1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 1910  
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 25/01/1909   
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Orography of Australia

As indicated in the two preceding issues of this Year Book, it is intended each year to give fairly complete information concerning some special geographical element. In this issue an enumeration of the mountains of Australia is selected. Triangular measurements of heights are not available to any great degree, and the heights of mountains given in the following paragraphs must, therefore, in many cases be taken as approximate only. Thus, the height of Mount Kosciusko is given as "about 7300 feet." Various measurements of the peak originally called by that name showed it to be slightly lower than its neighbour, Mount Townsend, and the names were thereupon transposed by the New South Wales Lands Department, so that Mount Kosciusko still remains the highest peak of Australia, and Mount Townsend, given by the Geodetical Survey of Victoria as 7266 feet, ranks as second. Officially the height of Mount Kosciusko is now stated as 7328 feet.

(i) General

The chief mountain system of Australia runs more or less parallel with the eastern and southern coasts of the continent. The main Dividing Range, which forms its central chain, can be traced from New Guinea across Torres Straits to Cape York, and thence southward through the States of Queensland, New South Wales, and Victoria to Wilson's Promontory. From that point it is continued by the islands of the Flinders group to Tasmania, while a second spur traverses Victoria in a westerly direction. The mountains of South Australia run chiefly in a north-easterly direction, from Cape Jervis, along what was probably in prehistoric times the eastern shore of the sea, joining the head of Spencer's Gulf to the Gulf of Carpentaria. The chief mountain ranges of Western Australia lie also mainly along the coast.

It will be found more convenient to consider the mountain systems in their geographical order, commencing with Queensland, and then taking New South Wales, Victoria. Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia in the order named.

(ii) Queensland

The northernmost parts of the main Dividing Range are known respectively as the Richard Range, the Sir William Thompson Range, and the McIlwraith Range. In the McIlwraith Range are Mount Carter, Mount White, Mount Newberry, and Mount Walsh. Farther to the west lies the Wilkinson Range. In a range forming the watershed between the Normanby and Mitchell Rivers are Mount Emma and Mount Lukin. Westerly offshoots are the Kirchner Range, the Granite Hills with Barney's Nob, the Gregory Range towards Normanton, and north of it the Newcastle Range. Near Hughenden a range branches off to the west, which forms the watershed between the rivers flowing to the Gulf of Carpentaria and those flowing westward. Various parts of this range are known as the McKinlay Range and the Selwyn Range (Mount Guide). Southerly offshoots from the range just mentioned are the Forsyth Range, with Mount Landsborough, Mount Alice, and Arthur's Mountain, and farther west Allan's Range, Cory's Range, Tully Range, the Kangaroo Mountains (Mount Edward), the Sword Range (Mount Rourke), the Charters Range, Lawson's Hills, Hill's Range, the Muller Range, the Finucane Range, the Standish Range (Mount Collis and Mount Aplin), and the De Little Range (Longsight Peak). Easterly offshoots of the main range are the Granite Range (Mount Stewart) running towards Charters Towers, and its continuation, the Seventy-Mile Range. Farther south is the Terraic Range, from which the Llanarth Range and the Rottenstone Range branch off in a northerly direction. Near the Rottenstone Range is Mount McConnell.

From Trinity Bay to the Tropic of Capricorn the main range takes a southward direction. In this part of the range is the Table Mountain.

From the Herberton district southward there are a number of ranges between the main range and the coast, and following the line of the latter more or less closely. Among these may be mentioned the Coast Range, the McAllister Range, the Bellenden Ker Range, and the Seaview Range. Not far from Herberton is Mount Bartle Frere, 5438 feet, the highest mountain in Queensland. To the south of the Seaview Range are the Leichhardt Range, the Denham Range, the Peak Range with Wolfang Peak, and the Drummond Range, which approaches the main range near Mount Howard. Between the Denham and Drummond Ranges on the west and the coast on the east are the Boomer Mountains, the Broadsound Ranges, and Connor's Range.

Near Mount Howard the main range takes a south-easterly direction. Its highest peaks in this neighbourhood are Mount Pluto, Mount Faraday, and Table Top. The southern part of the main range is here known, as the Grafton Range (Mount Combabula and Mount Horrible). From the place where the range turns to the south again it is called Craig's Range, and is continued as the Boonya Mountains (Mount Ha1y, 3130 feet, Mount Mowbillah, 3605 feet).
On reaching the New South Wales border the range takes a westerly direction so far as Mount Leslie, and then turns to the south again until it enters New South Wales, north of Tenterfield.

The principal offshoots from the main range in Southern Queensland are the Warrego Range, which branches off in a westerly direction from Mount Howard. Its principal peak is Mount Blunt. North of the Warrego Range are the Gowan Range (Mount Harden, Mount Grey) and the Blackall Range. From Mount Grey the Grey Range turns off to the south-west, until it reaches the New South Wales border near its western termination, in the Grey Range are Mount Calvin, Mount Pinkilla, Mount Heays, and Mount Shillinglaw. To the east of the southern part of the Grey Range lie Willie's Range, the Moriarty Range, and Helen Range.

East of Table Top and north of the main range are the Carnarvon Range and the Bigge Range. In a northerly offshoot of the last, called the Expedition Range, is Mount Nicholson.

Between the Bunya Mountains and the coast lie the Little Liverpool Range, the D'Aguilar Range, the Yabba Range, and the Cooyer Range.

From the spot where the main range reaches the New South Wales border, a spur known as the McPherson Range runs eastward and reaches the coast near Point Danger. In this range are Mount Barney, 4300 feet, Mount Merino, Mount Lindsay, 4064 feet, Mount Clunie, and Wilson Peak. From Mount Leslie a spur of the main range runs north-west. This spur contains Mount Domville.

A number of isolated western ranges may be mentioned here, such as the Constance Range, south of the Gulf of Carpentaria. West of the Grey Range are the Cheviot Range, the Negri Mountains, the Ruvera Mountains (Mount Stewart), the Catt Mountains (Mount Hamilton), the Beal Range (Mount Hetherton), the Canaway Range, the Coleman Range, the McGregor Range, and the Stokes Range.

Isolated peaks near the boundary of the Northern Territory, and in the latitude of the Tropic of Capricorn, are the Sisters, the Wrekin, and Barrington Peak. Near the point where Queensland, New South Wales, and South Australia meet, is McDonald Peak.

(iii) New South Wales

From Maryland to a point north of Tenterfield the main Dividing Range forms the boundary between Queensland and New South Wales. From Tenterfield the range runs in a southerly direction to Hall's Gap, east of Murrurundi, and is known as the New England Range; from this place the range runs west, as the Liverpool Range, to Beacon Hill, north of Cassilis. From Cassilis to Goulburn the range runs in various directions, forming the connecting link between the northern and southern tablelands. It is here known variously as the Main Range or the Blue Mountain Range. From Goulburn to Queanbeyan the range is called the Cullarin Range, and thence to Nimitybelle, the Gourock Range. Near Nimitybelle the range takes a sudden turn to the north-west so far as Kiandra. This part of the range is known as the Monaro Range (often found on maps as the "Maneroo" Range, from an obsolete spelling of "Monaro"). From Kiandra the range, now called the Muniong Range, runs south again until it enters Victoria near Forest Hill.

The chief peaks of the main range, going from north to south, are :- Sugarloaf Mountains, Bald Rock, Red Hill, Bluff Rock, Jondol, Coolamangeera, Baninba, Little and Big Spiraba, Capoompeta, Bald Nob, The Lighthouse (near Glen Innes), Blair Hill, Ben Lomond, 5000 feet. The Brothers. Mount Mitchell, Mount Butler, Mount Harris, Mount Brisbane. Mount Marion, Harnharn Hill, Mount Andy, Mount Sugarloaf, White's Sugarloaf, Royinn Muc, Hanging Rock, Wambramurra, Lagoon Mountain, Mount Temi, Mount Tinagroo (near Murrurundi), Mount Towarri, Oxley's Peak. 4500 feet, Mount Moan, Mount Palmer, Halfmoon Peak. Lavarock, Omaleah Cliff, Mount Dexter (near Gulgong), Red Hill, Mount Graham, Nullo Mountain, Mount Coricudgy, Mount Boonboourwah, Mount Coorongooba, Mount Durambang, Mount Marsden, Corcalgong Hill, Monkey Hill, Mount Parwar and the Round Hill (near Tambaroora), Mount Horrible,Mount Blaxland (near Rydal), Mount Bindo, 4460 feet, Shooter's Hill. Sugarloaf Hill, Mount Armstrong, Mount McAlister. 3390 feet (near Taralga). Rocky Hill, Bald Hill, Mount Cullarin (near Gunning), Govan (between Lakes George and Bathurst), Mount Twynam, Tallerang Peak, 3134 feet, Mount Tumatbulla, The Bald Peak, The Bald Mountains, Big Badja, Kybeyan, 4010 feet, Hudson's Peak, The Brothers, The Twins, Bald Hill, Coolrington Hill, Peter's Hill. Murlingbul Hill, The Sugarloaf, Mars Hill, Tantangara Hill, New Chum Hill, Bullock Hill, Tabletop Mountain, Cobrabald Mountain, Bull's Peaks, Mount Townsend, Mount Kosciusko, about 7300 feet, The Ram's Head, The Pilot, 6020 feet, Forest Hill.

The Main Range throws off numerous spurs both on the eastern and on the western side. On the eastern side are the McPherson Range, forming the boundary between New South Wales and Queensland. In it are One Tree Hill, Koreelah Peak, Mount Wilson, Mount Clunie, Mount Lindsay, 4064 feet, Mount Glonnie, Mount Gipps, Mount Nungulba, Mount Worendo, Mount Merino, Mount Cougall, Mount Boololagang, Woodgee. The Richmond Range, which runs southward from near Mount Lindsay and forms the watershed between the Richmond and the Clarence Rivers, is a coastal range in its southern part. It contains The Edinburgh Castle, Bald Nob, Dome Mountain, Theresa Mountain, Mount Belmore, Mount Pickaooba, Mount Powarpar, Mount Mokima, Mount Marsh, Mount Lardner, Chapman's Peak.

The Macleay Ranges lie west and south of the Clarence River. In the northernmost of the ranges are Darke's Point, Mount Pleasant, Bold Top Millera, Mount Hunter, Camel Back, Hanging Rock, Bluff Rock, Mount Walker, Mount Tindal. In the range south of the Nymboida River are Hewitt's Peak, Mount Hyland, 4760 feet, Chandler's Rock, 5130 feet, Mount Williams, The Aberfoyle Sugarloaf, The Round Mountain, The Lookout, 4090 feet, McGrath's Hump, Boambee. A spur running south from the last mentioned range to the mouth of the Macleay River contains Mount Yarrahapinny.

The Hastings Ranges form the watershed between the Macleay and the Hastings on the north, and between the Manning and the Hastings on the south.

In the northern range are Kemp's Pinnacle, Spoke's Hill, Mount Bunda Bunda, Mount Kippara, and in the southern range - Mount Carrington, Nesbitt's Peak, Hanging Rock Hill, Mount Comboyne, Mount Seaview.

The watershed between the Manning and Hunter Rivers is formed by the Mount Royal Range, which contains Gulph Mountain, Gog and Magog, The Pinnacle, Paddy's Ridge, Mount William, Mount Paterson, Mount Allyn, Mount Royal, 3000 feet, Mount Toonumbue, the Belgrave Pinnacle, Mirannie Mountain, Mount George, Hudson's Peak, Mount Johnstone.

South of the Hunter River lies the Hunter Range, beginning at Mount Coricudgy, about 3000 feet, and having in it Mount Baker, Mount Munnundilla, Mount Winstone, Mount Wirraba, Mount Poppong, Mount Howe, Mount Wareng, Mount Yengo, Mount Calore, Mount Bulgalaben, Mount Moruben, Mount Kuttenbun, Mount Simpson, Mount Manning, Mount Lockyer, Mount Warrawalong, 2084 feet.

The Blue Mountains in that part lying north of the Grose River contain Mount Wilson, Mount Tootie, Mount Tomah, 3276 feet, Mount King George. East of Rydal are Mount Clarence, 4000 feet, and Mount Victoria, 3525 feet. Farther south, towards the Mittagong Range, are Mount Mouin, Mount Thurat, Mount Shivering, Mount Colong, and the Burragorang Mountains.

The Mittagong Range forms the connecting link between the Great Dividing Range and the Illawarra Range, a coastal range extending from Clifton in the north to the Shoalhaven River in the south. In the Illawarra Range are Mount Keira, Mount Cordeaux, Mount Kembla, 1752 feet, Mount Macquarie, the Cambewarra Mountains, Mount Meryla.

The Great Dividing Range has no further offshoots to the east until the great bend is reached, but a few coastal ranges may be mentioned here. The Currockbilly Range lies between the Shoalhaven River and Moruya. It contains The Pigeon House, 2400 feet, Mount Kingimar, Mount Currockbilly, and Mount Budawang, 3630 feet. South of the Tuross River is Mount Dromedary, 2706 feet, and in a range running north-west from Tathra is the Mumballa Mountain. South-west of Twofold Bay lies Mount Imlay, 2910 feet, and Timbillica Hill.

Where the main range turns to the north-west, a spur is thrown off in a southerly direction, which contains The Coal Hole, Big Jack Mountain, Mount Marshall, Burimbucoo, and Mount Tennyson on the border of Victoria.

Between this range and the Snowy River is Sherwin's Range, and in it Timbury Mountain (near Nimitybelle). Farther west (near Berrydale) is Gygederick Hill, and south of this Shaw's Hill, Talbinga Hill, and Mount Tingi Ringi on the Victorian border.

Not far from Mount Kosciusko the Ram's Head Range branches off from the main range in a north-easterly direction; it contains Pretty Point and Waste Point, and in its neighbourhood lies Crackenback Peak.

Turning now to the western offshoots of the main range, there is first a spur extending westward from Wallangarra along the Queensland border to the River Severn. In this spur is Sailor's Jack Mountain.

A spur branching off in a north-westerly direction from Ben Lomond, and dividing again into various ranges, contains Mount Rumbee, White Rock, The Lighthouse, and Table Top Mountain (near Inverell).

The Nandewar Range follows a north-westerly direction from the neighbourhood of Kentucky. In it are Fox's Nob, Mount Lowry, Mount Drummond, Mount Tareela, Old Man Mountain, Brushy Mountain. Mount Kapunda, Mount Lindsay, 3000 feet, Lowe's Mountain, Bobby Waa, Mount Couradda, Mount Waa, Mount Eulowrie, Mount Rodd, the Terrybong Mountain, and Gravesend Mountain, half way between Moree and Warialda.

The Currabubula Range, which lies south of the Nandewar Range, and also has a north-westerly direction, contains Junction Peak, Mount Minarooba, Mount Turi, 3000 feet, Mount Uriari, Mount Erangaroo, the Pine Mountain, and Mount Moorowaba.

Dean's Mountain, Round Mountain, Mount Tomilbildoon, Appletree Mountain, Ulamambri Mountain, Timor Rock, Ulleamble Mountain, Cainby Point, and Uningery Mountain. Isolated peaks north of the Warrumbungle Range are - Carthian Hill, The Skipper, Mount Bingle, Mount Talbareya, Mount Digby, Tower Hill, and Picnic Hill. To the south of the range lie Belougery Mountain, Wambelong Mountain, Foley Mountain, Naman Mountain, Gowang Hill, Wangabutta Mountain, Mount Abundance, Boogadah Pinnacle, Mount Toogarlan, and The Parramattas.

Another north-easterly spur between Capertee and Cudgegong contains Mount Bongo, Eagle Hawk Hill, Emiguyley Mountain, Mount Bodangora. This spur is continued in a westerly direction from Molong, and has in it Mount Tuckelbri. It ends north of Condobolin in the Gobondry Mountains. A northern spur of this continuation is known as Hervey's Range, with Burrabadine Peak, and farther north as the Sappa Bulga Range, with The Sappa Bulgas, and Gibraltar Peak, south of Dubbo.

The Macquarie Range branches off from the main range near Shooter's Hill. It contains Mount Bathurst, Mimosa Hill, Bushranger's Hill, Mount Lawson, Toole's Mountain, Mount Macquarie, 3843 feet, and ends in The Canoblas, 4610 feet, south of Orange.

The Mundoonan Range branches off near Lake George. In it are Mount Mundoonan, 2674 feet, Mount Martin, Mount Midgee, Congera Hill, Mount Hunter, Mount Darling, Mount Baker, Cook's Hill, Mount Collins, the Illumie Mountains, Mount Dribendrew, Birrangan Mountain, Lucy Hill, Mount Wheoga, Mount Carawandool, and Mount Tallabung, south of Forbes. A southern spur leaves the Mundoonan Range near the Illumie Mountains, and contains Memagong Hill, near Young, and Mount Lightning, Kangaroo Mountain, and The Parson, near Gundagai.

The Muniong Range sends out three principal spurs, the Murrumbidgee Range, between the Murrumbidgee and Goodradigbee Rivers, the Tumut Range, between the Goodradigbee and Tumut Rivers, and the Murray Range, between the Tumut and Murray Rivers.

The principal peaks of the Murrumbidgee Range are : - Blue Bull Peak, Mount Yarrowlumla, Mount Tennent, Castle Hill, Tidbinbilla Peak, and Mount Uravarra.

In the Tumut Range are Mount Peppercorn, The Peak, Bogong Mountain, Blowering Mountain, Mount Jallula, Mount Bimberi, Mount Murray, Howell's Peak, The Half- moon, and The Sentry Box.

The Murray Range contains Smith's Lookout, Jagungal, Grey Mary's Bogong, The Inkbottle, Mount Dargal, 5490 feet, Manjar, Mount Garland, the Pilot Hill, Mount Hugel, Oberne Hill, and Mount Yaven, near Tarcutta. An offshoot from the Murray Range follows a westerly direction to Jerra Jerra, near Henty, and then turns south and ends in Mullanjandra Hill and the Pulpit Rock, near Albury.

In the extreme north-west of the State lies a range which may be considered as a continuation of the ranges of Western Queensland. In this range are: - Pic Du Faur, Mount Sturt, and Mount Poole. Near Milparinka the range becomes known as the Mount Brown Range, with Mount Brown as its principal elevation.

Farther south along the western boundary of the State lies the Grey Range, which stretches from The Pinnacle in the north to Broken Hill in the south. In it are Lewis' Peak, Mount Roby, Lake's Nob, Umberumberka, and, south of Broken Hill, The Pinnacles (North, Middle, and South).

(iv) Victoria

The Great Dividing Range enters Victoria at Forest Hill, and takes a south-westerly direction under the name of the Cobboras Range and the Bowen Mountains. It then turns north-west until it reaches Mount Hotham. Hence it continues, as the Barry Mountains, in a westerly direction to Mount Howitt. From the latter peak to Mount Singleton it runs south, and then, under the name of the Hume Range, west again. After taking a northerly sweep round the head-waters of the Saltwater River, it returns to its westerly direction from Mount Macedon, and is for some distance known as the Bald Hills, and farther west as the Pyrenees. The Pyrenees may be considered as the end of the Great Dividing Range on the continent.

The chief peaks of the main range are: - Forest Hill, 5000 feet, on the boundary of New South Wales; Cobboras, 6050 feet, in the Cobboras Range; Leinster, Tambo, 4707 feet, The Sisters, and The Gap, in the Bowen Mountains; Mount Phipps, Mount Parslow, and Mount Hotham, 6100 feet, in the part of the range running north-west; Mount St. Bernard, 5060 feet, The Twins, 5582 feet, and Mount Howitt, 5718 feet, in the Barry Mountains; Mount Magdala, Mount Clear, Mount Skene, Mount Shillinglaw, and Mount Singleton, in the part of the range running south; Mount Selma, Mount Matlock, 4544 feet; Mount St. Clair, Mount Arnold, Mount Grant, Mount Strickland, Mount St. Leonard, and Mount Disappointment, 2631 feet, in the Hume Range; Mount William, 3827 feet, The Den, Dryden's Rock or Mount Diogenes, and Mount Macedon, 3324 feet, in the curve north of Lancefield; Mount Cavern, The Cardinal, Ravenscroft Hill, Mount Misery, Watershed Hill, St. Mary's Hill, Ben Major, Mount Buangor, 3247 feet, Mount Ararat, 2020 feet, and Kirk's Hill, in the Bald Hills and in the Pyrenees.

Offshoots from the main range are exceedingly numerous, especially in the eastern part of the State. Of those lying to the north of the range the following may be mentioned: - From Forest Hill to St. Bernard's Mount the main range forms the southern boundary of the counties of Benambra and Bogong. In County Benambra, a range forming the western watershed of the Indi River, and containing Mount Misery, leads to Mount Gibbo, 5764 feet. This mountain forms a central point from which at least six distinct chains branch out in various directions. Most of these ranges have offshoots of their own. The principal peaks Are Pine Mountain, Mount Pininbar, 4100 feet, Black Mountain, Burrowa Mountain, 4151 feet, Baringamah, Cooyatong, 3270 feet, Mount Bernard, Walra, 2638 feet, Granyah. 3620 feet, Hore's Hill, Mount Talgarna, 2101 feet, Wheeler's Gibbo, The Brothers, McFarlane's Lookout, and Mount Leinster.

County Bogong, which lies between the Mitta Mitta River on the east and the Ovens River on the west, is, with the exception of its north-western part, practically a solid mass of mountains. In its easternmost range are Mount Wills, 5758 feet, Mount Cooper, Mount Martin, and Granite Peak. The Bundarrah Range, with Mount Cope, 6015 feet, and Mount Fainter is a westerly offshoot from the southern part of this range. From Mount Wills another range branches off, which contains Mount Bogong, 6508 feet, and Towanga. 4151 feet. From Mount Hotham a spur is sent out to the north which contains Mount Loch, 5900 feet, Mount Feathertop, 6306 feet, and Mount Stanley, 3444 feet.

West of the Ovens River the country becomes more level, and the ranges to the north of the main range are shorter. In a range, generally known as the Buffalo Mountains, which goes northward from St. Bernard's Mount, are Mount Cobbler, 5349 feet, Mount Typo, and Mount Buffalo, 5645 feet. A range going due west from Mount Howitt contains The Bluff, while in another range going north from Mount Matlock is Flour Bag Hill. The Cerberean Range forms the boundary between Counties Wonnangatta and Anglesey, and has in it Mount Torbreck, 5001 feet, and Mount Enterprise. It is continued northward by a range containing Mount Battery, Wombat Hill, Table Top, Hat Hill, 2.544 feet, and Mount Samaria, 3138 feet.

Farther west are the Puzzle Range and the Strathbogie Ranges, in which are Mount Barran, Mount Wombat, 2659 feet, Sugarloaf Hill, Bailey's Hill, Upton Hill and Mount Barnard. Between the Strathbogie Ranges and the main range are some peaks, in County Anglesey, among which may be mentioned Mount Caroline, Junction Hill, Mount Millar, Boundary Hill, Ewing Hill, The Sisters, Mount Mackenzie, and Breach Peak.

A range which stretches north towards Bendigo contains Mount Alexander, 2435 feet, Mount Gaspard, and Mount Prospect.

Farther west only a few isolated ranges and peaks are found north of the Great Dividing Range, among which the following may be mentioned : - Mount Hooghly, near Dunolly, and farther north - Mount Moliagul, Mount Kooyoora, Mount Korong, 1408 feet, Mount Gowar, Mount Kerang, and Mount Egbert. West of the Avoca River are Avoca Hill, 2461 feet, Landsborough Hill, 1903 feet, Navarre Hill, 1355 feet, and Bolangum, 1225 feet.

On the southern side of the main range a branch follows the New South Wales boundary from Forest Hill to Cape Howe, and throws off various spurs to the south into County Croajingolong. In this range are Mount Tingaringy, 4771 feet, Mount Delegete, 4307 feet, Mount Tennyson, 3422 feet, Mount Merragunegin, Mount Buckle, 1465 feet, and Mount Carlyle, 1189 feet, near Cape Howe. Peaks of the southern spurs are Mount, Ellery, 4251 feet, Mount Raymond, Mount Whittaker, Mount Bowen, Mount Watt, Mount Buck, Mount Bulla Bulla, Mount Deddick, and Sugarloaf Peak. Among the more or less isolated peaks of County Croajingolong may be mentioned Genoa Peak, 1611 feet, Mount Kay, 3254 feet, Mount Everard, and Mount Cann.

In a range running south from Cobboras through County Tambo are Black Mountain, Mount Statham, Mount Stewart, Campbells Nob, Mount Murindal, Mount Dawson, Mount McLeod, Mount Tara, 2009 feet, and Nowa Nowa Hill. In a range farther to the west and on the eastern bank of the Tambo River are Mount Bindi, Mount Hopeless, Mount Tongio, and Mount Elizabeth.

In County Dargo, several ranges are stretching southward towards Bairnsdale. The most important of these ranges is known as the Mountain Ash Range. In it and the adjoining ranges are Notch Hill, 4507 feet, Mount Bald Head, Mount Little Dick, Mount Alfred, and Mount Taylor, 1571 feet. In a range farther to the west are Mount Birregun, Quagmunjie Hill, and Mount Thomson.

A group of mountains in the south-eastern corner of County Wonnangatta includes Snowy Bluff, Mount Kent. 5129 feet, Castle Hill, 4860 feet, and Mount Pretty Boy.
The Strzelecki Range extends southward from Mount Selma, and contains Mount Useful. 4270 feet, and farther to the west Mount Lookout, 3590 feet.

In County Buln Buln, south of the Latrobe River, are a number of ranges gradually leading down towards Wilson's Promontory, and known under the generic name of the Buln Buln Mountains. On the peninsula are Mount Singapore, Mount Hunter, Roundbacked Hill, Mount Vereker, 2092 feet, Mount Leonard, Mount Latrobe, 2366 feet. Mount Ramsay, Mount Oberon, Mount Wilson, 2350 feet, Mount Norgate, and nearest to the Promontory, Mount Boulder, 1725 feet. From here the range can be traced over the islands of the Flinders group to Tasmania.

From the Buln Buln Mountains the range extends westward along the coast, and contains Mount Liptrap, near the Cape of the same name, Mount Wellington, on French Island. and Arthur's Seat, 1031 feet, Bald Hill, and Mount Martha, on the eastern shores of Port Phillip.

County Evelyn is traversed by the River Yarra, whose northern watershed is formed by the main Dividing Range, and the southern watershed by the Baw Baw Mountains and the Dandenong Range. Peaks in this district that have not already been mentioned are Mount Monda, 2974 feet, The Black Spur, Mount Juliet, 3631 feet, and Mount Riddell.

West of Port Phillip are the Otway Ranges, leading from the main range towards Cape Otway, and containing Peter's Hill, 1280 feet, and Lawry's Hill, and west of the Cape, Wattle Hill, and Mount Mackenzie.

West of the Yarrowee River are Mount Mercer and Mount Lawaluk, and, in the neighbourhood of Scarsdale, Mount Erip, 1539 feet.

A more important range turns southward from the extremity of the main range. In its northern part it is known as the Grampians, and farther south as the Serra Range. It contains Briggs' Bluff, Mount Difficult, 2657 feet, and Mount Abrupt, 2721 feet. Farther west lies the Victoria Range with The Ass's Ears, Mount Thackeray, and The Chimney Gap; and farthest west, the Black Range, with Mount Talbot, Mount Byron, West Glen Isla, Conical Hill, and East Glen Isla.

The extreme western district of Victoria contains a number of isolated peaks, many of which are of volcanic origin. Among these may be mentioned Mount Hamilton, 1050 feet. Mount Fyans, Mount Shadwell, Mount Noorat, 1024 feet. Richmond Hill and Mount Kincaid lie near the western boundary of the State. A further group of these volcanic hills lies across the border in the south-eastern district of South Australia.

(v.) Tasmania. - After reaching Tasmania, the Great Dividing Range spreads out towards the south and west. Two main systems may be distinguished, one lying between the eastern coast and the more or less level tract of land traversed by the Mersey and Tamar Rivers and their tributaries flowing northward, and the Derwent and its tributaries flowing southward, while the other system, both higher and larger in extent, lies to the west of the tract of land just described. The eastern system is again divided into a northern and a southern part by the South Esk River. A peculiarity of the Tasmanian mountain systems is that the country everywhere rises in terraces, which are locally known as "Tiers."

In the north-eastern mountain system the following peaks may be mentioned Mount Cameron. 1808 feet, The Batger, Little Mount Horror, Mount Horror, Mount Stronach, Mount Arthur, 3895 feet, The Blue Tier, Mount Pearson, 1203 feet, Mount Maurice, Mount Victoria, 3964 feet, Mount Barrow, 4644 feet, Ben Nevis, 3910 feet, Mount Saddleback, Ben Lomond, 5010 feet, the Mount Nicholas Range, 2812 feet, and St. Patrick's Head, 2227 feet. In the south-eastern system, which may be said to stretch as far south as Frederick Henry Bay, although its offshoots are to be found on Tasman's Peninsula, are the Campbelltown Mountain, 2356 feet, St. Paul's Dome, 3368 feet, Mount St. John, 2550 feet, Snow Hill, 3175 feet, Lyne's Sugarloaf, 1777 feet, Mount Connection, 2630 feet. Mount Peter, Mount Freycinet, 2014 feet, Fadden's Tier, 2144 feet, Toorns, 2222 feet, Little Swanport, 1757 feet, Mount Murray, Brown Mountain, 2598 feet, Mount Morrison, and Prosser's Sugarloaf, 2195 feet. In the southern offshoots of the system are Mount Lord and Mount Connection, 1131 feet.