Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander birth
The birth of a live-born child where either the mother or the father was identified as being of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin on the birth registration form.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander death
The death of a person who is recorded as being an Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander or both on the Death Registration Form (DRF). From 2007, Indigenous status for deaths registered in South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory is also derived from the Medical Certificate of Cause of Death (MCCD). If the Indigenous status report on the DRF does not agree with that on the MCCD, an identification from either source that the deceased was an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander persons is given preference over non-Indigenous.
The phenomenon of uneven population age distribution in Census or survey data. When age heaping occurs, data show systematic spikes on particular ages such as those ending in 0 or 5. This happens as a result of 'digit preference' or rounding when respondents are unsure of their age or the age of others they are reporting on behalf of.
A bar chart graphically representing the age structure of the population, usually in five-year age groups, for males and females separately. The age structure of the population usually approximates the shape of a pyramid because mortality progressively reduces the number in each birth cohort as it ages. The age pyramid is useful to show the existence of unusually large or small cohorts, and in this way, not only conveys information about a country's past demographic history, but also a great deal about its demographic future.
Age-specific death rates
The number of deaths (either occurred or registered) during the calendar year at a specified age per 1,000 of the estimated resident population of the same age at the mid-point of the year (30 June). Pro rata adjustment is made in respect of deaths for which the age of the deceased is not given.
Age-specific fertility rates
The number of live births (either occurred or registered) during the calendar year, according to the age of the mother, per 1,000 of the female estimated resident population of the same age at 30 June. In the calculation of these rates, births to mothers under 15 years are included in the 15-19 years age group, and births to mothers aged 50 years and over are included in the 45-49 years age group. Pro rata adjustment is made for births for which the age of the mother is not given.
Age-specific paternity rates
The number of live births (either occurred or registered) during the calendar year, according to the age of the father, per 1,000 of the male estimated resident population of the same age at 30 June. In the calculation of these rates, births to fathers under 15 years are included in the 15-19 years age group, and births to fathers aged 50 years and over are included in the 45-49 years age group. Pro rata adjustment is made for births for which the age of the father is not given.
Average annual growth rate
The average annual growth rate, r, is calculated as a percentage using the formula:
where P0 is the population at the start of the period, Pn is the population at the end of the period and n is the length of the period between P0 and Pn in years.
The delivery of a child, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy, who, after being born, breathes or shows any evidence of life such as heartbeat.
Completed fertility represents the average number of births a cohort of females have borne over their reproductive lifetimes.
The permanent disappearance of all evidence of life after birth has taken place. The definition excludes all deaths prior to live birth. For the purposes of the ABS Death Registration collection, a death refers to any death which occurs in, or en route to Australia and is registered with a state or territory Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages.
Estimated resident population (ERP)
The official measure of the population of Australia is based on the concept of usual residence. It refers to all people, regardless of nationality, citizenship or legal status, who usually live in Australia, with the exception of foreign diplomatic personnel and their families. It includes usual residents who are overseas for less than 12 months over a 16 month period. It excludes overseas visitors who are in Australia for less than 12 months over a 16 month period.
Estimates of the Australian resident population are generated on a quarterly basis by adding natural increase (the excess of births over deaths) and net overseas migration (NOM) occurring during the period to the population at the beginning of each period.
Indigenous Region (IREG)
Indigenous Regions (IREGs) are large geographical units loosely based on the former Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission boundaries. They are created by aggregating one or more Indigenous Areas.
The time period between 30 June in the previous Census year and 30 June of the latest Census year.
The average number of additional years a person of a given age and sex might expect to live if the age-specific death rates of each period continued throughout his/her lifetime.
A tabular, numerical representation of mortality and survivorship of a cohort of births at each age of life. The conventional life table is based on the assumption that as the cohort passes through life it experiences mortality at each age in accordance with a predetermined pattern (usually based upon death rates from a real population during a particular period of time) of mortality rates which do not change from year to year. The life table thus constitutes a hypothetical model of mortality, and it does not describe the actual mortality which characterises a cohort as it ages.
Life tables may be complete or abridged, depending on the age interval used in their compilation. Complete life tables such as those for the Australian population contain data by single years of age, while abridged life tables, such as those for the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population, contain data for five-year age groups. Due to differences in mortality patterns between males and females at different ages, life tables are generally constructed separately for each sex.
For any distribution the median value is that which divides the relevant population into two equal parts, half falling below the value, and half exceeding it. Thus, the median age is the age at which half the population is older and half is younger.
The movement of people across a specified boundary for the purpose of establishing a new or semi-permanent residence. Migration can be international (migration between countries) and internal (migration within a country).
The difference in mortality when comparing one population group with another. In this release, it is calculated as the ratio of life expectancy at birth for a particular geographic region (e.g. state/territory) over the life expectancy at birth for Australia.
Excess of births over deaths.
Net interstate migration
Net interstate migration is the net gain or loss of population though interstate migration being the change of a person's place of usual residence from one state or territory to another state or territory.
Net overseas migration
Net overseas migration is the net gain or loss of population through immigration to Australia and emigration from Australia.
Net population growth
For Australia, net population growth is the sum of natural increase and net overseas migration. For the states and territories, net population growth also includes net interstate migration.
The difference between the actual Census count (including imputations) and an estimate of the number of people who should have been counted in the Census. This estimate is based on the Post Enumeration Survey (PES) conducted after each Census. For a category of person (e.g. based on age, sex and state of usual residence), net undercount is the resultant of Census undercount, overcount, misclassification and imputation error.
Following the 1992 amendments to the Acts Interpretation Act to include the Indian Ocean Territories of Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands as part of geographic Australia, another category of the state and territory level has been created, known as Other Territories. Other Territories include Jervis Bay Territory, previously included with the Australian Capital Territory, as well as Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.
Post Enumeration Survey (PES)
A household survey conducted three to four weeks after the Census. The PES allows the ABS to estimate the number of people who should have been counted in the Census compared to the number who were. Results from the PES contribute to a more accurate calculation of the estimated resident population (ERP) for Australia and the states and territories which is then backdated to 30 June of the Census year.
An aggregation of non-continuous geographical areas which share common characteristics of remoteness. The delimitation criteria for Remoteness Areas (RAs) are based on the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA+) which measures the remoteness of a point based on the road distance to the nearest urban centre. The RA categories range from Major Cities to Very Remote. Within the Australian Statistical Geography Standard, each RA is created from a grouping of Statistical Areas Level 1 having a particular degree of remoteness.
The number of males per 100 females.
State/territory of usual residence
State or territory of usual residence refers to the state or territory of usual residence of:
Total fertility rate (TFR)
- the population;
- the mother (Birth Registrations collection); and
- the deceased (Death Registrations collection).
The sum of age-specific fertility rates expressed as rate per woman. It represents the number of children a female would bear during her lifetime if she experienced current age-specific fertility rates at each age of her reproductive life.
Total paternity rate (TPR)
The sum of age-specific paternity rates expressed as a rate per man. It represents the number of children a male would father during his lifetime if he experienced current age-specific paternity rates at each age of his reproductive life.
The intercensal growth in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population counts that cannot be fully explained by births, deaths and migration.