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Net overseas migration (NOM) is the net gain or loss of population through immigration to Australia and emigration from Australia. Data provided by the Department of Immigration and Border Protection (DIBP) are used by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) to calculate the official NOM estimates each quarter.
In 2015-16, NOM increased from the previous year, recording an end of financial year estimate of 182,200 persons, which was 3.0% (5,300 persons) more than in 2014-15 and 1.0% (1,800 persons) more than the dip experienced in 2010-11 when NOM added 180,400 persons to Australia for the year.
In 2015-16, NOM contributed the greatest number of people to the most populous states: New South Wales with a net increase of 71,200 persons, followed by Victoria (65,000 persons), Queensland (20,000 persons) and Western Australia (13,600 persons). Northern Territory had the lowest net increase with 400 persons (see Table 2.2). For the most up-to-date official estimates of NOM by state and territory produced by the ABS see Australian Demographic Statistics (cat. no. 3101.0). For the most up-to-date forecasts of NOM produced by DIBP see The Outlook for Net Overseas Migration at: http://www.border.gov.au/about/reports-publications/research-statistics/statistics
Footnote(s): (a) Contains a break in series at 30 June 2006 - see paragraphs 22-23 of the Explanatory Notes. (b) Estimates from September quarter 2014 onwards are preliminary - see paragraph 9 of the Explanatory Notes.
An individual's actual travel behaviour and associated characteristics including visa type are only available from final NOM data as these can only be accurately determined at the end of the 16 month reference period following a traveller's initial border crossing.
The DIBP manages and grants visas each year in accordance with relevant legislation government planning and policy. It is important to note that there is a difference between when and how many visas are granted by DIBP; and when and how they may impact on NOM and therefore Australia's estimated resident population (ERP). For example for many visas there can be a lag between a visa being granted and the actual use of that visa by the applicant on entering Australia. Also some travellers who have been granted permanent or long-term temporary visas may end up staying in Australia for a short period of stay or not at all. In addition travellers may also apply for and be granted a different visa whilst in Australia or overseas. However without an additional border crossing within the reference quarter to capture a traveller's change of visa the NOM system is unable to show these occurrences.
Table 2.3 shows a breakdown of the types of visa groups which have contributed to final NOM. It shows that temporary visa holders are the main contributors to NOM in the 2014-15 financial year.
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