|Page tools: Print Page|
INCOME SUPPORT AND OTHER COMMUNITY SUPPORT PROGRAMS
7.9 INCOME SUPPORT PROGRAMS - 2005
Note: Pensions, allowances and Family Tax Benefits can include rent assistance. Details of rent assistance are included in the Housing chapter.
The Australian income support system provides financial assistance to a variety of groups, including families, jobseekers, the aged, people with a disability, carers, mature age people, students and Indigenous Australians. Assistance is also provided for a range of goods and services through pensioner concession and health cards. Over four million people, or one in five individuals, are direct beneficiaries of income support and supplementary payments at any one time.
The main income support payments provided by Australian Government departments for the financial years 2001-02 to 2004-05 are listed in table 7.10 (all tables in this chapter are based on current dollars). Details of the main payments effective during the 2004-05 financial year, together with associated statistics, are provided in this chapter.
Most allowance types are adjusted once or twice a year in line with movements in the Consumer Price Index (CPI) to maintain purchasing power. Pension payments are adjusted in line with the CPI and male total average weekly earnings, ensuring the maximum single pension rate does not fall below 25% of male total average weekly earnings. Many income support payments are subject to income, assets and activity tests, to ensure benefits are targeted to those in greatest need. Details of the rates in effect at 30 June 2005 are listed in table 7.11.
Since September 1997 Centrelink has delivered most income support payments on behalf of Australian Government departments. Centrelink is a statutory agency established to deliver a range of Australian Government services to the Australian community. It operates under the Services Delivery Agency Act 1997 (Cwlth). Centrelink provides advice about payment entitlements, provides referrals to Centrelink specialist staff for additional assistance, and may refer customers to other departments, agencies or community organisations where appropriate.
The Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA) delivers various income support payments and pensions to eligible veterans and their families.
Numbers of income support customers referred to in this section generally relate to June of the reference year. These numbers are taken from extracts of administrative data as close to 30 June as possible. The dates of extracts, however, can vary between payment types. All financial data refer to the full financial year.
Family assistance policies are formulated to provide income support to families to assist with the costs of raising children, including newborns, in a way that recognises the needs and choices of both single and dual income families.
Family Tax Benefit Part A (FTB Part A) helps families with the cost of raising dependent children. It is paid to families with dependent children up to 21 years, and young people between 21 and 24 years who are studying full time (and not receiving Youth Allowance or a similar payment).
Family Tax Benefit Part B (FTB Part B) provides extra assistance for families with only one main income earner, particularly those with children under 5 years. It is paid to families for children up to the age of 16 years and children aged between 16 and 18 years who are studying full time. Payment to a family is based on the age of the youngest child, and is assessed on the income of the family’s second income earner.
FTB Part A and Part B payments are administered by the Family Assistance Office and are available as a direct payment from Centrelink, either fortnightly or as a lump sum, or via tax instalment deductions or an end of year lump sum payment through the Australian Taxation Office (ATO). Some FTB recipients can receive fortnightly payments for part of the tax year with the balance as a lump sum at the end of the tax year. At the end of June 2005, 1.8 million families with 3.5 million children received FTB A, and 1.4 million families with 2.3 million children received FTB part B via Centrelink fortnightly payments.
The 'More Help for Families' package introduced in the 2004-05 Budget included a universal Maternity Payment, which recognises the extra costs associated with the birth or adoption of a child. All families with a child born or adopted from 1 July 2004 are eligible for the payment. Other measures in the package included a one-off $600 per child bonus payment to over 2 million families and an ongoing increase of $600 per child in the base and maximum rates of FTB Part A, payable as a lump sum supplement.
The Double Orphan Pension is not means tested and is a payment for children who have at least one deceased parent and who cannot have contact with the other parent (e.g. because that parent is a long-term prisoner or their whereabouts is unknown).
Table 7.12 shows the number of recipients and expenditure for Family Assistance.
Child care support
Child care support policies have been developed to help families to participate in the economic and social life of the community through providing support for child care.
Child care services include centre-based long-day care, family day care, in-home care, before and after school hours care, vacation care, occasional care, and Multi-functional Aboriginal Children’s Services. Flexible services that can combine various models of care are also available to meet the needs of families in rural and remote areas.
Child Care Benefit (CCB) helps families with the cost of child care, with financial assistance proportionally higher for lower income families. Eligible families can have the benefit paid directly to the child care service to reduce their ongoing fees. Alternatively they can receive the benefit as a lump sum refund at the end of the financial year.
Jobs Education and Training (JET) Child Care provides flexible child care assistance to parents receiving certain Centrelink payments who wish to undertake study, work or job search activities and are aiming to enter or re-enter the workforce.
Table 7.13 shows the number of recipients and expenditure for CCB.
Support for carers
There are two forms of Australian Government financial assistance that may be available in a caring situation - Carer Payment and Carer Allowance.
Carer Payment provides income support to people who, due to the demands of their caring role, are unable to support themselves through substantial workforce participation.
Carer Allowance is a supplementary payment that is available to people who provide daily care and attention in a private home for an adult or child with a disability or severe medical condition. It can be paid in addition to a social security income support payment.
Table 7.14 shows the number of support for carer recipients and expenditure by payment type.
Support for the aged
The principal form of support for the aged is the Age Pension. Age Pension age for men is 65 years and for women is being progressively raised to 65 years by 2014. The qualifying age for women depends on their date of birth, with the minimum age increasing by six months at two-year intervals until it reaches 65 years for those born on or after 1 January 1949.
Other payments available for older Australians include Wife Pension and Widow B Pension. However, these payments have been closed off to new claimants, so the population on and expenditure for these payments have decreased over time. These payments were designed to provide financial assistance to women below the pension age who are either the partner of an age pensioner or who have lost the financial support of a male partner through death, separation or divorce. There are now payments administered by the Department of Employment and Workplace Relations for women in these circumstances.
DVA provides support for the aged through the Age Service Pension and Partner Service Pension, which are components of the Service Pension and are described in a later section.
Table 7.15 shows the number of recipients and expenditure by payment type for support for the aged.
Working age allowances
Working age allowance programs help people of working age by providing income support to those seeking work or undertaking other activities such as training or community work or caring for children.
The main working age allowances are: Newstart Allowance (NSA), Parenting Payment (Single and Partnered), Disability Support Pension and Youth Allowance (other).
In the 2005-06 Budget, the Australian Government announced a number of Welfare-to-Work measures aimed at addressing the specific needs of parents, mature-aged people with a disability and the very long-term unemployed that encourage these people to (re-)enter the workforce. Subject to the passage of legislation, these Welfare-to-Work measures aim to lift workforce participation and reduce welfare dependency, while maintaining a strong safety net for those who need it.
NSA is paid to people aged 21-64 years who are unemployed and actively searching for work. They must be willing to undertake suitable paid work, which includes full-time, part-time or casual employment.
NSA and Youth Allowance jobseekers aged 18-49 years and some Special Benefit customers may be asked to undertake Mutual Obligation activities, in addition to their job search, after six months of unemployment and annually thereafter. Mutual Obligation requires people to take part in activities to improve their skills and work habits. Currently, people aged 50 years and over on NSA are not subject to Mutual Obligation but have a Personal Adviser to ensure that their requirements are appropriate, and that they have access to appropriate services. Under the Welfare-to-Work measures, from 1 July 2006 the same job search obligations will apply to mature-aged people aged 50-64 years receiving NSA as they do for other jobseekers. Mature aged NSA recipients will not be required to participate in Work for the Dole, while those aged over 55 years will be able to meet their obligations through part-time and/or voluntary work.
Currently, Parenting Payment is paid to single and partnered low-income parents with responsibility for the care of at least one dependent child aged less than 16 years. Under the Welfare-to-Work measures, parents applying for Parenting Payment on or after 1 July 2006 will receive Parenting Payment while their youngest child is less than 6 years old. When their youngest child turns 6 years, this group of parents will receive NSA and be subject to an obligation to seek part-time work of at least 15 hours per week. Parents receiving Parenting Payment prior to 1 July 2006 will be able to remain on Parenting Payment under the current entitlement until their youngest child turns 16 years. While remaining on Parenting Payment until this time, these parents will have a year to seek work voluntarily from the later of 1 July 2006 or when their youngest child turns 6 years. After that they will be subject to an obligation to seek part-time work of at least 15 hours per week. Assistance for preparing for work is provided to these customers through the services of Centrelink, the Job Network and specialist services, where appropriate.
Other non-activity tested payments for people of workforce age include Mature Age Allowance, Partner Allowance, Widow Allowance and some Special Benefit customers. Special Benefit provides assistance to people in severe financial need and for whom no other pension, allowance or other support is available. There is also a Bereavement Allowance, which is a short-term payment for recently widowed people without dependent children, payable for up to 14 weeks. Since 20 September 2003 the Mature Age Allowance and Partner Allowance have been closed to new entrants. Since 1 July 2005, new claims for Widow Allowance have been limited to women born before 1 July 1955.
Table 7.16 shows the number of NSA, Parenting Payment and other working age allowances recipients by expenditure and payment type.
Youth and student support
Youth Allowance is the main income support payment for young people aged 16-20 years who are actively seeking employment and for full-time students aged 16-24 years. It is subject to a personal income and assets test. If the person does not meet the Youth Allowance independence criteria then parental income, family assets, and family actual means tests also apply. If the person is independent and partnered, a partner income test applies and the couple’s combined assets are assessed.
The rate of Youth Allowance is determined on the young person’s age, whether they are single or partnered, whether they have children, whether they live at home or need to live away from home, and whether the person is a ‘long-term income support student’.
Austudy payment is paid to students 25 years and over whose financial circumstances are such that without financial help, full-time study would not be possible. The rate of Austudy is dependent on whether the person is single or partnered, whether they have children, and whether the person is a ‘long-term income support student’. An individual and (if applicable) partner income and assets test applies.
ABSTUDY payment is paid to students of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent according to the ABSTUDY definition of Aboriginality who are studying an approved course at an approved educational institution and who are not receiving other government assistance for study.
Eligible students receiving Youth Allowance, Austudy or Pensioner Education Supplement, who live away from home to study, can receive a Fares Allowance which contributes to their travel costs.
Table 7.17 shows the number of Youth and Student Support recipients and expenditure by payment type.
Support for people with a disability
Disability Support Pension (DSP) is the main form of income support for people with a physical, intellectual or psychiatric impairment that prevents them from working for at least 30 hours per week at award wages, or being retrained for such work, for at least two years.
However, as a result of the Australian Government's Welfare-to-Work measures announced in the 2005-06 Budget and subject to the passage of legislation, from 1 July 2006 the hours threshold will be reduced to 15 hours per week. This means that people with disabilities who have a part-time work capacity of 15-29 hours per week will no longer be eligible for DSP. Instead, these people will generally be eligible for Newstart or Youth Allowance, with modified activity requirements tailored to reflect their assessed level of work capacity. The Welfare-to-Work measures also included substantially increased funding for the provision of vocational rehabilitation and employment assistance to help people with disabilities to maximise their ability to work.
DSP is income and assets tested. However, recipients who are permanently blind are exempt from the income test. DSP for people aged 21 years and over is paid at the same rate as Age Pension. Youth rates apply to those aged under 21 years. These are largely tied to Youth Allowance rates, but include a supplement of $90.10 per fortnight in recognition of the additional costs faced by people with disabilities. DSP youth rates are not subject to parental income or assets tests.
Other support for people with a disability includes Mobility Allowance and Sickness Allowance. Mobility Allowance is intended to help those who are involved in paid work, vocational training or voluntary work or a combination of these, who are unable to use public transport without substantial assistance. Sickness Allowance may be paid to people aged between 21 years and Age Pension age, who are temporarily unable to work or continue with their full-time study due to illness or injury but who have a job or study to return to. Wife Pension (DSP) is for female partners of DSP recipients who were on payment as at 30 June 1995. It has been closed to new entrants since 1 July 1995.
Table 7.18 shows the number of recipients of support for people with a disability, and expenditure by payment type.
Compensation and income support provided to veterans and their families
Compensation Pension is paid to veterans for the effects of war caused injury or disease resulting from eligible war or defence service. The injuries or diseases must have been caused or aggravated by war service or certain defence service on behalf of Australia. Disability compensation is paid at varying rates depending on the person’s incapacity and lifestyle.
General Rate Disability Pension is payable to a veteran as compensation for the impairment and lifestyle effects of war or defence service. The general rate of pension is payable according to the degree of impairment of the person in increments of 10 per cent up to 100 per cent.
Extreme Disablement Adjustment is payable to a veteran who is severely incapacitated due to war caused or defence caused injury or disease, has reached 65 years of age and is not eligible to receive the Special or Intermediate Rate.
Intermediate Rate Pension is payable to a veteran suffering incapacity from war or defence caused disabilities in which the veteran is only able to undertake part-time or intermittent employment.
Special (Totally & Permanently Incapacitated) Rate Pension is payable to a veteran whose incapacity from war or defence caused disabilities prevent the veteran from working more than eight hours per week. Any veteran who is blind because of war or defence caused conditions is also eligible for a special rate pension.
War Widow(er)’s Pension is payable to compensate widowed partners of veterans who have died as a result of war service or eligible defence service or before his or her death received a certain rate of disability pension or was an Australian prisoner of war.
Various ancillary benefits may also be provided and dependent children of defence force members who have been killed or severely injured have access to educational guidance and counselling from the Veterans' Children Education Boards.
Table 7.19 shows the number of disability and war widows' pensioners and total expenditure in pensions.
The Veterans' Children Education Scheme provides financial help, guidance and counselling to certain students up to 25 years of age (table 7.20). To be eligible a student must be the child of a veteran, an Australian mariner, or a member of the Forces, who is (or has been) in receipt of a Special Rate or Extreme Disablement Adjustment Disability Pension. Children of former prisoners of war, of veterans, or of Australian mariners whose death has been accepted as war-caused, are also eligible.
The main income support pensions payable to veterans and their dependants are the Age Service Pension, Invalidity Service Pension, Partner Service Pension and the Income Support Supplement.
Age Service Pension (ASP), is payable to male veterans with qualifying service at 60 years of age. The ASP is similar to the age and disability support pensions paid by Centrelink but is granted 5 years earlier than the age pension paid by Centrelink. The Government has introduced changes to the minimum age at which a female veteran can be granted an ASP. Under the changes, the minimum age is to be progressively lifted from 55 to 60 years in six-monthly increments every two years over the period 1995-2013.
Invalidity Service Pension is payable to veterans with qualifying service if they are permanently incapacitated for work.
Partner Service Pension is payable on the basis that the person is the partner or widow(er) of a veteran with qualifying service.
Income Support Supplement (ISS) is payable to war or defence widow(er)s of service pension age. ISS may also be paid to a widow(er) under service pension age if he or she has a dependent child, is caring for a severely handicapped person or is permanently incapacitated for work. All recipients of income support payments are eligible for supplementary benefits, provided by the Australian Government, including some medical and hospital treatment, pharmaceutical benefits and the payment of a telephone allowance. They are also entitled to a range of concessions provided by state/territory and local governments.
A number of additional supplementary benefits and allowances are also available to eligible veterans and their dependants including the Defence Force Income Support Allowance, Rent Assistance, Remote Area Allowance, Utilities Allowance, Seniors Concessions Allowance and Bereavement Payment.
Table 7.21 shows the total number and annual expenditure on service pensions.
OTHER COMMUNITY SUPPORT PROGRAMS
In addition to the direct monetary support provided to individuals, governments also support the community through the provision of services, either directly or by subsidising the activities of third parties. These services are provided by the Australian Government, state and territory governments, and local governments. The main services that the Australian Government has responsibility for are described in the remainder of this section.
The National Strategy for an Ageing Australia
Recognising the significant implications of population ageing across a number of public policy areas, the Australian Government has developed the National Strategy for an Ageing Australia. It provides a framework to address current issues facing older people and to prepare for the ageing of Australia’s population over the next 50 years.
The main themes of the National Strategy are:
Aged care programs
Aged care programs support healthy ageing for older Australians, provide quality, cost effective care for frail older people, and give support to their carers. Australia’s aged care programs include residential care and community care, as well as a range of associated programs.
Assessment for aged care
Using a holistic, multi-disciplinary approach, Aged Care Assessment Teams (ACATs) assess people’s care needs and their eligibility for residential aged care and some community aged care services. Clients’ medical, physical, social, psychological and restorative care needs are assessed before they are referred to the care they need. A person must be assessed as eligible by an ACAT before he or she can receive subsidised residential care, a Community Aged Care Package, an Extended Aged Care at Home Package, or some other forms of flexible care.
In 2004-05 the Australian Government provided $48.4m to state and territory governments for the operation of 119 ACATs throughout Australia, as well as an evaluation unit in each state.
Care in the community
Home and Community Care
The Home and Community Care (HACC) program is a joint initiative of the Australian, state and territory governments. The Australian Government contributes approximately 60 per cent of HACC funding and maintains a broad strategic role. States and territories contribute approximately 40 per cent of program funding and manage the program on a day-to-day basis. Australian Government funding available for HACC in 2004-05 was $791.9m. Total combined Australian, state and territory funding for 2004-05 was $1.3b.
The HACC program aims to provide a comprehensive, coordinated and integrated range of maintenance and support services for frail aged people, people with a disability and their carers. It helps people to be more independent at home and in the community. This enhances their quality of life and may prevent inappropriate admission to long term residential care.
The HACC program funds care services, including nursing, personal care, domestic assistance, delivered meals, day care, transport, home modification and maintenance, and respite care. These services may delay or prevent the need for residential care.
Community Aged Care Packages
The Community Aged Care Packages (CACPs) provide care in the home for frail older people who have complex care needs requiring care planning and case management. CACPs are tailored to meet the needs of each individual. Services may include personal care assistance, assistance with meals, domestic assistance, and transport to help the person shop or visit a medical practitioner. To be eligible for a CACP, the care recipient must be assessed by an ACAT as requiring low level residential care, have a preference to remain at home, be able to do so.
Extended Aged Care at Home (EACH)
Extended Aged Care at Home (EACH) packages provides care to frail older people who have been assessed by ACAT as eligible for high level residential care, but have expressed a preference to live at home and are able to do so. An EACH package typically provides about 18-22 hours of assistance each week, tailored to meet the needs of the individual. Packages are flexible in content but generally include nursing input, particularly in their design and management. Services provided include clinical care, personal assistance, meal preparation, continence management, assistance with leisure activities, emotional support, therapy services, and home safety and modification.
Residential aged care
The residential aged care program seeks to enhance the quality of life of frail older Australians through a cohesive framework of high quality and cost effective residential care services.
The Australian Government subsidises the costs for each person in residential aged care. The level of funding depends on the care needs of the resident. Residents can be asked to pay fees and charges.
To receive Australian Government funding, each aged care home must meet specific care and building standards, be accredited by the Aged Care Standards and Accreditation Agency.
Other aged care programs
Other aged care programs include the National Respite for Carers Program, Assistance with Care and Housing for the Aged, Commonwealth Carelink, Day Therapy Centres, the Dementia Education and Support Program; the Continence Aids Assistance Scheme; the National Continence Management Strategy and National Continence Management Program. All of these programs are directed towards assisting frail aged people and younger people with a disability to remain in their own homes.
Places and funding
Aged care places are allocated in proportion to the number of people aged 70 years and older. At 30 June 2005, there were 193,753 operational aged care places; including 161,165 residential places, 30,916 CACPs and 1,627 EACH packages.
Australian Government expenditure on residential aged care is shown in table 7.22.
Table 7.23 shows Australian Government expenditure on selected other aged care programs.
Family assistance and community support
The Stronger Families and Communities Strategy is an Australian Government initiative giving families, their children and communities the opportunity to build a better future. The Strategy has an appropriation of nearly $500m (for the period 2004–09) and builds on the achievements of the first Strategy (2000-04).
The renewed Strategy has a specific early childhood focus and has been aligned with four key areas identified in the developing National Agenda for Early Childhood (NAEC) - healthy young families; early learning and care; support for families and parenting; and child friendly communities. The NAEC promotes early intervention and prevention as an important strategy for improving the life chances of all children and tackling the root cause of complex social problems. It comprises four initiatives:
Local Answers funds the Volunteer Small Equipment Grants initiative.
A longitudinal study of child health and development is also funded by the Strategy.
The Strategy and Children’s Services projects occupy a central place in the Australian Government’s long-term objective of improving the social and economic participation of children, families and communities from disadvantaged areas. The Children’s Services section is funded on an ongoing basis and supports children, parents and families at risk of achieving poor outcomes and/or experiencing abuse and neglect. This initiative currently attracts funding of approximately $17.5m for 2004-05.
The Australian Government also provides funding to programs such as:
Youth and community support programs develop new partnerships within and across levels of government and with community organisations to support innovations in youth and family support arrangements around young people’s transition to independence and adulthood. Some of the initiatives under this program are:
The Child Support Agency (CSA) is the agency that manages the assessment, collection and enforcement of child support liabilities. It aims to ensure that parents continue to financially support their children after separation, according to their capacity to do so. Parents may transfer their assessed liability privately, or have it collected and transferred through CSA.
The total amount transferred between parents in 2003-04 was $2.19b, an increase of $250m over the previous financial year ($1.94b). This includes child support assessed by CSA and transferred directly between parents, as well as child support assessed and collected by CSA. In addition, Child Support associated with parents who elect to transfer payments privately amounted to approximately $1.4b in 2003-04.
Housing support policies are in place to assist low and moderate income householders to access appropriate affordable housing, and provide supporting initiatives to assist homeless people. Housing assistance programs are discussed further in the Housing chapter.
Volunteering is an essential part of the Australian Government’s objective to promote social and economic participation, and to strengthen connections within communities. The Australian Government supports volunteering through a number of programs such as:
Retirement planning assistance
The National Information Centre on Retirement Investments (NICRI) is an independent body funded by the Australian Government to provide the public with free information on financial investments, financial industry services and saving for retirement. NICRI can assist customers to provide for their retirement and to make the investment choices that are best for them.
The Financial Information Service (FIS) provided by specialist Centrelink officers, is an education and information service available to everyone in the community. FIS helps people make informed decisions about investment and financial issues for their current and future financial needs.
Youth and student support
Youth and student support initiatives help young people’s transition to independence and adulthood. Programs under this initiative include the Job, Placement, Employment and Training and Green Corps.
Working age assistance
The Australia's Working Together initiative provides assistance to people of workforce age including job seekers, parents, people with disabilities, the unemployed, mature age people and Indigenous Australians. Initiatives include a Working Credit to encourage people on income support to take up full-time, part-time or irregular casual work; Training Credits; the Language, Literacy and Numeracy supplement; more places in employment services; and initiatives to assist Indigenous Australians.
Other programs include the Personal Support Programme and JET. The Government also funds Personal advisors who provide extra help to a range of eligible customers including those at a high risk of long-term dependency on income support.
Many of these initiatives will be superseded by the Australian Government's Welfare-to-Work measures announced in the 2005-06 Budget that take effect from 1 July 2006, subject to the passage of legislation.
Support for people with a disability
The Disability Employment Assistance Program funds organisations under the Disability Services Act 1986 (Cwlth) to provide employment support to people with a disability who require assistance to gain and/or retain paid employment. This assistance may be provided in the open labour market or within a supported employment setting. In addition to this support, the Australian Government also funds programs designed to encourage employers to provide durable job opportunities for people with disabilities.
Support for people with disabilities is also provided through rehabilitation services to improve function and independence in people with a disability so they can gain or retain suitable employment, or live independently.
Services provided to veterans and their families
Defence Service Homes (DSH) Scheme
The DSH Scheme provides financial benefits to recognise the contribution of certain men and women who have served Australia in either peacetime or wartime. The benefits include housing loan interest subsidies, comprehensive homeowners insurance cover at competitive rates, and home contents insurance (table 7.24).
Military Compensation and Rehabilitation Service (MCRS)
The objective of MCRS is to ensure that current and former members of the Australian Defence Force (ADF), who suffer an injury or disease which is related to service in the ADF, are provided with compensation and rehabilitation benefits and services. The MCRS is responsible for providing benefits through the Safety, Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 1988 (Cwlth). Table 7.25 summarises activities under the MCRS for 2003-04.
Health care treatment is provided to people whose disabilities have been accepted by DVA as service-related, and for pulmonary tuberculosis, post-traumatic stress disorder and malignant neoplasia whether they are service-related or not. Vietnam veterans with anxiety and depression and Gulf War veterans with undiagnosable conditions are also eligible for health care treatment whether the conditions are service-related or not.
In addition, and subject to certain conditions, health care treatment in Australia is provided to certain veterans of Australia's defence forces for all health conditions. War widow(er)s and certain other dependants of deceased veterans are also entitled to treatment for all conditions.
Other services include:
Vietnam Veterans' Counselling Service (VVCS)
The VVCS provides counselling to veterans of all conflicts and their families, as well as working with the ex-service community to promote understanding and acceptance of veterans' problems.
Access to counselling services for rural veterans and their families was greatly improved with the establishment of the Country Outreach Program in 1988, followed soon after by a toll-free 1800 telephone link to all VVCS centres. Table 7.26 shows use of the VVCS.