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5368.0 - International Trade in Goods and Services, Australia, Feb 2000  
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Feature Article - Goods and Services by Region


This article was published in the February 2000 issue of International trade in goods and services (ABS Cat NO. 5368.0, p19-23)

Introduction
1 This article provides summary financial year data both for Australia's trade in goods and services with selected major trading partners, and for Australia's trade in services by State. Table A presents, for Australia's top 12 trading partners (determined by summing the absolute values of both credits and debits for 1998-99), the goods and services credits and debits, and the balances, for 1996-97 to 1998-99. Table B extends the analysis to over 40 countries or country groups, for
1998-99 only, breaking the trade up into goods and services. Table C presents, for the same countries and groups as in Table B, three broad services categories that are traded. Table D shows Australia's 1998-99 trade in services, classified by State, for 11 broad services categories and, for credits only, a split of travel into education related and other travel.

GOODS AND SERVICES BY COUNTRY

Interpretation of trade data by country
2 The quality of statistics of trade in goods and services by country are considered to be good, although there are occasional difficulties due to lack of information or the confidentiality of the actual trading partners involved. Therefore, about 2% of total exports and imports shown in Table B for 1998-99 remain unallocated. A comprehensive explanation of the data sources used and the methodology applied in the compilation of regional statistics, is provided in Chapter 17 of
Balance of Payments and International Investment Position, Australia - Concepts, Sources and Methods (5331.0) - a copy of this publication is located on the ABS website (www.abs.gov.au Select Statistics then select Statistical Concepts Library).

Analysis of Australian trade with selected partner countries
3 Table A shows that in 1998-99, Australia recorded a deficit of $14.4 billion in the balance on goods and services, a deterioration of $9.8 billion from a deficit of $4.7 billion in 1997-98. The selected countries shown in Table A contributed 72% of the total trade and accounted for 73% of the deterioration in the balance. The trading position deteriorated for eleven of the twelve countries shown.

4 The largest contribution to the deterioration in the deficit on goods and services was the fall in the surplus with Japan, down $2.5 billion to $4.6 billion in 1998-99. Goods exports to Japan fell by $1.0 billion while goods imports rose $0.9 billion. The deterioration in the trade position with Japan was almost completely offset by a $2.2 billion improvement in the trading position with the United Kingdom, from a deficit of $3.7 billion in 1997-98 to a deficit of $1.5 billion in 1998-99. The remaining ten countries (with exports of goods up $1.4 billion), shown in Table A all contributed to the deterioration, with Hong Kong, Malaysia and Indonesia contributing $1.2 billion, $1.0 billion and $0.9 billion, respectively. Exports to each of these countries were down and imports were up. There was a turnaround in the balance with Indonesia from a $0.1 billion
surplus in 1997-98 to a $0.8 billion deficit in 1998-99, the first deficit on record, with goods exports falling and goods imports rising.

5 Table B extends the trade analysis for 1998-99 into more countries and country groups. It shows that, with the exception of the small surpluses with Belgium-Luxembourg and the Russian Federation, Australia ran trade deficits with all of the identified European trading partners (including the residual category for Europe nes), with many of those individual deficits over $1 billion. The balance of trade with the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) recorded a turnaround of $3.4 billion, from a surplus of $1.0 billion to a deficit of $2.4 billion, the first deficit on record. This is a sharp deterioration from the $4.7 billion surplus in 1996-97.

6 Table C provides some further details of the balance of trade in services with selected trading partners in 1998-99. Deficits were recorded with most European partners (Sweden and Belgium-Luxembourg recorded minor surpluses). Surpluses were recorded for most Asian trading partners with Japan recording the largest at $1.6 billion. The largest trade in services deficit was recorded with the United States of America at $1.2 billion. Singapore recorded the second largest
deficit at $0.4 billion.

Further information
7 Further information and longer time series for both calendar and financial year by country data can be obtained by contacting Karen MacLennan on Canberra (02) 6252 6689, or fax (02) 6252 7219, or email her at karen.maclennan@abs.gov.au.

Abbreviations
APEC Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation
ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations
EU European Union
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development



TABLE A: AUSTRALIA'S TRADE IN GOODS AND SERVICES WITH SELECTED MAJOR TRADING PARTNERS

Balance on goods and services
Credits
Debits
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99

COUNTRY $M

China, People's Republic of
-668
-1 574
-2 202
4,005
4,367
4 554
-4 673
-5 941
-6 756
Germany
-3 367
-3 993
-4 805
1 729
1 973
2 165
-5 096
-5 966
-6 970
Hong Kong (SAR of China)
2 003
2 899
1 697
4 176
5 191
4 116
-2 173
-2 292
-2 419
Indonesia
1 774
129
-813
4 359
3 692
3 068
-2 585
-3 563
-3 881
Japan
7 301
7 092
4 622
19 178
21 172
19 978
-11 877
-14 080
-15 356
Korea, Republic of
5 261
2 843
2 751
8 113
7 044
6 813
-2 852
-4 201
-4 062
Malaysia
548
-234
-1 241
3081
2877
2498
-2 533
-3 111
-3 739
New Zealand
3 061
2 369
2 174
7 926
7 487
7 598
-4 865
-5 118
-5 424
Singapore
1 026
955
-115
4 691
4 832
4 541
-3 665
-3 877
-4 656
Taiwan
1 519
1 720
1 622
4 217
4 744
4 740
-2 698
-3 024
-3 118
United Kingdom
-4 532
-3 723
-1 483
4 546
5 517
7 336
-9 078
-9 240
-8 819
United States of America
-13 683
-13 361
-14 229
8 792
11 950
12 450
-22 475
-25 311
-26 679
Sub-total
243
-4 878
-12 022
74813
80846
79857
-74 570
-85 724
-91 879
All other countries
1327
217
-2 426
30347
32975
32138
-29 020
-32 758
-34 564
Total all Countries
1 570
-4 661
-14 448
105 160
113 821
111 995
-103 590
-118 482
-126 443




TABLE B: GOODS AND SERVICES BY SELECTED COUNTRIES AND COUNTRY GROUPS, 1998-99

CREDITS
DEBITS

Balance on goods & services
Total goods
& services
Goods
Services
Total goods
& services
Goods
Services

COUNTRY ($M)

Belgium and Luxembourg
461
1 198
1 091
107
-737
-666
-71
Brunei Darussalam
50
72
48
24
-22
-11
-11
Canada
-225
1 648
1 281
367
-1 873
-1 553
-320
Central America and Caribbean
-165
253
217
36
-418
-206
-212
Chile
130
217
213
4
-87
-68
-19
China, People's Republic of
-2 202
4 554
3 971
583
-6 756
-6 143
-613
Fiji
44
716
560
156
-672
-349
-323
France
-1 421
1 143
918
225
-2 564
-2 217
-347
Germany
-4 805
2 165
1 419
746
-6 970
-6 119
-851
Greece
-254
86
55
31
-340
-101
-239
Hong Kong (SAR of China)
1 697
4 116
3 088
1 028
-2 419
-1 233
-1 186
Indonesia
-813
3 068
2 210
858
-3 881
-3 294
-587
Ireland, Republic of
-851
301
175
126
-1 152
-1 002
-150
Italy
-1 557
1 874
1 578
296
-3 431
-2 933
-498
Japan
4 622
19 978
16 658
3 320
-15 356
-13 666
-1 690
Korea, Republic of
2 751
6 813
6 355
458
-4 062
-3 776
-286
Malaysia
-1 241
2 498
1 869
629
-3 739
-2 993
-746
Mexico
-57
331
315
16
-388
-366
-22
Netherlands
-351
1 090
819
271
-1 441
-923
-518
New Zealand
2 174
7 598
5 838
1 760
-5 424
-3 973
-1 451
Papua New Guinea
381
1 316
1 019
297
-935
-784
-151
Philippines
821
1 392
1 215
177
-571
-407
-164
Russian Federation
138
214
171
43
-76
-23
-53
Singapore
-115
4 541
3 229
1 312
-4 656
-2 962
-1 694
South Africa
433
1 167
947
220
-734
-541
-193
Sweden
-1 343
331
159
172
-1 674
-1 584
-90
Switzerland
-1 085
748
445
303
-1 833
-1 095
-738
Taiwan
1 622
4 740
4 226
514
-3 118
-2 996
-122
Thailand
-788
1 678
1 313
365
-2 466
-1 913
-553
United Kingdom
-1 483
7 336
4 497
2 839
-8 819
-5 579
-3 240
United States of America
-14 229
12 450
8 026
4 424
-26 679
-21 017
-5 662
Africa nes
1 420
1 771
1 671
100
-351
-159
-192
America nes
307
1 023
685
338
-716
-485
-231
Asia nes
3 545
8 020
6 906
1 114
-4 475
-3 564
-911
Europe nes
-1 592
2 401
1 650
751
-3 993
-2 934
-1 059
Oceania nes
499
892
668
224
-393
-179
-214
Unallocated
-966
2 256
182
2 074
-3 222
-613
-2 609
Total all countries
-14 448
111 995
85 687
26 308
-126 443
-98 427
-28 016

COUNTRY GROUPS

APEC
-3 096
79 336
63 200
16 136
-82 432
-67 155
-15 277
ASEAN
-2 407
14 210
10 722
3 488
-16 617
-12 567
-4 050
EU
-12 962
16 920
11 640
5 280
-29 882
-23 465
-6 417
OECD
-17 266
69 118
53 044
16 074
-86 384
-69 403
-16 981





TABLE C: SERVICES BY SELECTED COUNTRIES AND COUNTRY GROUPS, 1998-99 (a)

CREDITS
DEBITS

Balance on services
Total services
Trans-
portation
Travel
Other
Total services
Trans-
portation
Travel
Other

COUNTRY ($M)

Belgium/Luxembourg
36
107
59
27
21
-71
0
-16
-55
Brunei Darussalam
13
24
n.p.
24
n.p.
-11
n.p.
-11
n.p.
Canada
47
367
96
210
61
-320
-67
-178
-75
Central America and Caribbean
-176
36
17
4
15
-212
n.p.
-18
-194
Chile
-15
4
0
4
0
-19
0
-19
0
China, People's Republic of
-30
583
125
366
92
-613
-318
-195
-100
Fiji
-167
156
78
59
19
-323
-101
-146
-76
France
-122
225
n.p.
155
70
-347
-13
-218
-116
Germany
-105
746
179
444
123
-851
-474
-165
-212
Greece
-208
31
n.p.
26
5
-239
-62
-152
-25
Hong Kong (SAR of China)
-158
1028
303
523
202
-1 186
-500
-450
-236
Indonesia
271
858
146
560
152
-587
-207
-273
-107
Ireland, Republic of
-24
126
0
104
22
-150
-15
-122
-13
Italy
-202
296
97
157
42
-498
-135
-329
-34
Japan
1630
3320
1124
1900
296
-1 690
-957
-230
-503
Korea, Republic of
172
458
64
356
38
-286
-122
-42
-122
Malaysia
-117
629
120
419
90
-746
-444
-238
-64
Mexico
-6
16
0
4
12
-22
n.p.
-19
-3
Netherlands
-247
271
57
147
67
-518
-187
-77
-254
New Zealand
309
1760
422
941
397
-1 451
-546
-664
-241
Papua New Guinea
146
297
137
112
48
-151
-31
-100
-20
Philippines
13
177
48
79
50
-164
-14
-105
-45
Russian Federation
-10
43
14
26
3
-53
-17
-33
-3
Singapore
-382
1312
502
567
243
-1 694
-986
-289
-419
South Africa
27
220
57
131
32
-193
-59
-107
-27
Sweden
82
172
51
102
19
-90
-9
-33
-48
Switzerland
-435
303
130
136
37
-738
-515
-54
-169
Taiwan
392
514
73
416
25
-122
-29
-75
-18
Thailand
-188
365
105
221
39
-553
-154
-364
-35
United Kingdom
-401
2839
632
1333
874
-3 240
-766
-1 382
-1 092
United States of America
-1 238
4424
654
1166
2604
-5 662
-1 065
-1 317
-3 280
Africa nes
-92
100
12
48
40
-192
-58
-114
-20
America nes
107
338
256
57
25
-231
-81
-123
-27
Asia nes
203
1114
385
533
196
-911
-331
-296
-284
Europe nes
-308
751
193
381
177
-1 059
-493
-456
-110
Oceania nes
10
224
40
129
55
-214
-41
-154
-19
Unallocated
-534
2074
692
89
1293
-2 609
-570
-480
-1 559
Total all countries
-1 708
26308
6868
11956
7484
-28 016
-9 367
-9 044
-9 605

COUNTRY GROUPS

APEC
859
16136
3919
7868
4349
-15 277
-5 440
-4 569
-5 268
ASEAN
-562
3488
938
1953
597
-4 050
-1 850
-1 443
-757
EU
-1 137
5280
1232
2694
1354
-6 417
-1 847
-2 689
-1 881
OECD
-907
16074
3750
7510
4814
-16 981
-5 397
-5 305
-6 279

(a) for cells annotated 'n.p.' the data are included in the appropriate n.e.s. category.



INTERNATIONAL SERVICES BY STATE

Interpretation of trade data by state
8 Table D presents international services credits (by State of provision) and international services debits (by State of consumption for 1998-00, for 11 broad services commodities. Travel credits are also split into 'education related' and 'other' travel services. Confidentiality severely restricts the detail that can be provided for some States and Territories. Care should be exercised in interpreting the data. While the State allocation methods for transportation, travel and communication services are considered reasonable, especially for the analysis of movements in the services, the allocation for other business services is primarily based on the location of the business reporting the information as a proxy for State of origin/consumption of that service.

Further information
9 Further information and longer time series for both calendar and financial year data can also be obtained by contacting Karen MacLennan on Canberra (02) 6252 6689, or fax (02) 6252 7219, or email her at karen.maclennan@abs.gov.au.

TABLE D: AUSTRALIA'S INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN SERVICES BY STATE, 1998-99

NSW
Vic.
Qld.
SA
WA
Tas.
NT
ACT
Unallocated
Australia

CREDITS ($M)

Transportation
2 645
2 232
1 239
104
574
8
66
0
0
6 868
Travel
4 825
2 096
3 140
307
1 227
88
123
122
28
11 956
Education-related
1 101
737
458
114
378
44
8
64
2
2 906
Other
3 724
1 359
2 682
193
849
44
115
58
26
9 050
Communication (a)
490
269
186
133
99
24
10
19
0
1 230
Construction services(b)
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
Financial services
402
307
3
0
1
0
0
0
3
716
Insurance services
546
286
0
0
0
0
0
0
27
859
Computer & information services
533
77
n.p.
n.p.
8
0
0
0
n.p.
676
Royalties & copyrights
356
83
n.p.
8
12
0
0
n.p.
n.p.
488
Other business services(b)
1 489
624
175
49
164
0
n.p.
13
n.p.
2 570
Personal, cultural services
202
106
n.p.
n.p.
7
2
n.p.
n.p.
0
386
Government services n.i.e.
37
13
2
26
13
0
89
341
38
559
Confidential items (c)
0
0
95
32
0
0
1
24
60
..
Total
11 525
6 093
4 840
659
2 105
122
289
519
156
26 308

DEBITS ($M)

Transportation
-3 907
-2 567
-1 457
-305
-966
-37
-128
0
0
-9 367
Travel
-3 617
-2 223
-1 306
-421
-1 089
-87
-90
-180
-31
-9 044
Communication (a)
-477
-432
-251
-106
-128
-32
-25
-14
0
-1 465
Construction services
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Financial services
-304
-164
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-468
Insurance services
-885
-37
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-922
Computer & information services
-199
-66
-3
n.p.
-2
0
0
n.p.
n.p.
-426
Royalties & copyrights
-1 118
-456
-18
n.p.
-17
0
0
-1
n.p.
-1 693
Other business services
-1 115
-1 296
-129
-70
-398
-5
-2
n.p.
n.p.
-3 243
Personal cultural services
-579
-148
-6
n.p.
-2
0
0
n.p.
0
-755
Government services n.i.e.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-499
-134
-633
Confidential items (c)
0
0
0
-73
0
0
0
-30
-385
..
Total
-12 201
-7 389
-3 170
-975
-2 602
-161
-245
-723
-550
-28 016

(a) Communication services includes other services n.i.e.

(c) For cells annotated 'n.p.' the data are included in Confidential items.
(b) Construction services credits are included with other business services credits



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