5676.0 - Business Indicators, Australia, Dec 2007  
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 03/03/2008   
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TECHNICAL NOTE DATA QUALITY


RELIABILITY OF THE ESTIMATES

1 Estimates provided in this publication are subject to non-sampling and sampling error. The most common way of quantifying sampling error is to calculate the standard error for the published estimate. This is discussed in paragraphs 5 to 9 below.


2 Estimates that have an estimated relative standard error between 10% and 25% are annotated with the symbol '^'. These estimates should be used with caution as they are subject to sampling variability too high for some purposes. Estimates with an RSE between 25% and 50% are annotated with the symbol '*', indicating that the estimate should be used with caution as it is subject to sampling variability too high for most practical purposes. Estimates with an RSE greater than 50% are annotated with the symbol '**' indicating that the sampling variability causes the estimates to be considered too unreliable for general use. These annotations have only been applied to estimates from the September quarter 2003.


3 Non-sampling errors may arise as a result of errors in the reporting, recording or processing of the data and can occur even if there is a complete enumeration of the population. These errors can be introduced through inadequacies in the questionnaire, treatment of non-response, inaccurate reporting by respondents, errors in the application of survey procedures, incorrect recording of answers, and errors in data entry and processing. Inventories data for businesses with less than 20 employees are derived and could therefore be subject to error (although this error is estimated to be less than the sampling and non-sampling error resulting from directly collecting these data).


4 Estimates for the latest quarter presented in this publication are considered preliminary and revised estimates will be released with the next issue. As discussed in paragraphs 23 and 24 of the Explanatory Notes, seasonally adjusted and trend estimates are also subject to revision as more data are revised and more data becomes available.


5 It is difficult to measure the size of non-sampling errors. However, every effort is made in the design of the survey and development of survey procedures to minimise their effects.



STANDARD ERRORS

6 The estimates in this publication are based on a sample drawn from units in the surveyed population. Because the entire population is not surveyed, the published estimates are subject to sampling error. In calculating the standard error for the statistics in this publication, the ABS would prefer to produce a smoothed standard error for the major published aggregates as this approach takes account of the variability in standard error estimates for quarterly statistics. This estimated standard error would then be used as an indication of the sampling error for the current published series. As the data in this publication are sourced from the Quarterly Business Indicators Survey, which has only been conducted since March quarter 2001, this does not allow for a smoothed estimate of the standard error to be calculated. Therefore standard errors are based upon the data in the currently published quarter. Details of standard errors are available below.



LEVEL ESTIMATES

7 To illustrate, let us say that the published level estimate for company profits before income tax is $8,900m and the calculated standard error in this case is $200m. The standard error is then used to interpret the level estimate of $8,900m. For instance, the standard error of $200m indicates that:

  • There are approximately two chances in three that the real value falls within the range $8,700m to $9,100m ($8,900m $200m).
  • There are approximately nineteen chances in twenty that the real value falls within the ranges $8,500m and $9,300m ($8,900m $400m).
  • The real value in this case is the result we would obtain if we could enumerate the total population.

8 The following table shows the standard errors for national and state quarterly level estimates based upon the data in the current quarter.

Company gross operating profits
Company profits before income tax
Sales of goods and services
Inventories
Wages and salaries
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Mining
223
181
425
239
37
Manufacturing
237
217
1 068
422
184
Construction
326
308
1 367
na
271
Wholesale trade
259
242
1 894
866
137
Retail trade
200
187
1 485
584
189
Transport and storage
182
143
693
na
162
Property and business services
527
504
1 297
na
447
Other selected industries(a)
274
259
775
48
380
Total
839
781
na
1 152
729
New South Wales
na
na
1 848
na
389
Victoria
na
na
1 656
na
368
Queensland
na
na
1 640
na
370
South Australia
na
na
668
na
163
Western Australia
na
na
1 287
na
241
Tasmania
na
na
297
na
57
Northern Territory
na
na
189
na
43
Australian Capital Territory
na
na
251
na
66
Australia
839
781
na
1 152
729

na not available
(a) See paragraph 12 of the Explanatory Notes for a definition of the Other selected industries.



MOVEMENT ESTIMATES

9 The following example illustrates how to use the standard error to interpret a movement estimate. Let us say that one quarter the published level estimate for inventories is $90,000m, and the next quarter the published level estimate is $92,000m. In this example the calculated standard error for the movement estimate is $850m. The standard error is then used to interpret the published movement estimate of +$2,000m. For instance, the standard error of $850m indicates that:

  • There are approximately two chances in three that the real movement over the two quarter period falls within the range $1,150m to $2,850m ($2,000m $850m).
  • There are approximately nineteen chances in twenty that the real movement falls within the range $300m to $3,700m ($2,000m $1,700m)

10 The following table shows the standard errors for national quarterly movement estimates based upon the data in the current quarter.

Company gross operating profits
Company profits before income tax
Sales of goods and services
Inventories
Wages and salaries
Industries
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Mining
109
86
209
72
22
Manufacturing
179
167
619
268
95
Construction
230
224
723
na
153
Wholesale trade
143
137
855
397
69
Retail trade
138
131
864
385
116
Transport and storage
96
78
287
na
63
Property and business services
349
340
670
na
196
Other selected industries(a)
199
103
444
17
184
Total
555
504
na
619
358

na not available
(a) See paragraph 12 of the Explanatory Notes for a definition of the Other selected industries.



ADJUSTMENTS TO ESTIMATES

11 Adjustments are included in the estimates to allow for lags in processing new businesses to the ABS Business Register. The following table shows the adjustments made to the current quarter's original estimates in current price terms:

December Quarter 2007
Data items
%

Company gross operating profits
0.9
Company profits before income tax
0.9
Sales of goods and services
0.8
Inventories
0.5
Wages and salaries
0.9


12 As previously discussed, the estimates presented in this publication are partial indicators used in the compilation of the quarterly national accounts. The movements in the Business Indicators estimates will not always be the same as the movements in the comparable national accounts series but they should be reasonably consistent after taking account of differences in concepts, scope and methodology described in paragraph 28 of the Explanatory Notes. If after taking account of these differences, there are concerns about data quality and coherence, the national accounts area provides feedback to the survey area. This process may result in adjustments being applied to the Business Indicators estimates prior to release in this publication. The objective use of the national accounts framework to provide data coherence across all ABS economic statistics ensures that a common understanding of recent economic developments is presented.



SALES OF GOODS AND SERVICES TIME SERIES

13 With the introduction of the Quarterly Business Indicators Survey from the March quarter 2001, the ABS commenced the collection of sales of goods and services from Mining (ANZSIC Division B); Electricity, gas and water supply (Division D); Construction (Division E); Food retailing (Subdivision 51); Personal and household good retailing (Subdivision 52); Services to finance and insurance (Subdivision 75); Libraries, Museums, and Parks and gardens (Groups 921-923); Video hire outlets (Class 9511); and Hairdressing and beauty salons (Class 9526).


14 The different time periods for which series are available can pose some inconsistencies between the series published in original terms and those released in seasonally adjusted and trend terms, as a minimum of three years worth of data are required in order to produce seasonally adjusted and trend estimates. To reduce these inconsistencies, the ABS has modelled estimates based on data from the monthly Retail Business survey to produce a time series for Food retailing, Personal and household good retailing, Video hire outlets and Hairdressing and beauty salons. There are some significant differences between the monthly Retail trade series and the quarterly sales of goods and services series, and these are discussed in paragraph 30 in the Explanatory Notes. To address these differences in the modelling of the time series, movements from the aggregated monthly series have been applied to the level quarterly estimates for the March quarter 2001, and a time series has been created by backcasting. This has facilitated the production of seasonally adjusted and trend estimates for these industries.


15 This publication includes estimates of sales of goods and services, by industry, and by state/territory, but estimates of national total sales of goods and services are not published. Total sales of goods and services is not an adequate indicator of the performance of the Australian economy as it includes duplication; for example, goods sold by retailers may also be included in goods sold by wholesalers in the same period. However this publication does include total sales of goods and services, by state/territory, as it is considered that there may be interest in this item as a measure of relative activity. This data should be used with caution given the potential for the data to include duplication across industries.



PROFITS TIME SERIES

16 Estimates of gross operating profits are compiled by deducting estimates of items that do not involve the production of goods and services from estimates of profits before income tax. These items include: depreciation, net interest paid, net foreign exchange gains/losses and unrealised gains/losses on the revaluation of assets. These items are considered out of scope of the national accounts item gross operating surplus.


17 As indicated in paragraph 8 of the Explanatory Notes, income items (other than sales of goods and services), expense items (other than labour costs) and profits are only collected for businesses employing 20 or more persons in the Quarterly Business Indicators Survey (QBIS). From the September quarter 2004 issue, estimates of these items have been modelled for smaller businesses by applying ratios of the various items for small businesses from the annual Economic Activity Survey to reported sales data in QBIS. This allows the production of estimates of gross operating profits and profits before income tax with respect to businesses of all sizes. This modelling has been included in survey estimates from the March quarter 2001, with a break in series occurring at that time. For most industries, with the exception of Construction and Property and business services, the inclusion of data for small businesses has a significant impact on level estimates but an insignificant impact on quarterly movements. The nature of the modelling of income items for small businesses means that the modelled estimates of gross operating profits for small businesses are likely to be of higher quality than the estimates of company profits for these businesses.


18 Estimates of company gross operating profits have been included in this release and the former Company Profits, Australia for a number of years. From the September quarter 2004 issue, the definition of 'company' has been expanded to include quasi-corporate enterprises. For practical purposes, quasi-corporates are defined as unincorporated businesses employing 250 or more employees. Quasi-corporates have been included in survey estimates from the March quarter 2001, with a break in series occurring at that time. The September quarter 2004 issue also introduced two new series for estimates of gross operating profits, both of which commenced in March quarter 2001. Unincorporated gross operating profits presents estimates for unincorporated businesses, other than quasi-corporates. Business gross operating profits presents estimates for all businesses and is relatable to industry estimates of sales of goods and services, wages and salaries and inventories.



INVENTORIES TIME SERIES

19 With the introduction of the Quarterly Business Indicators Survey, the ABS commenced the collection of inventories from businesses classified to ANZSIC classes 5322 Automotive electrical services, 5323 Smash repairs and 5329 Automotive repair and services nec. These classes contribute about 2.0% to the level estimates for Retail trade inventories and about 0.5% to the level estimate for Total inventories. Their contribution to movement estimates is not consistent with the movement estimates for Retail trade which suggests that the characteristics of these classes differ from other Retail trade classes. As a result, there is a break in the series for Retail trade inventories and Total inventories, between the December quarter 2000 and the March quarter 2001.



WAGES TIME SERIES

20 The Introduction of the Quarterly Business Indicators Survey from March quarter 2001 included the collection of private sector wages and salaries by industry. Experimental seasonally adjusted and trend series were presented in this publication for the first time in March quarter 2004. These series were considered experimental until five years of data was available for estimation of seasonal factors.



PRIVATISED MARKETING AUTHORITIES

21 Three significant privatised marketing authorities came into scope of the estimates in this publication from the September quarter 1999. The introduction of these units resulted in a break in series for estimates for inventories and sales of goods and services between the June and September quarters 1999 and comparison of the series over time should be undertaken with care.


22 The methodology used by the ABS has ensured that the trend series has not been distorted by the introduction of these units, although there is a trend break evident between the June and September quarters 1999. For this reason, the trend estimates of movement have not been released for the Wholesale trade inventories, Total inventories and Wholesale trade sales series in respect of the September quarter 1999.



PRIVATISATION OF TELSTRA CORPORATION

23 Telstra Corporation was effectively privatised on 20 November 2006. For the purposes of ABS statistics this change from public sector to private sector was effective from March quarter 2007. This has impacted on some data series presented in this publication, particularly the March quarter 2007 movements. The data items affected are sales of goods and services, wages and salaries, company gross operating profits and the related profits series in the Manufacturing, Communications and Other selected industries. The introduction of Telstra has resulted in a break in series for some series in this publication between the December quarter 2006 and March quarter 2007. The movement trend estimates, in percentage terms, have therefore not been released for the March quarter 2007.



TREND BREAKS

24 In the June quarter 2007 release, trend breaks were applied to Mining company gross operating profits and related profits series to be more consistent with sales of goods and services. These changes resulted in revisions to the seasonally adjusted series.


25 In the September quarter 2007 release, a trend break was applied to Other selected industries sales of goods and services as a result of a change from public sector to private sector of two entities. The change has impacted on the data series presented in this publication in regards to September quarter 2007 movements.