4363.0.55.001 - Australian Health Survey: Users' Guide, 2011-13  
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Contents >> Nutrition >> Interpretation of Results >> Comparisons with Other Nutrition Surveys

COMPARISONS WITH OTHER NUTRITION SURVEYS

The National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS) is the first nutrition-specific ABS survey since 1995. However, nutrition results have been collected for selected age groups since 1995, including nationally for children in 2007, by the federal government and Australian Food and Grocery Council, and for Victoria only by the Victorian Department of Health. There is strong interest in how the results from the NNPAS compare with these studies. It is also informative to compare the Australian results with those of the New Zealand population, so analysis of this collection has been included below.

In 1995 the ABS and the then Commonwealth Department of Health and Family Services undertook a joint project to conduct the last National Nutrition Survey. The collection was undertaken in response to the need for food and nutrient data to assist in policy implementation and revisions of the RDIs. Approximately 14,000 people aged 2 and over participated in this collection which included a 24 hour dietary recall.

The 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was conducted by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and the University of South Australia, on behalf of the then federal government Departments of Health and Ageing and Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, and the Australian Food and Grocery Council. This survey collected information on 4,487 children aged 2-16 years of age. It was primarily designed to measure changes to children's eating and exercise habits1.

The 2009–10 Victorian Health Monitor (VHM) was conducted by the Victorian Department of Health. This was a cross-sectional, statewide survey of around 3,600 Victorians aged 18–75 years and was conducted to inform on nutrition policy and contribute to the evidence base for advice on healthy eating2.

The University of Otago conducted the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (NZANS) on behalf of the New Zealand Ministry of Health. This collection provides information about the nutritional health of adult New Zealanders3.

A summary of the surveys is shown below.

Summary of surveys

National Nutrition and Physical Activity SurveyVictorian Health Monitor(c)2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey(d)(e)2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey(a)(b)1995 National Nutrition Survey

Period of collectionMay 2011 to June 2012May 2009 to June 2010October 2008 to October 2009February to August 2007February 1995 to March 1996
ScopeAdults and children aged 2 years and over in 2805 collection districts.

Three stage area sample of private dwellings, maximum of 2 people per household, one adult and one child if applicable.

Excludes persons in Very Remote areas.
Adults aged 18–75 years in 50 randomly selected Collection Districts in metropolitan and rural areas of Victoria.

All participants who agreed to participate had already completed biomedical testing.
Persons aged 15 years and over, in private dwellings, in 607 New Zealand Census meshblocks.

Three stage, stratified, probability proportional to size sample with increased sampling of selected age and ethnic groups.

Excludes persons in areas (meshblocks) with very small populations.
Children aged between 2 and 16 years from randomly selected postcodes (stratified for State and Territory and Capital city/rest of state).

Random digit dialling of landline phone numbers, within the selected postcodes, followed by quota sampling of 1000 children (50% boys 50% girls) from each of the following age groups: 2-3 years, 4-8 years, 9-13 years, 14-16 years.

An additional supplement of 400 children from South Australia.

Excluded postcodes in Very Remote areas (according to Accessibility Remoteness Index of Australia), and where more than 50% of the children identified as Aboriginal and / or Torres Strait Islander.
Adults and children aged 2 years and over.

Three stage area sample of private dwellings, maximum of 2 in scope people per household in urban areas and 3 people in rural areas and Queensland.

Respondents to the 1995 National Health Survey were invited to participate in the National Nutrition Survey.

All persons aged 65 years and over were selected.

Includes some persons in what would now be known as Very Remote Areas.
Method of collectionFive pass method developed by United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service


Face to face 24-hour dietary recall

Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI)

Second 24 hour dietary recall from 64% of respondents at least eight days after first interview: Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI)
5 pass method using FoodWorks© Interview software



Face to face 24-hour dietary recall

Computer Assisted Telephone Interview

Second and third interviews at fortnightly intervals (with response rates of 94% and 92% of those who attended the biomedical examination respectively)
4 pass method using LINZ24© module from Abbey software package



Face to face 24-hour dietary recall

CAPI

25% of respondents (1180) completed a second face to face 24 hour recall
3 pass method




Face to face 24-hour dietary recall

CAPI

Second day seven to 21 days after first interview (CATI)
Three pass method developed by United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service

Face to face 24 hour dietary recall

Pen and paper interview

Second 24 hour dietary recall from 10% of respondents
Administered byTrained and experienced interviewers from ABS interviewer panel.Interviewers trained for this survey. Interviewers trained for this survey.Nutritionists, dietitians and health scientists trained as interviewers for this survey; (intakes checked by dietitians).
Nutritionists trained as interviewers for this survey.
OutputData available for day 1 and usual intakes. Day 1 data has been used in this article for comparison purposes.

Data was collected about supplements, however nutrients from supplements is excluded from data presented below.
Average of all days the person responded for.
Usual intake using PC-SIDE software package; however data shown in this article are not adjusted for intra-individual variation.

Data was collected about supplements, however nutrients from supplements is excluded from data presented below (unless they provide energy).
Data available for day 1 and usual intakes. Day 1 data has been used in this article for comparison purposes.

Data was collected about supplements, however nutrients from supplements is excluded from data presented below.
Data available for day 1 and usual intakes. Day 1 data has been used in this article for comparison purposes.

Data was collected about supplements, however nutrients from supplements is excluded from data presented below.

Food composition databaseAUSNUT 2011-13, Prepared for the NNPAS by Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ). 2007 Australian Food, Supplement and Nutrient Database (AUSNUT 2007) prepared by Food Standards Australia New Zealand.FOODfiles 2010 version 1, a subset of the New Zealand Food Composition Database developed by Plant and Food Research, was the main source of food composition data.
2007 Australian Food, Supplement and Nutrient Database (AUSNUT 2007), prepared for the Children's Survey by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. The 1995 National Nutrition Survey Nutrient Composition Database, prepared for the NNS by the then Australia New Zealand Food Authority (now Food Standards Australia New Zealand).
Response rate77%37.6%61%Unable to be determined61.4%
Sample sizeApprox 12,000 (2,548 aged 2-16 years and 1,257 Victorians aged 18-75 years)Approx 3,600 Approx 4,700Approx 4,400Approx 14,000

Note: A Collection District (CD) is the second smallest geographic area defined in the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), the smallest being the Mesh Block. The CD was designed for use in the Census of Population and Housing as the smallest unit for collection and processing.
(a) Information sourced from Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and the University of South Australia, 2008, User Guide: 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, Commonwealth of Australia. <http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/589EFDBF5E7B916FCA257BF000211E08/$File/user-guide-v2.pdf>, last accessed 24/04/2014.
(b) Information sourced from Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and the University of South Australia, 2008, 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, Main Findings, Commonwealth of Australia. <http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/phd-nutrition-childrens-survey>, last accessed 28/04/2014.
(c) Information sourced from Victorian Department of Health 2012, The Victorian Health Monitor Food and Nutrition report, State Government of Victoria, Melbourne.<http://www.health.vic.gov.au/healthstatus/survey/vhm.htm>, last accessed 17/04/2014.
(d) Information sourced from University of Otago and New Zealand Ministry of Health, 2011, Methodology Report for the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey, Ministry of Health, Wellington New Zealand. <http://www.health.govt.nz/publication/methodology-report-2008-09-nz-adult-nutrition-survey>, last accessed 24/04/2014.
(e) Information sourced from University of Otago and New Zealand Ministry of Health, 2011, A Focus on Nutrition: Key Findings of the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey, Ministry of Health, Wellington New Zealand. <http://www.health.govt.nz/publication/focus-nutrition-key-findings-2008-09-nz-adult-nutrition-survey>, last accessed 28/04/2014.

The summary above demonstrates that nutrition surveys can have a wide range of different methods and forms of presentation. Despite this, the proportion of energy from macro nutrients seems relatively consistent across the sources. The following tables contrast selected estimates from each collection.

Persons aged 18–75 years in Victoria: Comparison of mean contribution to energy intake of macronutrients NNPAS and VHM

National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011-12(a)
Victorian Health Monitor 2009-10(b)(c)


Mean (%)
95% CI
Mean (%)
95% CI
Protein
18.1
17.7 - 18.6
19.4
19.2 - 19.6
Total fat
30.9
30.3 - 31.5
31.7
31.3 - 32.1
Total Carbohydrates
44.3
43.5 - 45.1
43.4
42.9 - 43.9
Total Sugars
18.4
17.9 - 18.9
19.8
19.4 - 20.1
Total Starch
25.2
24.4 - 25.9
24.3
23.9 - 24.6
Alcohol(d)
3.7
3.1 - 4.2
3.5
3.2 - 3.8
kJ
kJ
Mean energy intake with dietary fibre
8806.1
8560.2 - 9052.0
9860.3
9663.6 - 10,056.9

(a) Calculations for contributions: protein * 17 / energy; total fat * 37 / energy; total carbohydrate CHO [(sugar * 16) + (starch * 17) + (sugar alcohol * 16) + other available CHO * 17)] / energy; sugars * 16 / energy; starch * 17 / energy; alcohol * 29 / energy. See User Guide <Link to Nutrient intake Chapter>
(b) Data sourced from Victorian Department of Health 2012, The Victorian Health Monitor Food and Nutrition report, State Government of Victoria, Melbourne. Estimates are age standardised to the 2006 population.
(c) Calculations for contributions: protein * 17 / energy; total fat * 37 / energy; carbohydrates * 16 / energy; sugar * 16 / energy; starch * 17 / energy; alcohol * 29 / energy.
(d) Represents pure alcohol (ethanol).


Persons aged 15 years and over in Australia and New Zealand: Comparison of mean contribution to energy intake of macronutrients NNPAS and NZANS


National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011-12(a)
2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey(b)(c)


Mean (%)
95% CI
Mean (%)
95% CI
Protein
18.3
18.2 - 18.5
16.5
16.3 - 16.7
Total fat
30.9
30.7 - 31.1
33.7
33.3 - 34.1
Saturated fat
11.6
11.5 - 11.7
13.1
12.9 - 13.3
Monounsaturated fat
11.8
11.7 - 11.9
12.4
12.2 - 12.6
Polyunsaturated fat
4.8
4.7 - 4.9
4.9
4.8 - 4.9
Carbohydrates
43.8
43.5 - 44.0
46.6
46.1 - 47.0
Alcohol(d)
4.1
3.9 - 4.3
3.8
3.4 - 4.2
kJ
kJ
Mean energy intake without dietary fibre(e)(f)
8517.0
8419.4 - 8614.6
9103
. .

. . not available
(a) Calculations for contributions: protein * 17 / energy; total fat * 37 / energy; saturated fat * 37 / energy; monounsaturated fat * 37 / energy; polyunsaturated fat * 37 / energy; total carbohydrate CHO [(sugar * 16) + (starch * 17) + (sugar alcohol * 16) + (other available CHO * 17)] / energy; alcohol * 29 / energy. See User Guide <Link to Nutrient intake Chapter>
(b) Data sourced from the University of Otago and New Zealand Ministry of Health, 2011, A Focus on Nutrition: Key findings of the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey, Ministry of Health, Wellington New Zealand.
(c) Calculations for contributions: protein * 16.7 / total energy intake; total fat * 37.7 / energy; saturated fat * 37.7 / energy; monounsaturated fat * 37.7 / energy; polyunsaturated fat * 37.7 / energy; carbohydrates * 16.7 / energy; alcohol * 29.3 / energy.
(d) Represents pure alcohol (ethanol).
(e) For New Zealand, energy intake is usual daily intake. Data were adjusted for intra-individual variation using PC-SIDE. All other data in the table are unadjusted nutrient intakes.
(f) 95% Confidence Intervals for New Zealand data were not available at the time of publishing.

Persons aged 2-16 years: Comparison of mean contribution to energy intake of macronutrients NNPAS and ANCNPAS

National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011-12(a)
2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey(b)(c)


Age group (years)
Age group (years)
2-3
4-8
9-13
14-16
2-3
4-8
9-13
14-16


Protein
16.6
15.5
16.1
16.4
16.6
16.2
16.4
17.0
Total fat
30.2
30.5
31.4
31.6
30.4
30.4
30.5
30.7
Saturated fat
13.4
13.0
13.1
12.9
14.2
13.7
13.6
13.4
Monounsaturated fat
10.5
10.9
11.6
11.8
10.2
10.6
10.7
11.0
Polyunsaturated fat
3.7
4.0
4.2
4.4
3.7
3.9
3.9
4.1
Total carbohydrate
50.2
51.2
49.9
49.5
49.0
49.4
49.1
48.3
Total sugars
24.5
23.5
22.6
21.6
25.9
24.3
23.7
22.9
Total starch
25.1
27.2
26.9
27.5
22.7
24.6
24.9
24.9
kJ
kJ
Mean energy intake with dietary fibre(d)
5951.2
7053.4
8603.5
9259.5
6167.0
7394.1
9101.4
10,253.5
95% CI for Mean energy intake with dietary fibre
5693.0 - 6209.3
6824.9 - 7281.9
8263.0 - 8944.0
8731.2 - 9787.8
. .
. .
. .
. .

. . not available
(a) Calculations for contributions: protein * 17 / energy; total fat * 37 / energy; saturated fat * 37 / energy; monounsaturated fat * 37 / energy; polyunsaturated fat * 37 / energy; total carbohydrate CHO [(sugars * 16) + (starch * 17) + (sugar alcohol * 16) + other available CHO * 17)] / energy; sugars * 16 / energy; starch * 17 / energy. See User Guide <Link to Nutrient intake Chapter>
(b) Data sourced from Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and the University of South Australia, 2008, 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey: Main Findings, Commonwealth of Australia, 2008.
(c) One-day nutrient intake from food and beverages only (no supplements), population weights applied. The sum of the three fatty acid subtotals is less than the total fat value due to the contribution of the non-fatty acid components in the triglyceride unit such as the glycerol backbone, possible phosphate groups and sterols. Calculations based on total energy that includes energy derived from fermentable fibre. Alcohol as a percentage of energy was zero for all age groups. For some foods, data for total carbohydrates includes a contribution from glycogen, sugar alcohols and oligosaccharides where the levels of these carbohydrates are known. For these foods, the sum of the total sugar and starch will not equal the total carbohydrate value.
(d) 95% Confidence Intervals not available for ANCNPAS data.

Persons aged 19 years and over: Comparison of mean contribution to energy intake of macronutrients NNPAS and NNS

National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011-12(a)
1995 National Nutrition Survey(b)


Mean (%)
95% CI
Mean (%)
95% CI
Protein
18.4
18.2 - 18.6
16.7
16.6 - 16.8
Total Fat
30.9
30.7 - 31.1
31.8
31.6 - 32.0
Saturated fat
11.5
11.4 - 11.6
12.5
12.4 - 12.6
Monounsaturated fat
11.8
11.7 - 11.9
11.6
11.5 - 11.7
Polyunsaturated fat
4.8
4.7 - 4.9
4.9
4.8 - 5.0
Total Carbohydrate
43.5
43.2 - 43.8
45.3
45.0 - 45.6
Total sugars
19.2
19.0 - 19.4
19.8
19.5 - 20.1
Total starch
23.4
23.1 - 23.7
25.3
25.1 - 25.5
Dietary fibre
2.2
2.2 - 2.2
2.1
2.1 - 2.1
Alcohol (c)
4.3
4.1 - 4.5
3.6
3.4 - 3.8
kJ
kJ
Mean energy intake with dietary fibre
8671.7
8569.2 - 8774.2
9422.5
9335.4 - 9509.6

(a) Calculations for contributions: protein * 17 / energy; total fat * 37 / energy; saturated fat * 37 / energy; monounsaturated fat * 37 / energy; polyunsaturated fat * 37 / energy; total carbohydrate CHO [(sugar * 16) + (starch * 17) + (sugar alcohol * 16) + other available CHO * 17)] / energy; sugar * 16 / energy; starch * 17 / energy; alcohol * 29 / energy. See User Guide <Link to Nutrient intake Chapter>
(b) Calculations for contributions: protein * 17 / energy; total fat * 37 / energy; saturated fat * 37 / energy; monounsaturated fat * 37 / energy; polyunsaturated fat * 37 / energy; total carbohydrate [(sugars * 16) + (starch * 17)] / energy; sugar * 16 / energy; starch * 17 / energy; alcohol * 29 / energy. See link to 1995 user guide.
(c) Represents pure alcohol (ethanol).


ENDNOTES

1 Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and the University of South Australia, 2008, 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey: Main Findings, Commonwealth of Australia, 2008, <http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/phd-nutrition-childrens-survey>, last accessed 17/04/2014. Back
2 Victorian Department of Health 2012, The Victorian Health Monitor Food and Nutrition report, State Government of Victoria, Melbourne. <http://www.health.vic.gov.au/healthstatus/survey/vhm.htm>, last accessed 17/04/2014. Back
3 University of Otago and New Zealand Ministry of Health, 2011, A Focus on Nutrition: Key findings of the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey, Ministry of Health, Wellington New Zealand, <http://www.health.govt.nz/publication/focus-nutrition-key-findings-2008-09-nz-adult-nutrition-survey>. Back

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