4655.0 - Australian Environmental-Economic Accounts, 2014 Quality Declaration 
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 03/04/2014  First Issue
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A chemical element and a soft, ductile metal.

Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC)

The ANZSIC is the standard classification used in Australian and New Zealand for the collection, compilation, and publication of industry statistics.

Basic prices

The amount receivable by the producer from the purchaser for a unit of a good or service produced as output, minus any tax payable plus any subsidy receivable, on that unit as a consequence of its production or sale; it excludes any transport charges invoiced separately by the producer.


An aluminium ore and the world’s main source of aluminium.

Black coal

A sedimentary organic rock consisting of anthracite, bituminous and sub-bituminous rank coals. Black coal is primarily used as a solid fuel to raise steam to generate electricity and to produce coke for steelmaking.

Brown coal

Also known as lignite, is a low rank, brownish-black coal with a high moisture content of around 60%.


Carbon dioxide.


A liquid mixture of pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons that form part of the vapour phase of natural gas in the reservoir and become liquid under standard field separation conditions.


The process which involves adding structure to real property or the building or assembling of infrastructure. It includes the additions, alterations, reconstruction, installation and maintenance and repairs of buildings and other structures.


A chemical element and a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, a building material, and a constituent of various metal alloys.

Crude oil

A mixture of hydrocarbons, existing in the liquid state; both in natural underground reservoirs and at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities.

Distributed water

Water supplied to a user including through a natural (e.g. a river) or non-natural network (piped or open channel), and where an economic transaction has occurred for the exchange of this water. The majority of distributed water is supplied by the Water, sewerage and drainage services industry (ANZSIC Division 28). The water supply component consists of units mainly engaged in storage, purification or distribution of water by pipeline or carrier. It also includes the operation of irrigation systems that supply water to a farm and the supply of steam and hot water. Distributed water can include potable, mains and raw water but does not include reuse or bulk water.

Economic asset

A store of value representing a benefit or series of benefits accruing to the economic owner by holding or using the entity over a period of time. It is a means of carrying forward value from one accounting period to another.

Economic Demonstrated Resource (EDR)

Resources judged to be economically extractable and for which the quantity and quality are computed partly from specific measurements, and partly from extrapolation for a reasonable physical distance on geological evidence.


The flow of electrical power or charge. It is commonly derived from burning organic matter, especially coal and natural gas. Other sources include hydroelectricity, solar photovoltaic, wind and nuclear.


The release of a particular gas to the atmosphere as a result of a certain activity. Emissions can be of the following four types: 1) generated - the gross result of a process or activity; 2) recovered - the diversion of emissions for use in a secondary process, such as power generation; 3) sinks - the process of removing carbon from the atmosphere; and 4) net emissions - remaining gas released to the atmosphere after generation, recovery and sinks are taken into account.

Energy intensity

A measure of the energy consumed to produce one unit of economic output, measured here in gigajoules of energy per million dollars of Industry Gross Value Added (GJ/$m IGVA).

Environmental asset

The naturally occurring living and non-living components of the Earth, together comprising the bio-physical environment, that may provide benefits to humanity.

Environmental tax

A tax whose base is a physical unit (or a proxy of it) of something that has a proven specific negative impact on the environment. The SEEA Central Framework allocates environmental taxes to four categories: energy taxes; transport taxes; pollution taxes; and resource taxes.

Excise duty

This is levied on a variety of petroleum products, including gasoline (petrol), diesel, aviation fuels, kerosene, heating and fuel oil, and crude oil and condensate. Excise is also levied on non-petroleum based fuels, including ethanol and biodiesel fuels (includes the Product Stewardship for Oil Program).


The export of goods represents the quantity of goods sent to other countries or for which ownership changes from residents to non-residents.

Fossil fuel

Any natural fuel derived from decomposed or partly decomposed organic matter (e.g. oil, natural gas and coal).

GDP (gross domestic product)

Is the total market value of goods and services produced in Australia within a given period after deducting the cost of goods and services used up in the process of production but before deducting allowances for the consumption of fixed capital. Thus GDP, as here defined, is ‘at market prices’. It is equivalent to gross national expenditure plus exports of goods and services less imports of goods and services.

GHG emissions intensity

A measure of GHG emissions arising from economic production; GHG emissions (tonnes) emitted per million dollars of GVA in chain volume terms.

Gigajoule (GJ)

A unit of energy equal to one billion (i.e. 1,000,000,000) joules, which is roughly equivalent to the energy content of 29 litres of petrol or 280 kilowatt hours of electricity.

Gigalitre (GL)

One thousand million litres.

Gigatonne (Gt)

One thousand million tonnes.


A chemical element and a dense, soft, malleable, ductile metal.

Government energy use

Use of energy by the general government sector. The principal function of the general government sector is to provide non-market goods and services (e.g. roads, hospitals, libraries) primarily financed by taxes, to regulate and influence economic activity, to maintain law and order, and to redistribute income by means of transfer payments. This sector covers the Commonwealth Government, state governments and local government municipalities, as well as associated agencies and non-departmental bodies. Public universities are also included in this sector. Public non-financial corporations are excluded from this sector.

Greenhouse gases (GHG)

Those gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorb and re-emit infrared radiation. The three key greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4).

Gross energy

Is the energy contained in primary energy (energy sourced directly from nature) as well as the energy derived from it.

Gross value of irrigated agricultural production (GVIAP)

Refers to the gross value of agricultural commodities that are produced with the assistance of irrigation.


A group of two or more related or unrelated people who usually reside in the same dwelling, who regard themselves as a household, and who make common provision for food or other essentials for living; or a person living in a dwelling who makes provision for his/her own food and other essentials for living, without combining with any other person.


A process in which flowing water is harnessed to generate power, especially electricity.


The import of goods represents the quantity of goods received from other countries or for which ownership changes from non-residents to residents.

Industry gross value added (IGVA)

The value of an industry’s output at basic prices, minus the value of goods and services consumed as inputs during the process of production. Basic prices valuation of output removes the distortion caused by variations in commodity taxes and subsidies across the output of individual industries.

Iron ore

Rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.

Kilolitre (KL)

One thousand litres.

Kilotonne (Kt)

One thousand tonnes.


A site used for disposal of solid material by burial in the ground between layers of earth.

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

Is a combination of propane and butane, along with trace amounts of other compounds, recovered in either natural gas extraction or oil refining. The gases are transformed into a liquid to assist in transport.


The process where units are engaged in the physical or chemical transformation of materials, substances or components into new products (except agriculture and construction). The materials, substances or components transformed by units in this division are raw materials that are products of agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining or products of other manufacturing units.

Megalitre (ML)

One million litres.

Megatonne (Mt)

One megatonne, or 1,000 tonnes (t).


The process where units extract naturally occurring mineral solids, such as coal and ores; liquid minerals, such as crude petroleum; and gases, such as natural gas from the earth, from an ore body, vein or seam. The term also includes the removal of soil. The term mining is used in the broad sense to include: underground or open-cut mining; dredging; quarrying; well operations or evaporation pans; recovery from ore dumps or tailings as well as beneficiation activities (i.e. preparing, including crushing, screening, washing and floatation) and other preparation work customarily performed at the mine site, or as part of mining activity.

Natural gas

A combustible mixture of hydrocarbon gases. While natural gas is formed primarily of methane, its composition can vary widely, commonly including ethane, propane, butane and pentane.

Net energy

Total net energy accounts for the conversion losses associated with transforming one form of energy into another form. In this way, estimates for total net energy use avoid double-counting the amount of converted primary energy.

Organic material

Component of the waste stream from plant or animal sources that is readily biodegradable.

Other industries

Industries other than those included in ANZSIC Division A Agriculture, Division B Mining, Division C Manufacturing, Division D Electricity, Gas, Water, Division E Construction, subdivision 29 Waste Collection, Treatment and Disposal Services and Class 7530 Local Government Administration.


Consists of those goods and services produced within a business that became available for use outside that business, plus any goods and services produced for own final use.

Paper and cardboard

Various forms of paper and cardboard which can be recycled and reused include cardboard boxes, newspaper, office paper, envelopes, junk mail, cards, milk and juice cartons. The main component of paper and cardboard is cellulose.

Petajoule (PJ)

A petajoule is equal to one million gigajoules, or 1015 joules. Petajoules are typically used to measure national or industry energy production and consumption.


Is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon or mixture of hydrocarbons as oil or gas, or in solution, found in sedimentary rocks.

Potable water

Treated water that is suitable for human consumption, e.g. drinking water.

Purchaser’s price

The amount paid by the purchaser, excluding and tax deductible by the purchaser, in order to take delivery of a unit of a good or service at the time and place required by the purchaser. The purchaser’s price of a good includes any transport charges paid separately by the purchaser to take delivery at the required time and place.


Process of converting or modifying waste into useful material or energy so that they do not need to be disposed. Also referred to as materials or resource recovery; includes sorting, separating and baling.


A resource recovery method involving the collection and/or processing of waste for use as a raw material in the manufacture of the same, or similar, non-waste product.

Refined products

Includes products derived from crude oil and other refinery feedstock (e.g. car petrol and diesel, aviation petrol and turbine fuel, kerosene and heating oil, industrial diesel and fuel oil, naptha and petroleum coke used as fuel).

Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)

Are a financial instrument to promote renewable energy production. The liability to surrender RECs is with respect to wholesale acquisitions of electricity and give rise to a tax.

Renewable Energy Target (RET)

Is split into two parts: the large-scale renewable energy target and the small-scale renewable energy scheme. These schemes create a financial incentive for investment in renewable energy sources through the creation and sale of certificates.

Residence principle

When following this principle, the geographic boundary of a country is determined by the activities of economic units resident in that country.

Reuse water

Drainage, waste or storm water that has been used again without first being discharged to the environment. It may have been treated to some extent. It excludes ‘on-site’ recycling.


A chemical element and a soft transition metal with the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal.

Solar energy

Refers to solar energy used for electricity generation (by photovoltaic conversion or solar thermal generation) and solar energy used to heat water in solar hot water systems.

Subsoil assets

Proven reserves of mineral and energy resources located on or below the Earth’s surface that are economically exploitable, given current technology and relative prices.

System for Integrated Economic and Environmental Accounting (SEEA)

It is a framework used to develop environmental accounts by integrating environmental information into an accounting framework. The SEEA publication provides the conceptual basis for developing a framework to describe the inter-relationship between the natural environment and the economy.

Territory basis

Statistics produced on this basis use a geographic boundary relating to activity taking place within the national territory.

Timber assets

Includes native standing timber and plantation standing timber.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

Is an international environmental treaty negotiated at the UN Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992). The objective of the treaty is to ‘stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system’.


A heavy, radioactive metallic element, used as a source of nuclear energy. A heavy, radioactive metallic element, used as a source of nuclear energy.

Vehicle import duty

Is a levy on applications to import a vehicle into Australia. Passenger vehicles duty (import) is between 5-10% of customs value (original country purchase price, which may be subject to depreciation allowance, or rated on the Australian value as landed value).

Vehicle stamp duty

Is a levy on applications to either register a vehicle or to transfer registration of a vehicle; registration taxes vary significantly across states. All states and territories (except Victoria) have a fixed fee component and a component that increases with some measure of vehicle size, measured as either weight or cylinder size.


Waste consists of the following: any substance that is discarded, emitted or deposited in the environment in such volume, constituency or manner as to cause an alteration in the environment; any discarded, rejected, unwanted, surplus or abandoned substance; and/or any otherwise discarded, rejected, unwanted, surplus or abandoned substance intended for sale or for recycling, reprocessing, recovery, or purification by a separate operation from that which produced the substance.

Waste intensity

A measure of waste generation arising from economic production; waste (tonnes) generated per million dollars of GVA in chain volume terms.

Waste Management Services Industry

Can include any combination of collection, transport, recycling, treatment, processing, disposal, managing and monitoring of waste materials (ANZSIC Division D, subdivision 29).

Water consumption

Water consumption is equal to distributed water use plus self-extracted water use plus reuse water use minus in-stream water use minus distributed water supplied to other users minus water supplied to the environment as ‘environmental flows’.

Water intensity

A measure of water consumption arising from economic production; water (GL) consumed per million dollars of GVA in chain volume terms.

Water supply services

Refers to the provision of reticulated water supply (including desalinated water), irrigation water, recycled (reuse) water, bulk and/or retail water supply service.

Wind power

The conversion of wind energy into electricity using wind turbines.