4512.0 - Corrective Services, Australia, September quarter 2016 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 01/12/2016   
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SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

PERSONS IN CORRECTIVE SERVICES

The Corrective Services, Australia publication presents data for two different populations; persons in full-time custody and persons in community-based corrections. These populations cannot be compared directly, however they are presented together to provide an overview of persons in corrective services. For the community-based corrections population, offenders may be counted more than once if they have two or more different types of community-based corrections orders operating simultaneously.


Sep Qtr 16
Jun Qtr 16 to Sep Qtr 16

% change

Sep Qtr 15 to Sep Qtr 16

% change


Persons in full-time custody
39,005
0.8%
8.0%
Persons in community-based corrections
66,793
2.8%
11.3%


Number of persons in custody

In the September quarter 2016, the average daily number of full-time prisoners in Australia was 39,005. This was an increase of:
1% (320 prisoners) from the June quarter 2016; and
8% (2,883 prisoners) from the September quarter 2015. (Table 1)

Graph Image for PERSONS IN FULL-TIME CUSTODY(a), Sep 2011 to Sep 2016

Footnote(s): (a) Based on average daily number

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia



Nationally, the number of persons in custody has been increasing for eight quarters or two years. In the last five years, the number of persons in custody has increased 34% or 9,997 persons. (Historical data)

From June quarter 2016, there were increases in prisoner numbers across all states and territories except for South Australia and the Northern Territory which saw slight decreases of 1% (43 persons) and 4% (70 persons) respectively.

In the September quarter 2016, the largest contributors to the national prisoner population were:
New South Wales (33% or 12,736 persons );
Queensland (20% or 7,789 persons );
Victoria (17% or 6,627 persons ); and
Western Australia (16% or 6,314 persons). (Table 1)

Number of persons in community-based corrections

Community-based corrections orders are non-custodial orders served under the authority of adult corrective services agencies and include restricted movement, reparations (fine options and community service), supervision orders (parole, bail, sentenced probation) and post-sentence supervision orders.

The average daily number of persons serving community-based corrections orders increased to 66,793 persons in the September quarter 2016. This was an increase of:
3% (1,816 persons) from the June quarter 2016; and
11% (6,801 persons) from the September quarter 2015. (Table 1)

Graph Image for PERSONS IN COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS(a), Sep 2011 to Sep 2016

Footnote(s): (a) Based on average number on the first day of the month

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia



Nationally, persons in community corrections have been increasing for six quarters. Over this period, persons in community corrections increased 19% or 10,798 persons. There were legislation changes relating to sentencing that occurred in several states and territories that are likely to have contributed to the increase in CBC orders from 2014/2015.

From the June quarter 2016, there were small increases across all states and territories, except for Tasmania which decreased by 17 persons. The largest quarterly increases were recorded in the Australian Capital Territory (6%), Queensland (5%), Western Australia (4%) and South Australia (3%). (Table 1)

Three states accounted for over three-quarters of the national number of persons in community-based corrections:
Queensland (29% or 19,632 persons);
New South Wales (28% or 18,403 persons); and
Victoria (21% or 14,290 persons). (Table 1)

PERSONS IN CUSTODY

Sex

The average daily number of males and females in custody both increased from the September quarter 2015 (by 8% or 2,593 prisoners and 10% or 290 prisoners respectively). (Table 1)

The average daily imprisonment rate for the September quarter 2016 for males was 389 prisoners per 100,000 adult male population, which was approximately 12 times the rate for females (33 female prisoners per 100,000 adult female population). (Table 5)

Type of full-time custody

Secure custody refers to prisoners housed in medium or maximum security custodial facilities requiring them to be confined by a secure physical barrier.

During the September quarter 2016, the average daily number of prisoners in secure custody in Australia was 30,711 (79% of prisoners in full-time custody), an increase of 8% (2,368 prisoners) from the September quarter 2015. Of all states and territories:
Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory had the highest proportion of prisoners in secure custody, each with 98%; and
The Northern Territory had the lowest proportion of prisoners in secure custody (54% or 877 prisoners). (Table 6)

Open custody refers to prisoners housed in minimum security custodial facilities that do not require them to be confined by a secure parameter or physical barrier, irrespective of whether a physical barrier exists.

There were 8,294 prisoners in open custody in Australia in the September quarter 2016 (21% of prisoners in full-time custody), which represented a decrease (35 prisoners) from the June quarter 2016, but an increase of 7% (515 prisoners) over the year. (Table 6)

Legal status

Legal status refers to where a person may be either sentenced or unsentenced depending on the warrant(s) or court order(s) that provide the legal basis for the administration of the person through the criminal justice system.

In the September quarter 2016, the average number of full-time prisoners on the first day of the month was 38,998, of which:
68% (26,591) were sentenced; and
32% (12,332) were unsentenced. (Table 8)

Nationally, unsentenced prisoners increased slightly over the quarter (1%), but over the year, the increase was 23% (2,323 prisoners). This annual increase accounted for the majority (79%) of the overall annual increase in prisoners in Australia. (Table 8)

Unsentenced prisoners have increased every quarter from the December quarter 2014 and over the last five years, increased 81% or 5,532 prisoners. (Historical data)

Graph Image for UNSENTENCED PRISONERS(a), Sep 2011 to Sep 2016

Footnote(s): (a) Based on average number on the first day of the month

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia



Sentenced prisoner receptions

Sentenced prisoner receptions refer to:
persons entering into corrective services custody from the community, having received a sentence of imprisonment as an outcome of a court proceeding;
persons who are sentenced to custody while in custody on remand (i.e. changed legal status from an unsentenced to a sentenced prisoner); and
persons entering custody as a result of defaulting on the payment of a fine.

Sentenced prisoners in custody who receive a further sentence of imprisonment are not counted as sentenced receptions.

In the September quarter 2016, there were 10,395 sentenced prisoner receptions into full-time prison custody in Australia, representing an increase of 3% (311 prisoners) from the June quarter 2016 and an increase of 11% (1,066 prisoners) for the year. (Table 10)

Federal prisoners

Federal prisoners are persons charged and sentenced under a Commonwealth statute or transferred from another country to serve their sentence in Australia.

During the September quarter 2016, the average daily number of federal sentenced prisoners in Australia was 993, up by 9% (79 prisoners) from the September quarter 2015. (Table 11)

New South Wales continued to account for nearly half of all federal prisoners in Australia, representing 44% (438 prisoners). (Table 11)

Rates per 100,000 adult population

Nationally, the average daily imprisonment rate in the September quarter 2016 was 208 prisoners per 100,000 adult population, with the Northern Territory continuing to have the highest rate of all states and territories (896 prisoners per 100,000 adult population). Western Australia had the next highest rate, at 313 prisoners per 100,000 adult population.

Victoria and Tasmania had the lowest average daily imprisonment rates (both at 140 prisoners per 100,000 adult population). Only South Australia and Northern Territory recorded a decrease in their imprisonment rate from the June quarter 2016. (Table 3)

Graph Image for AVERAGE DAILY IMPRISONMENT RATE(a), By states and territories, Sep 2015 and Sep 2016

Footnote(s): (a) Rate is the number of prisoners per 100,000 adult population

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia



Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners

The average daily number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adult prisoners in Australia during the September 2016 quarter was 10,668. This was:
A decrease of 50 prisoners from the June quarter 2016, the first quarterly decrease since September 2015; and
An increase of 8% or 827 prisoners from the September quarter 2015. (Table 1)

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners represented 27% of the total full-time adult prisoner population, whilst accounting for approximately 2% of the total Australian population aged 18 years and over (based on Australian Demographic Statistics (cat. no. 3101.0) and Estimates and Projections, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2001 to 2026 (cat. no. 3238.0)). (Table 1)

In the September quarter 2016, three states continued to account for nearly three-quarters of the total Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoner population: New South Wales (29% or 3,081 prisoners), Queensland (23% or 2,444 prisoners) and Western Australia (22% or 2,399 prisoners). (Table 1)

Graph Image for AVERAGE DAILY ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER IMPRISONMENT RATE(a), Sep 2014 to Sep 2016

Footnote(s): (a) Rate is the number of prisoners per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia


The national average daily Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander imprisonment rate was 2,362 prisoners per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. The highest Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander imprisonment rates were recorded in:
Western Australia (3,990);
Northern Territory (2,827); and
South Australia (2,652). (Table 13)

Graph Image for ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER IMPRISONMENT RATE(a), By states and territories, Sep 2015, Jun 2016 and Sep 2016

Footnote(s): (a) Rate is the number of prisoners per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia



Between the June 2016 and September 2016 quarters, the largest increases in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander imprisonment rate were in Tasmania and Western Australia (increasing by 129, and 53 prisoners per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population, respectively). (Table 13)

Since the September 2015, the Northern Territory was the only state or territory to have a decrease in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander imprisonment rate, by 48 prisoners per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. (Table 13)

In the September quarter 2016, the number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners, based on first day of the month figures was 10,685 prisoners, of which:
69% (7,391 prisoners) were sentenced; and
31% (3,260 prisoners) were unsentenced. (Table 14)

Unsentenced Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners increased by 21% (576 prisoners) from the September quarter 2015, similar to the 23% national annual increase in the unsentenced population. (Table 8 and 14)

PERSONS IN COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS

All reported daily averages for number of persons serving community-based corrections orders are based on first day of the month figures. For more information, please refer to the Explanatory Notes, paragraphs 2 and 12.

Sex

In the September quarter 2016, the average daily number of persons serving community-based corrections orders was 66,793. Of these, 54,211 or 81% were male (a rate of 588 males per 100,000 adult male population) and 12,559 or 19% were female (a rate of 132 females per 100,000 adult female population). (Tables 1 and 17)

Type of orders

In the September quarter 2016, the three most prevalent order types in Australia were:
Sentenced probation (56% or 40,184 persons);
Parole (20% or 14,707 persons); and
Community service orders (15% or 10,957 persons). (Table 18)

From the June quarter 2016, there were increases across all order types except for bail orders and post-sentence supervision orders. The largest increase was in persons serving sentenced probation orders (up 3% or 1,035 persons), with this increase accounting for nearly half (48%) of the overall increase in the community-based corrections population. Sentenced probation orders increased 12% (4,386 persons) from the September quarter 2015. (Table 18)

The average daily number of persons on parole was 14,707, up 4% (583 persons) from the June quarter 2016 and 13% (1,640 persons) from the September quarter 2015. The largest increase in parole orders annually was recorded in New South Wales (up 18% or 830 persons), followed by Queensland (up 15% or 788 persons). (Table 18)

The average daily number of persons serving community service orders was 10,957, an increase of 3% (290 persons) for the quarter and 13% (1,303 persons) for the year. (Table 18)

Graph Image for PROPORTION OF PERSONS SERVING SELECTED COMMUNITY-BASED ORDERS(a), By states and territories, Sep 2015, Jun 2016 and Sep 2016

Footnote(s): (a) From the June quarter 2015, post-sentence supervision orders are excluded from sentenced probation orders (see Explantory Notes paragraph 38)

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia



Rates per 100,000 adult population

In the September quarter 2016, the daily average national rate of persons in community-based corrections was 357 persons per 100,000 adult population, representing a 2% increase from June 2016 and a 10% increase from September 2015. (Table 17)

Graph Image for COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS RATE(a), By states and territories, Sep 2015, Jun 2016 and Sep 2016

Footnote(s): (a) Rate is the number of persons serving community-based corrections orders, based on average number on the first day of the month, per 100,000 adult population.

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia



Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons in community-based corrections

The average daily number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons in community-based corrections for the September quarter 2016 was 13,214, representing 20% of the total community-based corrections population. (Table 19)

Nationally, there were increases of 473 persons (4%) from the June quarter 2016 and 1,434 persons (12%) from the September quarter 2015. (Table19)

Three-quarters of the total Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community-based corrections population were located in three states: Queensland (35% or 4,610 persons), New South Wales (30% or 4,005 persons) and Western Australia (11% or 1,397 persons). (Table 19)

Graph Image for ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER PERSONS IN COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS(a), Sep 2014 to Sep 2016

Footnote(s): (a) Based on average number on the first day of the month

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia



The increase since the March quarter 2015 in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons with a community-based corrections order is reflective of the overall national increase in persons serving orders over the same period.