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Australian System of National Accounts, 2011-12 (ABS. cat. no. 5204.0).
The South East Queensland NRM region dominates land value at $412 billion (76%), while the Desert Channels NRM region covers the largest proportion of area in Queensland with 51 million hectares (29%). Figure 3 presents the total rateable value of land for each NRM.
Figure 3: Total value of land by NRM region
Residential land use
Land classified as residential by the State of Queensland represents $464 billion or 86% of Queensland's total rateable value but only accounts for 1% of the state's total area. The South East Queensland NRM region contributes the majority of this value with $365 billion or 79% of the state total (Figure 4). In this NRM region, 514,000 hectares (6%) of land area was classified as residential land use (Figure 5). South East Queensland contains the majority of the Greater Brisbane Greater Capital City Statistical Area (GCCSA). According to the 2011 Census of Population and Housing the Greater Brisbane GCCSA contains 48% of Queensland’s total population. This highlights the strong relationship between land value and population.
Figure 4: Value of Residential land use by NRM region
Figure 5: Area of Residential land use by NRM region
Primary Production land use
Over half of the land area in Queensland has a land use classification of primary production (61%) valued at $23 billion (4%). However, Queensland also contains around 52 million hectares of land unallocated to a land use. It is likely a large proportion of this unallocated area is used for primary production. Agricultural Commodities, Australia, 2010-11 (ABS. cat. no. 7121.0) reported that approximately 81% of Queensland land use was for agricultural activity.
Tables 1 and 2 (available in the Downloads Tab) highlight the strong relationship between rateable value of primary production and proximity to large urban centres with markets and infrastructure. Primary production land use in the South East Queensland NRM region covers 1 million hectares and has a rateable value of $5 billion or 20% of the total rateable value for this land use in Queensland. Desert Channels contains the largest area of primary production land use in Queensland with 31 million hectares (29%). This land has a total rateable value of $1 billion. More information about the Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced (VACP) in regional areas is available from Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia, 2010-11 (ABS cat. no. 7503.0).
Primary production in Queensland occurs on a wide variety of land covers. Trees and tussock grasses are the dominant covers for this land use at 45% and 30% of area respectively. By value trees represent 37% of the total value of primary production and tussock grasses 25%. Land cover classified as rainfed pasture accounts for only 2% of the area of primary production land use but it's value is 20% of the State total at $5 billion. Similarly, irrigated land covers account for only 1% of the area of primary production land use but their value is 8% of the State total. Water Use on Australian Farms, 2011-12 (ABS. Cat. No. 4618.0) shows that Queensland was the second largest user of water for irrigation in Australia with 1,884 gigalitres in 2011-12.
Livestock grazing covers the largest land area with 102 million hectares and has the highest rateable value ($15 billion) of all primary production land uses in Queensland. Desert Channels NRM Region contains the largest area of livestock grazing with 31 million hectares (or 30% of the State total). The rateable value for this area is $1 billion. The total rateable value of land used for livestock grazing on irrigated pasture and rainfed pasture land covers in Queensland is around $163 million and $3 billion, respectively. South East Queensland NRM region is the largest in this category with total values of $79 million and $2 billion, 48% and 50% of the state total. The Burnett Mary NRM has a similarly high value of livestock grazing with $58 million on irrigated pasture and $649 million on rainfed pasture. Burnett Mary covers 6 million hectares, of which 4 million hectares are used for livestock grazing.
Extractive industries land use
Land classified an extractive industries in the State of Queensland represents $467 million (or 0.09%) of rateable value and covers 657,000 hectares (or 0.4%) of land area. Broadly, extractive industries includes uses such as quarries, mines, tailing dumps, well/bores, salt pans and dredging operations. Despite the small proportion of rateable land value and land area, Mining Operations, Australia, 2011-12 (ABS. cat. No. 8415.0) shows that over 40,000 people are employed in the mining industry (Coal mining, Oil and gas extraction, Metal ore mining and Non-metallic mineral mining and quarrying from Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) (cat. no. 1292.0)) in Queensland (or 27% of the national total).
Land use refers to the activity occurring at or below the earth surface, while cover is the physical material at the surface of the earth. Table 2.16 shows that only 5% of land with an extractive industries use occurred under an extraction sites land cover. In comparison, 70% was found to occur on trees closed, trees open, trees spare and trees scattered covers. This highlights that a significant proportion of extractive industries uses are covered by forested areas.
Statistical Area 1 Data
A Statistical Area Level 1 (SA1) is a small statistical area used as the basis for the output of the Census of Population and Housing. Their area can range from a small city block to sparse agricultural or remote communities, usually with populations of 200 to 800 people. (See Figure 7)
Brisbane, the Gold Coast and the Sunshine Coast had the largest rateable values of land per hectare in Queensland. The SA1 in Queensland with the largest rateable value of land per hectare was in Brisbane City, adjacent to the Brisbane River, valued at $68 million ($6,800 per square metre). Overall, land with the largest site value per hectare was located in the Brisbane Central Business District as well as along the Brisbane River and the City’s coastline (see Map 4 in the Downloads Tab).
Map 5 (available in the Downloads Tab) illustrates rateable land value per hectare by SA1 on the Gold Coast and the Sunshine Coast. The SA1 on the Gold Coast with the largest rateable value of land per hectare was at Surfers Paradise, valuing $27 million ($2,700 per square metre). On the Sunshine Coast, an SA1 at Noosa Heads had the largest rateable value of land per hectare, valued at $13 million ($1,300 per square metre). In both of these urban areas, there is a clear trend of rateable land value per hectare increasing towards the coast.
Land development and population growth
The Estimated Resident Population (ERP) for Queensland increased by 9% between 2006 and 2011 to over 4 million people. Supporting this population growth were 166,000 new cadastral parcels created in Queensland between 2006 and 2011. More than three quarters (127,000) of these new parcels were less than 750 square metres (0.075 hectares) in area. Cadastral parcels of this size are predominantly associated with residential land use.
The SA1 in Queensland with the greatest increase in the number of small (0-750 square metres) residential sized land parcels from 2006 to 2011 was at North Lakes - Mango Hill in Brisbane's north, where 880 parcels were added. In line with this growth, nearly all of this SA1 was populated over these 5 years, totalling 2,100 people in 2011. Overall, the greatest increases in small residential sized land parcels and ERP between 2006 and 2011 were in SA1s at Cashmere, Murrumba Downs - Griffin and North Lakes - Mango Hill in Brisbane's north; Pallara - Willawong and Bethania - Waterford in Brisbane's south; Springfield Lakes and Redbank Plains in Ipswich; Coomera and Pimpama on the Gold Coast; and Mountain Creek on Queensland's Sunshine Coast (see Figure 8 below and Map 6 in the Downloads Tab).
Springfield Lakes in Ipswich added 600 small (0-0.075 ha) cadastral parcels from 2006 to 2011. This SA1 was also entirely populated over these 5 years, reaching 1,400 people, and held one of the highest populations in an SA1 in Queensland in 2011.
Cadastral parcels sized between 0.4 and 10 hectares often include land used for residential purposes. This form of residential settlement is described with various names including "peri-urban", "rural residential" and "hobby farming" and is a growing phenomenon in many parts of Australia. Several regions in Queensland were identified with large increases in cadastral parcels of this size with residential land use (see Figure 9 below and Map 7 in the Downloads Tab) between 2002 to 2011.
The largest increase from 2002 to 2011 in a single SA1 occurred at Greenbank, to Brisbane's south, with 289 additional parcels. In line with this land development, 93 percent of this SA1's 2011 population settled between 2002 and 2011. Other areas with significant development between 2002 and 2011 include Samford Valley, Karana Downs and Karalee - Barellan Point to Brisbane's north, and Jimboomba, Beaudesert, Tamborine - Canungra and Oxenford - Maudsland to Brisbane's south.
Some large increases were also identified in Northern Queensland. Three SA1s around Townsville - at Bohle Plains, Mount Louisa and Townsville - South - experienced a combined increase of 427 cadastral parcels over this time. South of Cairns, at Malanda - Yungaburra and Gordonvale - Trinity, 313 new land parcels were added to two SA1s from 2002 to 2011. At Gordonvale - Trinity, the population of one SA1 more than doubled over these 9 years to 2011.
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