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ARTS AND CULTURAL HERITAGE
Attendance rates for females tended to be higher than for males across all cultural venues and events (table 14.2). Other than cinema attendance (males 63%, females 68%), the highest attendance rate for males was zoological parks and aquariums (34%), while females were most likely to visit a library (41%).
The cinema was the most highly attended cultural venue for all age groups, with attendance peaking in the 15-24 age group. Other popular venues and events for the 15-24 age group were zoological parks and aquariums, libraries and popular music concerts, all of which recorded an attendance rate of 37% in 2005-06.
People aged 25-34 and 35-44 years were more likely to attend heritage venues than arts venues or events, with high attendance rates at zoological parks and aquariums, botanic gardens and libraries. The most popular arts event for these age groups was popular music concerts, followed by other performing arts.
Heritage venues were also generally more popular than arts venues in the 45-54 and 55-64 age groups. Botanic gardens were the most popular venue in these age groups, closely followed by libraries and zoological parks and aquariums. Popular music concerts were also highly attended in the 45-54 age group.
People aged 65 and over were most likely to attend libraries (32%), botanic gardens (30%) or art galleries (19%).
Participation and attendance by children
The 2009 Survey of Children's Participation in Cultural and Leisure Activities found that in the 12 months to April 2009, just over one in three children aged 5-14 years (916,300 children) participated in at least one selected organised cultural activity outside school hours, such as playing a musical instrument, or participating in dancing, singing or drama. The same survey showed that 71% of children (1.9 million) attended at least one selected cultural venue or event, such as a public library, museum or art gallery, or performing arts event.
Overall, participation rates for children in at least one cultural activity did not change significantly between 2006 and 2009. The more notable increases in attendance rates between 2006 and 2009 were for museums or art galleries, which increased from 37% in 2006, to 41% in 2009, and attending performing arts events (30% in 2006 compared with 34% in 2009) (table 14.3).
Table 14.4 shows that in the 12 months prior to interview in 2009, involvement in each of the arts and cultural heritage activities varied by sex. For example, 26% of girls were involved in dancing compared with 3% of boys.
Girls had generally higher attendance at cultural venues and events. The attendance rate for girls at performing arts events (38%) was significantly higher than for boys (29%) in 2009. Attendance rates at public libraries were also higher for girls (56%) than for boys (52%). In contrast, there was no significant difference in the proportion of girls and boys visiting museums and art galleries in the same 12 month period.
An estimated 45% of girls and 23% of boys were involved in at least one of the selected cultural activities. Playing a musical instrument remained the most popular selected cultural activity for boys (19%), while dancing remained the most popular cultural activity for girls (26%).
Participation rates for singing, dancing and drama were similar for boys for all the age groups (table 14.4). However, participation rates for playing a musical instrument in the boys aged 9 to 11 age group (25%) was more than double the boys aged 5 to 8 group (12%).
For playing a musical instrument the rate of participation for girls increased from 13% at ages 5 to 8, to 27% at ages 9 to 11. In contrast, participation rates for girls for dancing declined from 31% in the 5 to 8 age group to 20% in the 12 to 14 age group.
The 2009 Survey of Children's Participation in Cultural and Leisure Activities also collected information on activities such as reading for pleasure, watching television, videos or DVDs, and playing electronic or computer games - activities which involve children experiencing products of the arts.
While participation rates were similar for boys and girls for some leisure activities (watching television, DVDs and videos and homework or other study) they varied for others (table 14.5). Boys were more likely to take part in other screen-based activities (boys 87% compared to girls 80%), riding a bike (boys 66% compared with girls 54%) and skateboarding, rollerblading or riding a scooter (boys 56% compared with girls 42%). On the other hand, girls were more likely to participate in reading for pleasure (80%) and art and craft activities (60%) than boys (65% and 37% respectively).
Nearly all children participated in at least one of the selected activities.
Museums (including art galleries) engage in the acquisition, collection management, conservation, interpretation, communication and exhibition of heritage objects and artefacts. Heritage objects include those that inform people about natural science, applied science, history, transport, art and other cultures. The Collections Australia Network (CAN) website provides access to a database of information on national, state, territory, regional and local museums. CAN includes a searchable database of objects from collecting institutions across Australia.
At the end of June 2008 there were 180 art museums/galleries, 768 social history museums, 425 historic properties/sites and 83 other museum locations operating in Australia (table 14.6). Just under half (48%) of the locations were operated without paid employees, relying on the work of 9,889 volunteers. Volunteers were also important to museums operating with employees. The 753 museum locations with paid employees employed a total of 7,856 persons assisted by 13,537 volunteers. There were 52.5 million museum objects and artworks held by museums at the end of June 2008. However, only 5.4% of these were on display. There were 30.7 million admissions to museums during 2007-08. Art museums received income of $396m during this time, while all the other types of museums combined received $603m. The main source of income was government funding ($658m) for all types of museums.
The main activities of libraries are the acquisition, collection, organisation, preservation and loan of library materials such as books, magazines, manuscripts, musical scores, maps and prints. The National Library of Australia (NLA) is the country's largest reference library and its role is to ensure that documentary resources of national significance relating to Australia and the Australian people - as well as significant non-Australian library materials - are collected, preserved and made accessible. The NLA website provides online visitors with access to information about more than 5,400 Australian libraries, their collections and services via the Australian Libraries Gateway.
As at June 2008 there were over 1,500 Public Libraries in Australia (table 14.7). Over a quarter (394) were located in New South Wales (NSW), 340 (22%) in Queensland and 317 (21%) in Victoria. There were over 9.9m registered library users in Australia and almost one third of these were registered in NSW, however the number of registered library users (per capita) was highest in South Australia with 62% (or 991,000 persons).
In 2007-08, almost all public libraries (93%) provided members of the public with internet access, with all public libraries within NSW and Victoria providing access to the internet. On average there were 5.5 public terminals with internet access per public library in Australia. The average was highest in Tasmania with approximately 11 such terminals per public library.
There are a range of arts and heritage industries operating within Australia, which contribute to the cultural output of the country.
The latest data on performing arts industries from the service industry surveys is from 2006-07.
At 30 June 2007, there were 726 performing arts operation businesses or organisations (table 14.8). Of these, 180 were primarily involved in popular music performance, 102 in symphony and choral performance, 143 in drama production, 36 in dance production and 264 in other music and theatre production. These 726 organisations comprised 381 for-profit businesses and 345 not-for-profit organisations. Collectively, these organisations employed 6,569 people at the end of June 2007. In addition to paid employment, there were 6,582 volunteers during the month of June 2007.
During 2006-07, performing arts operation organisations or businesses generated a total income of $733m and incurred total expenses of $683m.
Film and video production
The film and video production industry comprises businesses mainly engaged in the production of motion pictures on film or video tape for theatre or television projection, and includes services such as casting, film editing and titling. The industry is well-developed in Australia and comprises, for the most part, small specialised companies producing programs ranging from feature films to sports coverage, documentaries and television commercials. According to Screen Australia the major market for Australian audiovisual products is the domestic television broadcast industry. However, export markets are also important for feature films and television dramas, some high-budget documentaries and some commercials.
At the end of June 2007 there were 2,492 businesses primarily engaged in providing film and video production and post-production services, employing 13,844 people. The total income of these businesses for 2006-07 was $2,028m, with 56% ($1,132m) coming from film and video production, followed by post-production services (21.1% or $428m), and production services (16.9% or $344m) (table 14.9).
There were 10,032 people employed in the television broadcasting industry at the end of June 2007. These businesses earned a total income during 2006-07 of $6,813m with expenses totalling $6,153m. This produced an operating profit/ surplus before tax of $671m.
During 2006-07, businesses undertaking television, film and video production incurred $1,882m in production costs. Productions made specifically for television accounted for most of this amount ($1,366m or 73%). Of these productions, the highest costs were incurred by news and current affairs programs ($412m) and light entertainment and variety ($306m). However, these types of programs were among the cheapest to produce on a cost-per-hour basis at $20,000 and $59,300 respectively. These figures contrast starkly with the corresponding figures for drama ($341,500 per hour), children's drama ($229,200) and documentaries ($140,900) (graph 14.10).
14.10 Average cost per hour, By type of production(a) - 2006-07
Commercial broadcast hours represent the airtime of completed first release programs, including commercial breaks. Program re-runs are excluded. In 2006-07 there were 55,546 commercial broadcast hours for first release productions made primarily for television. Sport accounted for the highest number of broadcast hours with 22,181 hours (40%), followed by news and current affairs with 20,556 hours (37%) (graph 14.11).
14.11 first release commercial broadcast hours, By type of production(a) - 2006-07
Employment and other involvement
The 2006 Census of Population and Housing provides information on the number and characteristics of people aged 15 years and over whose main job in the week prior to the Census was in a heritage or arts occupation. People who had unpaid involvement in heritage or arts activities - or who worked part time in these activities but had another job they regarded as their main job in the week prior to the Census - were not recorded in the Census as having heritage arts occupations.
The 2006 Census found that 284,793 people had their main (paid) job in a cultural occupation. Of this number, the majority, 224,040 (79%) worked in an arts occupation, compared to 35,573 (12%) who worked in a heritage occupation and 25,180 (9%) who worked in an other cultural occupation not attributable to heritage or arts.
Of the people who reported having a heritage occupation, 75% were females. Females were more highly represented in most selected heritage occupations apart from environmental manager, gallery or museum technician and park ranger.
In contrast, the Census showed that the majority of people who held an arts occupation as their main (paid) job, were male (58%). Males were more heavily represented in almost all arts occupations apart from music teacher (private tuition).
Table 14.12 shows the number of people who were recorded as having their main (paid) job in selected heritage and arts occupations in the 2006 Census.
Many cultural industries are run as commercial operations and are exclusively staffed by paid employees. A few industries, however, rely heavily on the assistance of volunteers. The Service Industry Surveys found that there were 23,426 people volunteering at museums during June 2008, which is more than three times the number of people who were in paid employment in the industry, during the same period. Similarly, 6,582 people undertook voluntary work in performing arts operation during June 2007, which was slightly more than the number of paid employees.
Some 6,853 people volunteered in public libraries during June 2004 (approximately one volunteer for every two paid employees). Performing arts venue operations had 1,935 people volunteering in the industry in 2007, compared to 5,876 paid employees.
The Cultural Ministers Council (CMC) was established in 1984 to provide a forum for the exchange of views on issues affecting cultural activities in Australia and New Zealand. It comprises those ministers from the Australian, state and territory governments who have responsibility for the arts and cultural heritage. The corresponding minister from the New Zealand Government is also a member. Additional information about the CMC and its activities can be obtained from the website.
The Australia Council for the Arts is the Australian Government's arts funding and advisory body. The Australia Council supports young, emerging, developing and established Australian artists - and arts organisations - through diverse funding options and a range of grant programs. During 2007-08, 4,091 grant and project applications were made to the Australia Council, of which 1,736 were successful. These grants totalled $146.9m. Around 67% of the grants, amounting to 93% of the funding, went to organisations or groups, while the remaining grants, with an average value of $17,460, were paid directly to individual artists. Further information about the Australia Council and its activities can be obtained from its website.
In 2007-08, total government funding for cultural activities was around $6.3 billion (table 14.13). Of this, the Australian Government contributed $2,359m (37%) to total cultural funding while the state and territory governments contributed $2,952m (47%) and local governments provided $1,000m (16%).
The Australian Government continues to allocate the majority of its cultural funding (76%) to Arts activities. In 2007-08 the Australian Government allocated $1,788m to Arts activities and $571m to Heritage activities. In contrast, the state and territory governments expended the majority of their funds on Heritage with $2,266m (77%) of their total cultural funding in this area while Arts activities received $686m or 23% of funding. In 2007-08, local government funding for both heritage and arts activities was $1000m. This was an increase of $75m (or 8%) on 2006-07 when local government funding was $926m.
Radio and television services received the majority of Australian government Arts funding at $1,353m (76%) while Other museums and cultural heritage received the majority of Heritage funding at $232m (41%). Across all categories, the largest recipient of state and territory government funding was Environmental heritage which received $1,345m, accounting for 46% of the total state and territory cultural funding. The majority of state and territory Arts funding was allocated to Performing arts venues which received $235m (34.%). Almost two thirds of the local government funding in 2007-08 went to libraries ($653m).
An ABS survey of the performing arts industry, conducted in respect of 2006-07, found that government funding contributed $166m to the income of businesses mainly involved in performing arts venue operations, and $174m to performing arts operations. These amounts comprised 34% and 24% respectively of total income.
A survey of museums conducted in respect of 2007-08, found that funding from all levels of government contributed $658m to the total income of museums. This amount included both current and capital funding, and funding for one-off projects. Art museums received $258m of the funding, and other museums and historic properties/sites the remaining $400m.