terms.
HERD and Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
HERD as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) stayed the same for 2012 and 2014 at 0.63%.
Human resources devoted to R&D by Australian higher education institutions totalled 78,038 person years of effort (PYE) in 2014. This is an increase of 3,369 PYE (5%) from 74,669 PYE in 2012.
HIGHER EDUCATION HUMAN RESOURCES DEVOTED TO R&D, summary statistics: values and proportions 

 HUMAN RESOURCES DEVOTED TO R&D  PROPORTIONS OF HUMAN RESOURCES DEVOTED TO R&D 
     
  2012  2014  2012  2014 
  PYE  PYE  %  % 

Type of resources     
 Academic staff
Other staff
Postgraduate students  23 305
8 897
42 467  23 710
9 510
44 819  31.2
11.9
56.9  30.4
12.2
57.4 
Total human resource devoted to R&D(a)  74 669  78 038  100.0  100.0 

(a) Where figures have been rounded, discrepancies may occur between the sum of the component items and totals. 
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