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For comparison and measuring purposes, perinatal deaths in this publication have also been expressed as rates. These rates are defined as follows:
A fetal death (stillbirth) is the delivery of a child, who did not, at any time after delivery, breathe or show any other evidence of life such as a heartbeat. (A birthweight criterion applies. See Explanatory Notes, paragraphs 6-8).
International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The purpose of the ICD is to permit the systematic recording, analysis, interpretation and comparison of mortality and morbidity data collected in different countries or areas and at different times. The ICD, which is endorsed by the World Health Organisation (WHO), is primarily designed for the classification of diseases and injuries with a formal diagnosis. See Explanatory Notes, paragraphs 15 to 19 and Appendices 3 and 4 for more information on ICD. Further information also is available from the WHO website <<www.who.int/classifications/icd/en/>>.
The death of a child before its first birthday.
A live birth is the birth of a child, who, after delivery, breathes or shows any other evidence of life such as a heartbeat. (A birthweight criterion applies. See Explanatory Notes, paragraphs 6-8).
Multiple causes of death
All morbid conditions, diseases and injuries entered on the death certificate. These include those involved in the morbid train of events leading to death which were classified as either the underlying cause, the immediate cause, or any intervening causes and those conditions which contributed to death, but were not related to the disease or condition causing death. For deaths where the underlying cause was identified as an external cause (injury or poisoning) multiple causes include circumstances of injury, the nature of injury as well as any other conditions reported on the death certificate.
A neonatal death is the death within 28 days of birth of any child who, after delivery, breathed or showed any other evidence of life such as a heartbeat. (A birthweight criterion applies. See Explanatory Notes, paragraphs 6-8).
A perinatal death is a fetal death or neonatal death. (A birthweight criterion applies. See Explanatory Notes, paragraphs 6-8).
Perinatal death rates
See Death rates.
Period of gestation
Period of gestation is measured from the first day of the last normal menstrual period to the date of birth and is expressed in completed weeks.
Total Relevant Births
Total Relevant Births comprises live births and fetal deaths combined (where birthweight was at least 400 grams).
See Fetal death.
Underlying cause of death
The disease or injury which initiated the train of morbid events leading directly to death. Accidental and violent deaths are classified according to the external cause, that is, to the circumstances of the accident or violence which produced the fatal injury rather than to the nature of the injury.
Years of potential life lost (YPLL)
YPLL measures the extent of 'premature' mortality, where 'premature' mortality is assumed to be any death at ages of 1-78 years inclusive. By estimating YPLL for deaths of people aged 1-78 years it is possible to assess the significance of specific diseases or trauma as a cause of premature death. See Technical Note for an explanation of the calculation of YPLL.
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