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NOM AND THE STATES AND TERRITORIES
Much of the migration of travellers across Australia's border occurred within the more populated states as seen in figure 3.7. New South Wales had the largest number of NOM arrivals (154,700 persons) and the largest number of NOM departures (88,600 persons). Conversely, Tasmania had the smallest flows with both the smallest number of arrivals (4,100 persons) and the smallest number of departures (2,300 persons).
The combined flows of overseas migration (arrivals and departures) show there were 710,500 people crossing Australia's border who impacted on NOM in 2009-10. Of these, there were 463,000 arrivals contributing to NOM (NOM arrivals) and 247,500 departures contributing to NOM (NOM departures).
However, the effect of these flows varies for each state and territory. In order to assess this effect, it is useful to consider the size of each flow as a proportion of a state or territory's population (figure 3.8).
Western Australia experienced the greatest effect proportionally from NOM arrivals in 2009-10, with a 2.6% increase to its population, while the Northern Territory showed a 1.7% loss from NOM departures, the largest loss of all the states and territories. In contrast, the effect NOM arrivals and NOM departures had on Tasmania's population was small at 0.8% and 0.5% respectively.
In 2009-10, the population turnover due to overseas migration (gross overseas flows in relation to size of the population) was the highest in the Northern Territory at 4.1% (i.e. NOM arrivals and NOM departures combined). This was followed by Western Australia (3.9%), and the Australian Capital Territory (3.8%). Of the remaining states and territories, New South Wales's population turnover from overseas migration was 3.4%, Queensland's and Victoria's population turnover was 3.1% each and South Australia 2.3%. Tasmania had the lowest population turnover due to NOM in 2009-10 at 1.3%.
NOM rates (quarterly)
Net overseas migration has a notable impact on the population of Australia's states and territories. The net overseas migration rate (NOM per 1,000 population) shows how the impact varies between the states and territories and over time.
Using data based on the improved methodology for NOM with the time series starting from December quarter 2003 (i.e. all quarterly NOM data currently available using the 12/16 month rule), the quarterly NOM rates for each state and territory are presented in figures 3.9 to 3.11.
The three graphs (figures 3.9 to 3.11), clearly show the seasonality of overseas migration with the March quarter providing the highest rates each year for the majority of the states and territories.
Figure 3.10 shows that the quarterly NOM rates for Western Australia displayed strong seasonality for the period between December quarter 2003 to June quarter 2010. During this time period almost all states and territories recorded their highest NOM rate in March 2008 or March 2009. The exceptions were Western Australia which recorded its peak at 6.3 per 1,000 population in the September quarter 2008 (figure 3.10) and the Northern Territory which recorded its peak at 3.7 per 1,000 population in June 2009. The peak national NOM rate was recorded in March quarter 2008 at 4.4 per 1,000 population. Compared to March quarter 2009, NOM rates in March quarter 2010 for all states and territories and Australia were lower. The largest decline was recorded in Western Australia with a difference of -2.5 per 1,000 population.
For Western Australia, the NOM rates over time were higher than the total Australian rate, whereas rates in New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland were fairly consistent with that of Australia (figure 3.9). The remaining states and territories were below the national rate, with Tasmania and the Northern Territory (figure 3.11) not displaying as strong seasonality as that shown by the other states and territories.
1 DIAC 2010, Population Flows: Immigration aspects 2008–09 edition, Ch 3. <back
2 DIAC 2005, Population Flows: Immigration aspects 2003–04 edition, Ch 5 p 62. <back
3 DIAC 2009, Population Flows: Immigration aspects 2007–08 edition, Ch 3 p 55. <back
4 DIAC 2010, Population Flows: Immigration aspects 2008–09 edition, Ch 2 p 45. <back
5 DIAC 2009, Population Flows: Immigration aspects 2007–08 edition, Ch 3 p 59. <back
6 DIAC 2009, Population Flows: Immigration aspects 2007–08 edition, Ch 3 p 53. <back
7 DIAC 2009, Population Flows: Immigration aspects 2007–08 edition, Ch 2 p 24. <back
8 DIAC 2010, Population Flows: Immigration aspects 2008–09 edition, Ch 4 p 80. <back