4660.0 - Energy Use, Electricity Generation and Environmental Management, Australia, 2014-15 Quality Declaration 
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 12/07/2016   
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Aviation turbine fuel

Kerosene and gasoline type fuels designed to meet specifications used in aviation turbine power units.


A residue of the sugar cane milling process which can be used as a fuel.


A fuel for diesel engines made from renewable organic materials, as opposed to petroleum. For biodiesel blends, see diesel.


Fuels produced from renewable organic sources or 'feed stocks'. Biofuels include ethanol and biodiesel and are commonly used as transportation fuels.


Landfill (garbage tips) gas and sewage gas. Also referred to as biofuels.


Includes renewable fuels such as bagasse, wood, wood waste and other agricultural residues.

Black coal

A sedimentary organic rock consisting of anthracite, bituminous and sub-bituminous rank coals. Black coal is primarily used as a solid fuel to raise steam to generate electricity and to produce coke for steel making.

Brown coal

Also known as lignite, is a low rank, brownish-black coal with a high moisture content of around 60%.

Brown coal briquettes

Made from brown coal through a process of crushing, drying and the addition of a binding agent, to produce a compact, high energy fuel easily transported and commonly used for industrial and domestic heating.


A business is generally considered to be a person, partnership or corporation engaged in business or commerce. In this publication the term represents either the ABN unit or the type of activity unit (TAU), which are the two standard statistical units for the 2014–15 Energy, Water and Environment Survey. For details, see paragraphs 10-13 of the Explanatory Notes.

Business size

Businesses are categorised as:

  • large businesses, with employment of 200 or more persons;
  • medium businesses, with employment of 20 to less than 200 persons and
  • small businesses, with employment of less than 20 persons (including non-employing businesses).

Clean Energy Regulator

The Clean Energy Regulator administers schemes legislated by the Australian Government for measuring, managing, reducing or offsetting Australia's carbon emissions.


Includes black coal, brown coal and brown coal briquettes.

Coal by-products

Includes coke oven gas, blast furnace gas.


A process in which an industrial facility uses its waste energy (e.g. heat) to produce electricity and heat. It is also referred to as ‘combined heat and power’ (CHP).


A material derived from heating coal in the absence of air. Used mainly as a fuel and reducing agent in smelting iron ore.

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)

Made by compressing purified natural gas, used mainly in transportation.

Diesel (including biodiesel blends)

Fuel for diesel engines obtained from the distillation of petroleum. Includes both Automotive Diesel Oil (ADO) and Industrial Diesel Fuel (IDF). Biodiesel is a renewable fuel derived from vegetable oils or animal fats through the process of esterification. Biodiesel blended with conventional diesel, usually B5 or B20, is available at a number of service stations across Australia.

Crude oil

A mixture of hydrocarbons, existing in the liquid state; both in natural underground reservoirs and at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities.


The flow of electrical power or charge. It is a secondary energy source, meaning it is derived from the conversion of primary sources of energy such as coal and natural gas.

Electricity generation

Electricity generated for sale or own use from renewable and non-renewable sources. Includes generation via back-up generator, co-generation or tri-generation.

Energy consumption and expenditure

Electricity, natural gas or other fuels consumed or invoiced to this business.

Environmental account

An information system and framework that combines economic activities and uses of a resource with changes in the natural resource base, thus linking resource use with the System of National Accounts.

Fuel oil

The heavy distillates from oil refining, used as a fuel for burning in furnaces or boilers, ships and locomotives.


One gigajoule equals one thousand megajoules.

Gigawatt hour

One million kilowatt hours.


The energy of falling or flowing water, used in the generation of hydroelectric power.

Industry class

The structure of ANZSIC comprises four levels, ranging from industry division (broadest level) to industry class (finest level). Activities are narrowly defined within the industry class level, which is identified by a four-digit code.

Industry division

The structure of ANZSIC comprises four levels, ranging from industry division (broadest level) to industry class (finest level). The main purpose of the industry division level is to provide a limited number of categories which give a broad overall picture of the economy. There are 19 divisions within ANZSIC, each identified by an alphabetical letter, that is, 'A' for Agriculture, forestry and fishing, 'B' for Mining, 'C' for Manufacturing, etc.

Industry group

This is the broadest level category within each industry subdivision of ANZSIC and is identified by a three digit code e.g. industry group 211 Basic ferrous metal.

Industry subdivision

This is the broadest level category within each industry division of ANZSIC and is identified by a two digit code, e.g. industry subdivision 11 Food product manufacturing. Industry subdivisions are built up from industry groups which, in turn, are built up from industry classes.

Kilowatt hour

One thousand kilowatt hours equals one megawatt hour.

Large business

See the entry for business size.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

Consists of propane, butane, isobutane and petroleum and is derived by processing, through a low pressure gas separation plant, the natural gas produced from either gas or oil reservoirs.

Liquid biofuel unblended
Produced from renewable organic sources or 'feedstocks'. Biofuels include ethanol and biodiesel, and are commonly used as a fuel in transportation.

Medium business

See the entry for business size.


One million joules.


One million litres or one thousand kilolitres.

National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Scheme (NGERS)

NGERS, which commenced in relation to the 2008-09 reference period, is a framework for the mandatory reporting of greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and energy production by Australian businesses exceeding specified thresholds.

Natural gas

A mixture of methane and other hydrocarbon gases used chiefly for heating, cooking, electricity generation and as a raw material in manufacturing.

Non-renewable energy

Energy derived from sources which cannot be replaced once used. Non-renewable energy sources include diesel, petrol, LPG, aviation fuel and fuel oil, and fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas (including compressed) and crude oil.

Non-renewable fuels

Fuels such as diesel, petrol, LPG, Fuel oil, aviation fuel, coal, coke and coal by-products, compressed natural gas and crude oil.

Other fuels

Heating oil, industrial materials and tyres from fossils if recycled and combusted to produce heat and energy, kerosene (other than for use as fuel in an aircraft), liquefied aromatic hydrocarbons, naphtha, non-biomass municipal materials if recycled and combusted to produce heat or electricity and other energy commodities.

Reference period

Businesses are asked to report data for the financial year ended 30 June 2015. However, if a business has a different financial year, it is asked to report for the 12 month period which ends between 1 October 2014 and 30 September 2015.

Renewable energy

Renewable energy is defined as those energy resources that are naturally replenishing. They are virtually inexhaustible in duration but limited in the amount of energy that is available per unit of time. Renewable energy resources include: biomass, hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, ocean thermal, wave action and tidal action.

Renewable fuels

These are combustible fuels derived from biological resources, including liquid biofuel, biogas, wood and bagasse.

Small business

See the entry for business size.

Solar power

Photovoltaic conversion generates electric power directly from the light of the sun in a photovoltaic (solar) cell. Solar thermal electric generators use the radiant energy from the sun to produce steam to drive turbines.

System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA)

The SEEA is a framework used to develop environmental accounts by integrating environmental information into an accounting framework. The SEEA handbook provides the conceptual basis for developing a framework to describe the inter-relationship between the natural environment and the economy. See also Australian Environmental - Economic Accounts (cat. no. 4655.0).

Total selected industries

Total selected industries comprises data for all ANZSIC divisions, excluding ANZSIC Subdivision 01 Agriculture, Subdivision 62 Finance, Subdivision 63 Insurance and Superannuation Funds and Subdivision 96 Private Households Employing Staff. For a detailed discussion of the scope and coverage of the estimates, see Explanatory Notes paragraphs 6-21.


A process in which an industrial facility uses its waste energy to produce electricity, heat and cooling. It is also referred to as ‘combined cooling, heat and power’ (CCHP).

Wood and wood waste

Includes wood and wood waste used to produce energy, usually through burning.