Part-Time Workers, Tasmania

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    Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)

    This once-only survey was conducted to obtain information on the nature and conditions of part-time employment in Tasmania. Data was collected for the usually resident civilian population aged 15 and over. (Special dwellings and visitors to private dwellings were excluded.)

    It was conducted as a supplementary to the October 1990 Monthly Labour Force Survey.

    The information collected included:

    • type of part-time employment (e.g. temporary, casual, permanent, regular or seasonal);
    • working conditions associated with part-time work (e.g. superannuation, leave entitlements, training);
    • reasons for working part-time; and
    • dynamics of part-time employment (e.g. length of current part-time job, number of part-time jobs in the last year, working patterns).

    Results were released in December 1991 in the form of a publication (Part-time Workers, Tasmania, October 1990, ABS Cat No. 6247.6) and in additional user tables. In some cases, additional unpublished cross-classifications of data items may be available.

    There are two aspects of the growing trend toward part-time employment that are of particular interest to the State Government.
    • the nature and conditions of part-time employment; and
    • factors behind the growth in part-time employment.

    The survey aims to supplement the paucity of information that is available on these.

    Nature and conditions of part-time employment

    Results from the survey could assist the State Government in developing policies and programs that are relevant to the needs of part-time workers (e.g. policies on flexible working arrangements for workers with family responsibilities, younger workers combining employment with education and training, and older workers who wish to gradually phase out of full-time work before retirement.)

    Similar surveys have been conducted in South Australia and Victoria and have proved useful for this purpose. The surveys have also assisted women's advisory bodies in those States.

    Factors behind the growth in part-time employment

    Despite the fact that part-time employment has been the main source of job growth in Tasmania, limited information is available on factors behind this growth. The State Government wanted data on the reasons for the growth in part-time employment.

    Data on the dynamics of the part-time labour market could also assist the State Government in understanding downturns and growth swings in the total labour market.

    A greater understanding of changing work patterns could enable the State Government to implement policies to meet these changes. There are a number of policy implications in areas such as labour market program development, labour market equity, training, career paths and superannuation.

    The proposal also emphasised the usefulness of this data for not only the Tasmanian Department of Employment, Industrial Relations and Training but also for other users of labour market data, such as the Tasmanian Development Authority; Treasury; the Commonwealth Department of Employment, Education and Training; and the University of Tasmania. It was also supported by the Tasmanian Women's Employment and Training Taskforce.

    Labour Force Survey
    For the regular monthly labour force survey, those in scope are all persons aged 15 and over except:
    • members of the permanent defence forces;
    • certain diplomatic personnel of overseas governments, customarily excluded from census and estimated populations;
    • overseas residents in Australia; and
    • members of non-Australian defence forces (and their dependants) stationed in Australia.

    Nature and Conditions of Part-time Employment Survey
    All persons aged 15 years and over who were:
    • in scope of the monthly labour force survey;
    • engaged in part-time or non-permanent full-time work at the time of the survey, or in the 12 months up to the survey; and
    • do not employ others.

    Self-employed people who don't employ others were included in the survey, unless they were in a registered business. A registered business means a business with a 'business name' lodged at the Tasmanian Corporate Affairs Office.
    In the Labour Force Survey, coverage rules are applied which aim to ensure that each person is associated with only one dwelling, and hence has only one chance of selection. The chance of a person being enumerated at two separate dwellings in the one survey is considered to be negligible.
    Persons who are away from their usual residence for six weeks or less at the time of interview are enumerated at their usual residence (relevant information may be obtained from other usual residents present at the time of the survey)

    Further information
    For information about the effect of the coverage rules on family statistics, See Labour Force, Australia, (ABS Cat No. 6203.0) Explanatory Notes as at Feb 1995: para 43


    Conceptual framework
    As the data were collected as supplementary to the Monthly Labour Force Survey, some data can be cross-classified with data from that Labour Force Survey. For example:

    • Age
    • Sex

    Main outputs
    Part-time workers: nature of part-time work by sex
    Part-time workers: age by sex
    Part-time workers: proportion by occupation
    Part-time workers: number by industry
    Part-time workers: hours worked by sex
    Part-time workers: conditions of work by sex

    Other data collected included:

    pay periodicity
    reasons for part-time work
    what the person did before part-time work

    Data breakdowns: data was disaggregated at the Tasmanian level.

    A. Classifications from the Monthly Labour Force Survey (LFS)

    • Employment status
    • Full-time/part-time status
    • Personal characteristics: age, sex
    • Geography: Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC)

    B. Other classifications
    • Industry: Australian Standard Industrial Classification (ASIC)
    • Occupation: Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO)

    C. Classifications for the Nature and Conditions of Part-time Employment Survey
    Part-time work: 1 hour to 35 hours per week

    Further categories of part-time and non-permanent full-time work were defined as follows for this survey:

    Temporary full time:
    Usually works 35 hours per week or more whether at work or at home, has no job security, has not worked full time for a period of 12 months, has paid holiday leave.
    Casual full time:
    Usually works 35 hours per week or more whether at work or at home, has no job security, has not worked full time for a period of 12 months, does not have paid holiday leave.
    Permanent part time:
    Usually works less than 35 hours per week whether at work or at home, has job security, has paid holiday leave.
    Temporary part time:
    Usually works less than 35 hours per week whether at work or at home, has no job security, has paid holiday leave.
    Regular casual:
    Usually works less than 35 hours per week whether at work or at home, does not have paid holiday leave, paid for hours worked, steady income
    Irregular casual:
    Usually works less than 35 hours per week whether at work or at home, does not have paid holiday leave, paid for hours worked, not a steady income.
    Other part time:
    Usually works less than 35 hours a week whether at work or at home, does not have paid holiday leave, is not paid per hour.

    Main reason for leaving previous job
    • No longer required by employer: e.g. seasonal work where the job was only available for a specified period.
    • Retrenched: the termination of an otherwise long-term job whether it be through lack of work or other reasons.
    • Illness
    • Retired
    • Family reasons; includes pregnancy.
    • Other

    Other concepts (summary)
    Permanent job
    One in which there are no limitations or reservations expressed as to the length of the period of employment, other than the required performance of the employee (i.e. permanency as opposed to limited tenure or tenure for an unspecified but limited period of time).

    A judicial decision of the Conciliation and Arbitration Commission or the State Industrial Commission, setting out the terms and conditions of employment and the rate of pay for a particular occupation, industry or union membership. Variations to an award can be attained by a registered agreement or by the Arbitral process, in which case they are called determinations.

    Award rates
    The minimum weekly amounts provided in awards, determinations, and registered agreements under Commonwealth and State jurisdiction.

    Casual loading
    An upward adjustment, usually 15%, of the award rate of pay to compensate the employee for the lack of paid leave, and possibly other conditions (e.g. not paid on public holidays).

    Superannuation or retirement benefit scheme
    Any fund, association, scheme or organisation set up for the purpose of providing financial cover for members when they retire. They may infrequently be referred to as a provident or pension scheme. Social Security Pensions are not included in the above definition.

    Main job
    Questions related to the main job in terms of total hours during the previous 12 months. If respondents had several successive jobs each with the same number of hours, the most recent was identified as the 'main' job.

    Conditions of work
    Paid sick leave: provision of paid sick leave, whether or not the person has actually taken any sick leave; on full pay or not, as long as all pay is not lost if a day is taken off sick.

    Paid holiday leave
    Provision of paid holiday leave, whether or not the person has actually taken any holiday leave; on full pay or not, as long as some pay is received.
    Long service leave
    Eligibility for long service leave.
    Workers' compensation
    All employed people, under law, should be covered by Worker's Compensation insurance. However, some employers have avoided this obligation by employing people as subcontractors. Some (technically) self-employed people may consider themselves to be employed by someone else.

    Study leave

    Refers to paid penalty rates if they worked overtime, not unpaid overtime or single pay for extra time.
    Bonus payments
    These include:
    • lump sums and Christmas bonuses. Includes any over award payments.
    • Superannuation
    • on-the-job training
    • off-the-job training
    Award coverage: Paid leave loading
    Career opportunities
    Average number of hours worked each week
    If this tended to vary, refers to an average over a 4-week period.

    Statistical Division

    Comments and/or Other Regions
    not applicable

    Once Only

    Frequency comments
    not applicable

    Not applicable. This is a once-only survey.


    Data availability comments
    not applicable

    03/05/2002 11:11 AM