All births comprises all live births plus all fetal deaths (gestation at least 20 weeks or birth weight at least 400 grams) for a specific year. This is the denominator used in calculating perinatal and fetal death rates in this publication. See Appendix 1 for further information.
Death is the permanent disappearance of all evidence of life after birth has taken place. The definition excludes all deaths prior to live birth. For the purposes of the Deaths, Causes of Death and Perinatal deaths collections of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), a death refers to any death which occurs in, or en route to Australia and is registered with a state or territory Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages.
Early neonatal death
Death of a live born baby within seven days of birth.
Excess deaths are the observed number of Indigenous deaths (recorded deaths) less expected number of Indigenous deaths if the age specific rates of the non-Indigenous population were applied to the Indigenous population.
Expected deaths is calculated by applying the cause specific rate for the non-Indigenous standard (2001) population to the Indigenous population of the reference period.
A fetal death is death prior to the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother as a product of conception of 20 completed weeks of gestation or with a birth weight of at least 400 grams. The death is indicated by the fact that after such separation the fetus does not breathe or show any other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles.
Fetal death rate
The number of fetal deaths in a calendar year per 1,000 all births (live births plus fetal deaths of at least 20 weeks gestation or at least 400 grams birth weight) in the same calendar year. See 'All births' above.
International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The purpose of the ICD is to permit the systematic recording, analysis, interpretation and comparison of mortality and morbidity data collected in different countries or areas and at different times. The ICD, which is endorsed by the World Health Organisation (WHO), is primarily designed for the classification of diseases and injuries with a formal diagnosis. See Explanatory Notes 29-33 for more information on ICD. Further information is also available from the WHO website www.who.int
Persons who identify themselves as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin.
The death of a person who is identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) origin on the Death Registration Form (DRF). From 2007, Indigenous origin for neonatal deaths registered in South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory is also derived from the Medical Certificate of Cause of Death (MCCD).
Late neonatal death
Death of a live born baby after seven completed days and before 28 completed days.
Live birth is the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother as a product of conception, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy, which after such separation, breathes or shows any other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord or definite movement of voluntary muscles, whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached; each product of such a birth is considered live born. This is the denominator used in calculating neonatal death rates in this publication.
Main Condition in Mother
A pathological condition in the mother, which in the opinion of the certifier, made the greatest contribution to the death of the child.
Main Condition in Fetus
The pathological condition, which in the opinion of the certifier, made the greatest contribution to the death of the child.
The condition of being mortal or subject to death.
Natural cause of death
Deaths due to diseases (for example diabetes, cancer, heart disease etc), which are not external or unknown.
A neonatal death is death of a live born baby within 28 days of birth.
Neonatal death rate
The number of deaths in a calendar year of live born babies within 28 days of birth per 1,000 live births in the same calendar year.
The neonatal period commences at birth and ends 28 completed days after birth.
Total recorded deaths.
Other Territories include Jervis Bay Territory, previously included with the Australian Capital Territory, as well as Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.
A death that is either a fetal death (i.e. a death prior to the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother as a product of conception of 20 completed weeks of gestation or with a birth weight of at least 400 grams), or a neonatal death (i.e. death of a live born baby within 28 completed days of birth).
Perinatal death rate
Perinatal death rates are the number of perinatal deaths in a calendar year (i.e. fetal and neonatal deaths) per 1,000 all births in the same calendar year. See 'All births'.
The perinatal period commences at 20 weeks of gestation and ends 28 completed days after birth.
Period of gestation
Period of gestation is measured from the first day of the last normal menstrual period to the date of birth and is expressed in completed weeks.
Post neonatal death
Death of a live born baby after 28 days and within one year of birth.
Rate ratio is the age standardised Indigenous rate divided by the non-Indigenous rate.
Rate difference is the age standardised Indigenous rate minus the the non-Indigenous rate.
Perinatal deaths where sex is indeterminate are included in male totals where applicable.
State or territory of registration
State or territory of registration refers to the state or territory in which the death was registered.
State or territory of usual residence
State or territory of usual residence refers to the state or territory of usual residence of the deceased.
See fetal death.
Underlying cause of death
The disease or injury which initiated the train of morbid events leading directly to death. Accidental and violent deaths are classified according to the external cause, that is, to the circumstances of the accident or violence which produced the fatal injury rather than to the nature of the injury.
Unknown cause of death
Deaths where it is unable to be determined whether the cause was natural or external.
Usual residence within Australia refers to that address at which the person has lived or intends to live for a total of six months or more in a given reference year.
Year of registration
Data presented on year of registration basis relate to the date the death was registered with the relevant state or territory Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages.