|Page tools: Print Page Print All|
Labour force participation includes those persons of working-age in an economy who in the reference period are:
By analysing the characteristics of those persons not participating in the labour force it can provide insights into Australia's potential labour force. This section analyses persons not in the labour force that are marginally attached, not marginally attached, discouraged job seekers, and employed persons that are underemployed and would like additional hours.
PERSONS NOT IN THE LABOUR FORCE
The persons not in the labour force framework below classifies persons aged 15 and over, who can be divided into those who are marginally attached to the labour force, and those who are not. Persons who are marginally attached to the labour force satisfy some, but not all, of the criteria required to be classified as unemployed.
Persons not in the labour force are considered to be marginally attached to the labour force if they:
Persons not in the labour force are not marginally attached to the labour force if they:
The main activity reported for those not in the labour force was retired (38%) followed by home duties (16%). Both males and females reported retired (46% and 32% respectively) followed by attending educational institution for males (18%) and home duties for females (23%). (Datacube 8)
MARGINALLY ATTACHED TO THE LABOUR FORCE
In February 2016, there were 1 million persons with marginal attachment to the labour force, this represented 16% of persons not in the labour force.
Of those with marginal attachment to the labour force:
There were 803,700 persons with marginal attachment to the labour force who had worked before. Of these, 37% had worked less than 12 months ago, and a further 21% had worked one to two years ago.
The graph below outlines selected main activities of the 1 million persons with marginal attachment to the labour force. The highest proportions were 27% attending an educational institution, 22% doing home duties and 19% caring for children.
The number of persons who were marginally attached to the labour force but not actively looking for work and available to start work within four weeks, decreased from 989,500 in 2015 to 954,800 in 2016. (Datacube 1)
The graph below shows the activities of persons without marginal attachment to the labour force. The most common reasons reported were retired (44%) (52% males and 38% females), followed by persons doing home duties (14%) and own health condition (14%).
DISCOURAGED JOB SEEKERS
There were 101,100 discouraged job seekers, of whom 57% were females. Discouraged job seekers are those persons with marginal attachment to the labour force who wanted to work and were available to start work within the next four weeks but whose main reason for not actively looking for work was that they believed they would not find a job for any of the following reasons as shown in the graph below:
Other selected characteristics of discouraged job seekers included:
The ABS conceptual framework below for underemployment separates employed persons into two mutually exclusive groups:
The conceptual framework further defines workers who were underemployed, comprising:
UNDEREMPLOYED PART-TIME WORKERS
In February 2016 there were 1 million underemployed workers, of whom 945,400 worked part-time and 76,700 who usually worked full-time, but worked part-time in the reference week due to economic reasons.
Of the 945,400 underemployed part-time workers 60% were female. Almost a quarter (24%) of underemployed part-time males and 15% of females reported that they would move interstate if offered a suitable job. (Datacube 5)
Around 34% of underemployed part-time workers aged 15–19 had experienced insufficient work for one year or more. This compared to 56% aged 45 years and over. (Datacube 4)
The most commonly reported steps taken to look for work or more hours, in the last four weeks, by underemployed part-time workers, were:
The most commonly reported difficulty in finding work1 for underemployed part-time workers were:
In February 2016, 7% of underemployed part-time workers reported that they did not have any difficulties in finding work and a further 50% who did not look for work or more hours. (Datacube 6)
The preferred number of extra hours of underemployed part–time workers varied with the number of hours they usually worked, as seen in the graph below. Approximately 63% of those who usually worked less than 10 hours a week preferred to work 10 or more extra hours per week. (Datacube 5)
The mean preferred number of extra hours per week for underemployed part-time workers was 13.5 hours. The mean preferred number of extra hours was lowest for persons aged 15–19 years (12.5 hours), and highest for those aged 25–34 years (14.7 hours). On average, males preferred to work an extra 14.9 hours per week, compared with females who preferred to work an extra 12.5 hours per week. Males preferred more hours than females in all age groups. (Datacube 5)
These documents will be presented in a new window.