This chapter presents Census counts, as well as preliminary estimates of the resident Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous populations at 30 June 2006. To arrive at the estimated resident population (ERP) for the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population, the Census count (on a usual residence basis) is adjusted for instances in which Indigenous status is unknown, the Census net undercount and Australian residents who were temporarily overseas on Census night. ERP is an estimate of the resident population at 30 June, which is a different reference point from Census night, so ERP is backdated by adjusting for births and deaths between the reference periods.
For more detailed information on the Indigenous population distribution, including discussion of population measures and data quality, see Population Distribution, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2006 (cat. no. 4705.0).