RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (R&D) GUIDELINES
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) surveys of R&D are conducted in accordance with standard guidelines promulgated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). These guidelines state that the expenditure on R&D should include both direct expenditure and an estimate for indirect (overhead) expenditure in support of R&D.
For the ABS R&D survey of the Higher education sector, only universities are surveyed. Other institutions (e.g. Technical and Further Education colleges) are excluded because it is considered that their contribution to total R&D activity would be minimal.
For further information about these and related statistics, contact the National Information and Referral Service on 1300 135 070 or Derek Byars on Canberra (02) 6252 5627.
EXPENDITURE ON R&D
Higher education expenditure on R&D (HERD) in Australia in 2002 was estimated to be $3,430m at current prices. This represented an increase of 22.9% over 2000.
In volume terms, with the effect of changes in prices and wages and salaries removed, R&D expenditure increased by 14.0% compared with 2000.
HERD has steadily increased since 1994 with an average annual rate of growth over this period of 8.2% in current price terms and 4.9% in chain volume measures.
HERD as a percentage of Gross Domestic product (GDP) in current prices has increased from 0.42% in 2000 to 0.45% in 2002.
Expenditure on R&D
HUMAN RESOURCES DEVOTED TO R&D
Human resources devoted to R&D in Australia in 2002 by higher education organisations was estimated to be 49,612 person years. This represented an increase of 7.2% over 2000 and an average annual rate of growth of 2.7% since 1994.
RESOURCES DEVOTED TO R&D
|At current prices ($m)|
|Chain volume measures ($m)|
|Human resources (person years)|
|na not available|
|(a) The reference year for chain volume measures is 2002. See paragraph 15 of the Explanatory Notes for details.|
PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
Most R&D expenditure by higher education organisations was directed towards Society ($1,474m or 43.0%) and Economic Development ($992m or 28.9%).
Medical and health sciences ($864m or 25.2%), Biological sciences ($410m or 12.0%), Engineering and technology ($375m or 10.9%) and Agricultural, veterinary and environmental sciences ($235m or 6.9%) were major fields of research by higher education organisations.