LABOUR FORCE COMPARABILITY OVER TIME
COMPARABILITY OVER TIME
Frequency of collection, collection and sampling methods, concepts, data item definitions, classifications and time series analysis techniques are all subject to change or development. Some survey features are reviewed regularly, while others are changed as the need arises. Despite the overriding need for long-term comparability, sound survey practice requires careful and continuing maintenance and development to ensure the integrity of the data and the efficiency of the collection.
While Labour Force Survey (LFS) publications in various forms exist for a period of over 50 years and provide documentation of changes in survey practice over that time, individual historical publications are not necessarily the best source for extraction of comparable historical data series. Apart from the regular revision of seasonally adjusted and trend series, and the five yearly population benchmark revisions, from time to time other revisions are made to maintain comparability after changes to questions and definitions.
The primary sources for labour force series adjusted to the most current comparable basis are:
- Labour Force Historical Timeseries, Australia, 1966 to 1984 (cat. no. 6204.0.55.001);
- Labour Force Australia, Historical Summary 1966-1984 (cat. no. 6204.0) (for quarterly series from August 1966 to November 1977);
- The Labour Force 1964 to 1968 Historical Supplement (Reference no. 6.22, - only available in hardcopy) (February 1964 to May 1966 data, original); and
- The Labour Force 1977 (cat. no. 6204.0), for the last release of seasonally adjusted series for February 1964 to May 1966.
The major events and changes to the LFS are outlined below.
- Quarterly survey commenced. State Capital Cities only, including persons aged 14 years and over, but excluding the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population.
- Sample of 1% of households Australia wide, with 1/8 rotation in private households and 1/4 rotation in other households.
- First release of State Capital City series, November 1960 – November 1963. Employment and Unemployment, October 1963 (Ref. no. 6.4 – only available in hardcopy) issued February 1964.
- Estimates and population benchmarks based on 1961 Census of Population and Housing data.
- Labour force definitions based on the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) 1954.
- Quarterly national survey commenced. Capital city series continued in absence of release of national series.
- Capital city estimates and population benchmarks based on 1961 Census data.
- Scope of survey population reduced to persons aged 15 years and over, due to changes in the school leaving age and to conform to definitions used in the 1966 Census.
- Indigenous population was included.
- Additional questions were introduced on steps taken to find a job.
- The grouping of hours worked changed to reflect recommendations from ICLS 1961. Occupation classified according to Classification and Classified List of Occupations (CCLO) 1966 Census edition.
- Industry classified according to Classification and Classified List of Industries (CCLI) 1966 Census edition and 1966 Group Employer Place of Work index.
- Additional questions introduced to better identify employees of incorporated enterprises (some of whom had previously been incorrectly classified as employers or self-employed).
- The Labour Force, Preliminary Estimates, August 1966 – February 1969 (Ref. no. 6.20 – only available in hardcopy). Later publications titled The Labour Force (Ref. no. 6.20 - only available in hardcopy) were released.
- First release of national seasonally adjusted series.
- Annual issue of The Labour Force, Historical Supplement 1964 – 1968 (Ref. no. 6.22) commenced, and subsequent publications titled The Labour Force (Ref. no. 6.22 – only available in hardcopy).
- Classification of trainee teachers changed from 'employed' to 'not in the labour force', to conform to 1971 Census practice and international recommendations regarding activity principles.
- For the period August 1971 to August 1972, industry responses coded to both CCLI and Australian Standard Industrial Classification (ASIC), leading to full adoption of industry classified according to 1971 Census ASIC (August 1969 Preliminary edition) and 1971 Census Industry/Destination zone employer index from November 1972, and conversion of August 1966-May 1971 industry series to ASIC.
- Occupation classified according to CCLO 1971 edition, replacing CCLO 1966 version.
- Questions on country of birth and year of arrival in Australia added.
- February 1972 data published as supplementary survey results and then quarterly in The Labour Force (Ref. no. 6.20 - only available in hardcopy) from May 1972 onwards.
- Sample redesign based on 1971 Census, phased in from May 1972 to November 1972.
- Introduction of different sampling fractions across states and territories, with overall fraction reduced from 1% to 0.67%.
- First release of the preliminary labour force estimates in the quarterly publication, The Labour Force (Preliminary) (Ref. no. 6.32 – only available in hardcopy), was issued in May 1973.
- The seasonal adjustment of estimates for unemployed males, females and persons by separate adjustment of unemployed series by sex (males, females) by age (15-19 years, 20 years and over) was undertaken. Previously, estimates were obtained by a (single) direct adjustment to the total estimate. Seasonally adjusted unemployment estimates for February 1964 to August 1973 were revised.
- For final publication of the February 1964 to May 1966 seasonally adjusted series (using 1966 as the base year and excluding Indigenous population) see The Labour Force, 1977 (cat. no. 6204.0).
- First collection of relationship in household data. Relationship in household (i.e. families) estimates excluded persons and institutions.
- 'Family status' imputed for persons in private households where any member was out of scope, absent for six weeks or more at survey, or who were a visitor. Families estimates based on proxy (household head) weight.
- Labour Force Status and Other Characteristics of Families (cat. no. 6224.0) first published as an irregular. See also Labour Force, Australia (cat. no. 6203.0) as various issues were released between May 1977 and July 1980.
- The first release of preliminary unemployment estimates in the quarterly publication Unemployment, Preliminary Estimates (Ref. no. 6.31), was issued in December 1974.
- Estimates excluded Darwin (due to effects of cyclone Tracy).
- Respondents asked if they looked for work in the last four weeks (previously looked for work last week).
- Availability question added.
- Unemployment series and definition continued on old basis, with separate publication of new question results until February 1976.
- Unemployment definition and series based on new questions adopted from May 1976.
- Estimates and population benchmarks based on 1971 Census benchmarks. Revisions to August 1966 - November 1972 principal series, and from February 1973 onwards, full revision of all estimates and series (including annual seasonal factor re-analysis).
- Following February 1975 question changes, definition of unemployment revised to incorporate active job search in the last four weeks (previously in the last week), and availability to start work in the reference week (with separate provision for temporary illness and future starters). Series revised from February 1975.
- Catalogue numbers replaced reference numbers - cat. no. 6202.0 replaced Ref. no. 6.32 (only available in hardcopy), and cat. no. 6203.0 replaced Ref. no. 6.20 (only available in hardcopy).
- In preparation for the start of monthly surveys in February 1978 (with a new questionnaire, revised 1976 Census based sample and 1976 based population benchmarks), two surveys were conducted simultaneously in November 1977. Of these two surveys, one provided the published November 1977 results, based on the old questionnaire, the old 1971-based sample design (reduced to 0.5%), and the 1971-based population benchmarks. The other survey, based on the new questionnaire and the new, 1976-based sample, was used to prepare adjustment factors and revisions to historical estimates, so that comparable historical series could be published with the first release of February 1978 survey results.
- Occupation classified according to CCLO 1976 edition, replacing CCLO 1971 version.
- Industry classified according to the ASIC 1969 edition and Integrated Business Register employer index.
- Catalogue numbers replaced reference numbers - cat. no. 6201.0 replaced Ref. no. 6.35.
- Monthly national survey commenced.
- The LFS adopted as the official national measure of unemployment.
- Interviews conducted over 2 one-week periods, previously 4 one-week periods.
- Estimates and benchmarks based on 1976 Census data, with series from August 1971 onwards revised to 1976-based benchmarks.
- Complex mix of reweighting unit record files, and/or key series adjustment: not all files, nor all series, were revised (see Appendix 1 of Labour Force Australia, Historical Summary 1966-1984 (cat. no. 6204.0)).
- With the full implementation of the 1976 Census based sample design, 1/8 monthly sample rotation was introduced for non-private dwellings: whole sample now subject to 1/8 rotation.
- New questionnaire introduced with substantial redesign of question wording, structure and sequence to improve data quality. Changes included: separate questions on looking for full-time/looking for part-time job; active search more clearly identified; and availability and future starters better identified. Some impact on employed, main impact on unemployed seeking part-time work.
- New definitions of employment and unemployment adopted. Definition of unemployed persons looking for first job was revised to "unemployed persons who had never worked full- time for two weeks or more". Prior to November 1977, the definition was "unemployed persons who had never had a job". August 1966 to November 1977 series revised to comparable basis, as a result of new questionnaire introduction.
- Seasonally adjusted series continued on a quarterly basis, pending accumulation of sufficient results to permit adjustment of monthly series.
- Annual issue of Labour Force Status and Other Characteristics of Families (cat. no. 6224.0) commenced (July each year except 1981 (June), then June each year from 1986).
- Industry classified according to ASIC 1978 edition, replacing ASIC 1969 edition.
- Occupation classified according to CCLO November 1980 edition, replacing CCLO 1976 version.
- Minor rewording and re-ordering of categories of steps taken to look for work. No impact on data or definitions.
- Seasonally adjusted series introduced for monthly estimates series from February 1978 onwards. Annual seasonal factor re-analysis and series revision carried out at February each year from this survey.
- Full sample changed to sample redesign based on 1981 Census, including modifications to enable production of regional estimates within states, and estimates by State of usual residence.
- Additional questions to identify usual residence and family relationship, with marital status questions reworded and de facto relationships coded as married.
- Additional identification of persons usually working less than 35 hours per week.
- 1981 Australian Standard Geographic Classification (ASGC) adopted, based Labour Force Statistical Regions classification.
- Monthly publication Unemployment, Preliminary (cat. no. 6101.0) discontinued, final release issued in January 1983.
- Scope for 'Family status' (and hence families estimates) restricted to usual residents of private dwellings, where all usual residents were within the survey scope and in on coverage at survey date. 'Family status' and families estimates thus exclude all persons in non-private dwellings, persons visiting private dwellings, or households where any member was out of scope or absent for six weeks or more at survey.
- Estimates and population benchmarks based on 1981 Census data. Estimates for the period October 1982 were revised to full state of usual residence basis on 1981 Census benchmarks. Estimates from February 1978 to September 1982 revised to 1981 benchmarks, but remain on the previous state of enumeration/place of usual residence basis.
- Monthly publication of Relationship in household and Families estimates in Labour Force, Australia (cat. no. 6203.0) commenced. Scope and estimation as per annual collection.
- Industry classified according to ASIC 1983 edition, replacing ASIC 1978 edition.
- Definition of employed persons altered, to include persons working 1 to 14 hours without pay in a family business or farm, in line with ILO definitions (ICLS 1982). Minor question wording and sequence changes as a consequence. Significant break in series for employed, employed part-time, unemployed and related unemployment rates.
- Dependants definition, and the Family status item 'full-time student', includes full-time students aged 15-24 (previously aged 15-20).
- Weighting of families estimates changed, from proxy (household head) weight to harmonic mean of weights of all responding members of the family.
Sept 1987 to Dec 1987
- Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO) introduced for classification of occupation of persons, replacing CCLO 1981.
- Sample redesign based on the 1986 Census. New sample phased in. Overall sample fraction is 0.6%.
- A new 1986 ASGC based Labour Force Statistical Regions classification was used.
- Additional unemployment variable introduced: reason for ceasing last job (job losers/job leavers). No change in definition or break in series.
- Estimates and population benchmarks based on 1986 Census data. All estimates for the period January 1984 onwards revised.
- 'Family type' class 'Other families' split into 'One parent families' and 'Other families'.
Sep 1992 to Dec 1992
- Optical Mark Recognition questionnaire design and data capture method introduced.
- Sample redesign based on the 1991 Census. New sample phased in. Overall fraction is 0.5%.
- The updated 1991 ASGC based Labour Force Statistical Regions classification.
- Introduction of seasonally adjusted and trend series for Employed persons by Industry of main job (at Industry Division level).
- Jervis Bay Territory excluded from the scope of the survey. Previously, it was included in estimates for the Australian Capital Territory.
- Estimates and population benchmarks based on 1991 Census data. All estimates for the period January 1989 on revised.
- Status in employment class titles amended to reflect the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) and International Conference of Status in Employment (ICSE) 1993.
- 'Relationship in household' and 'Family type' classifications aligned with ABS standards, resulting in some breaks in comparability with previous Family status and Family type classifications.
- Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) introduced in place of ASIC 1983 edition. Revised historical estimates of employment published by ANZSIC group from August 1984 onwards.
Aug 1996 to Feb 1997
- Seasonally adjusted and trend estimates of long-term unemployment published for the first time.
- Telephone interviewing implemented progressively. Initial impact on data dissipated by end of implementation period.
Sep 1997 to Apr 1998
- Occupation coded using Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO) Second Edition, replacing the first edition of ASCO.
- Sample redesign phased in based on the 1996 Census. Overall fraction is 0.5%.
- The new 1996 ASGC based Labour Force Statistical Regions classification.
- Estimates and population benchmarks based on 1996 Census data. All estimates for the period January 1995 onwards were revised.
Mar 2000 to Jul 2000
- Computer assisted coding introduced for industry and occupation in place of manual coding and reference to the ABS Business Register.
- Derivation of status in employment changed to remove reference to the ABS Business Register for limited liability information.
- Breaks in series for Status in employment, Industry and Occupation series.
- One rotation group each month enumerated by new questionnaire for evaluation purposes.
- Data converted to existing definitions at estimation stage.
- New South Wales enumeration one week early to allow for Olympic Games.
- New questionnaire implemented. For information on the changes made to the questionnaire, see Information Paper: Questionnaires Used in the Labour Force Survey, 2001 (cat. no. 6232.0).
- New or extended data on: job tenure; underemployment; hours worked; duration of unemployment; and marginal attachment to the labour force.
- Minor definitional changes to employment and unemployment relating to: short term absences; unavailability due to illness; and contributing family workers (ICLS 1982, ICSE-93, ICLS 1998). The core labour force series were revised back to April 1986 to account for these definitional changes.
- Enumeration one week later than usual to avoid overlap with Census.
- Sample redesign phased in from November 2002 to June 2003 based on the 2001 Census. Overall fraction is 0.45%.
- 2001 ASGC based Labour Force Statistical Regions classification introduced for the new design, replacing the 1996 ASGC based Labour Force Statistical Regions classification.
- Sample selection stage in less populated areas based on the ASGC Remoteness structure instead of population density.
- In hotels and motels, only those units occupied by usual residents enumerated.
- A sample frame for Indigenous communities was introduced as an aid to enumeration in the LFS and household surveys generally.
- For more information on the sample redesign, see Information Paper: Labour Force Survey Sample Design, November 2002 (cat. no. 6269.0).
- Monthly publication Labour Force, Australia (cat. no. 6203.0) discontinued, final release issued in March 2003.
- Additional question on underemployed workers and their availability to work extra hours within four weeks of the survey date included.
- For more information on the changes to the questionnaire, see Information Paper: Questionnaires Used in the Labour Force Survey, 2004 (cat. no. 6232.0).
Oct 2003 to Aug 2004
- Monthly publication Labour Force, Australia, Preliminary (cat. no. 6202.0) renamed Labour Force, Australia (cat. no. 6202.0).
- Computer assisted interviewing progressively implemented in place of pen and paper questionnaire.
- Concurrent monthly and quarterly analysis of seasonal adjustment factors introduced in place of annual forward factor analysis and revision. For more information on concurrent seasonal adjustment, see Information Paper: Forthcoming Changes to Labour Force Statistics, 2003 (cat. no. 6292.0).
- Estimates and population benchmarks based on 2001 Census data. All estimates for the period January 1999 to January 2004 revised.
- The definition of unemployed persons was changed to include 'future starters' (persons who had not actively looked for work because they were waiting to start a new job within four weeks from the end of the survey reference week, and could have started in the reference week if the job had been available then). These persons had previously been classified as not in the labour force.
- Historical series from April 2001 were revised to the new basis as part of the benchmark revision. Unit record data revised for the period September 1997 to March 2001, to account for the definitional changes introduced in April 2001.
- Industry and occupation series revised back to August 2000 to include 'not further defined' categories, in cases where there is not enough detail provided to allow the ABS to code persons to the lowest level of these classifications. From the introduction of computer assisted coding in 2000 until November 2003, these responses were proportionally distributed to the most detailed level of the classification.
- For more information on the changes introduced in February 2004, see Information Paper: Forthcoming Changes to Labour Force Statistics, 2003 (cat. no. 6292.0).
- Auto coding (AC) introduced for the coding of industry and occupation data. Industry and occupation codes are applied automatically by a computer matching the survey responses to an industry or occupation index. Where the AC system is unable to allocate a valid code to a record, the record is then passed on to the Computer Assisted Coding (CAC) system for coding. Comparisons of the estimates of employed persons at the industry Division and occupation Major Group level from each of the two methods showed that application of adjustment factors was not warranted.
- Industry coded using both the new classification Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) 2006, and the previous classification Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) 1993.
- Occupation coded using both the new classification Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO), and the previous classification Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO) Second Edition.
- Dual-coding continued until November 2008.
- Composite estimation introduced, replacing the previous estimation method. Historical series from April 2001 to April 2007 were revised to the new basis as part of the implementation of composite estimation. Unit record data was also revised for this period.
- For more information on composite estimation, see Information Paper: Forthcoming Changes to Labour Force Statistics, 2007 (cat. no. 6292.0).
- Sample redesign phased in from November 2007 to June 2008, based on the 2006 Census of Population and Housing. Overall fraction is 0.32%. Sampling efficiencies related to the introduction of composite estimates enabled an 11% reduction in the sample, with only minor reductions in data quality relative to the previous design.
- For more information on the sample redesign, see Information Paper: Labour Force Survey Sample Design, November 2007 (cat. no. 6269.0).
- The sample was reduced by 24% in July 2008 as one of a range of ABS savings initiatives for the 2008-09 financial year, with coverage representing approximately 0.24% of the population aged 15 years and over.
- For information about the sample reduction, refer to Information Paper: Labour Force Survey Sample Design, November 2007, Second edition (cat. no. 6269.0).
- Interviewing procedures changed to commence on a Sunday between the 5th and the 11th of the month, and the reference week changed to be the prior Sunday to Saturday – interviews previously commenced on the Monday between the 6th and 12th of each month (with exception at the end and beginning of each calendar year). The new procedures were introduced to increase the likelihood of contact with households, thereby increasing the efficiency and accuracy of the LFS estimates.
- An improved method for calculating families estimates was introduced. Detailed information on the improved method is provided in Information Paper: Improvements to Family Estimates from the Labour Force Survey (cat. no. 6224.0.55.002).
- The ANZSIC 2006 classification system replaced ANZSIC 1993 for industry employment estimates.
- The ANZSCO classification system replaces the classification, Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO) Second Edition for occupation employment estimates.
- The time series spreadsheets previously published in Labour Force, Australia, Spreadsheets (cat. no. 6202.0.55.001) are now included in Labour Force, Australia (cat. no. 6202.0).
- Estimates compiled using population benchmarks based on results from the 2006 Census, with data for the period June 2001 to January 2009 revised to reflect the latest population estimates.
- Regional estimates are classified to the Labour Force Statistical Regions based on the 2006 Australian Standard Geographical Classification. Previous estimates were based on the 2001 Australian Standard Geographical Classification.
- Gross flows estimates released from the LFS and included in data cube GM1 - Labour Force Statistics and Gross Changes (flows) by Sex, State and Age in Labour Force, Australia (cat. no. 6202.0).
- The July 2008 sample reduction was reinstated progressively from September to December 2009.
- Detailed information about the sample reinstatement is available in Information Paper Labour: Force Survey Sample Design, Nov 2007 (Third edition) (cat. no. 6269.0).
- Labour force estimates compiled using updated population benchmarks that incorporate revisions made to Net Overseas Migration estimates, with data for the period July 2006 to June 2010 revised to reflect the latest population estimates.
- The derivation of the forecasted net overseas migration component of LFS population benchmarks updated to use assumptions that take into account a range of available supplementary data sources and relevant information to forecast population changes in the short-term. These were previously based on the assumption that the previous year's net overseas migration (for the required quarter) movements were representative of the current year's movement.
- Looking on the internet was added to looking in newspapers as a passive job search step, and references to Centrelink touch screens were removed from job search steps. Job search step 'check factory noticeboards' was changed to 'checked noticeboards.'
- Revisions to employment by industry estimates for the period November 1984 to May 1994 were made to reflect improvements made to the concordance between the formerly used Australian Standard Industrial Classification (ASIC 1983) and the current Australian and New Zealand Industry Classification (ANZSIC 2006).
- Revisions were also made to the time series spreadsheets for the period April 1986 to August 1997, to incorporate more accurate estimates from the source data and improve coherence between labour force products.
- A break in series was also introduced for duration of unemployment estimates to separate the synthetic estimates produced for the period April 1986 to March 2001 from the estimates directly measured from April 2001 onwards.
- Labour force estimates from July 2008 to October 2012 revised to align the labour force population benchmarks with the latest available information on population growth.
- Online self-completion of the LFS progressively introduced, with one survey group initially being offered the option of self-completing the survey on-line in place of a face-to-face or telephone interview.
- Information paper: Outcomes of the Labour Household Surveys Content Review, 2012 (cat. no. 6107.0) released, outlining planned changes for the core monthly and quarterly LFS, the labour supplementary surveys, and the labour Multipurpose Household Survey (MPHS) topics.
- Expanded the offer of online self-completion to 50% of each new incoming survey group.
- Sample redesign phased in from May to August 2013 based on the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. For the key LFS estimates, the 2011 sample design generally maintains standard errors at levels targeted under the 2006 sample design. Generally the previous design achieved lower levels of sampling error than the sample was designed for, allowing for a reduction in the 2011 sample size to match the 2006 targets.
- For more information on the sample redesign, see Information Paper: Labour Force Survey Sample Design, May 2013 (cat. no. 6269.0).
- Online self-completion was offered to 100% of private dwellings in each incoming survey group.
- Estimates compiled using population benchmarks aligned with ERP based on the 2011 Census. Data for the period June 1991 to December 2013 were revised to reflect the rebased population estimates. For more information, refer to the article ‘Rebenchmarking Labour Force Estimates to the 2011 Census of Population and Housing’.
- Regional estimates produced at the Statistical Area Level 4 (SA4) level of the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS), with data released on a consistent ASGS basis back to October 1998. Previous estimates were based on the 2006 Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC). For more information on regional estimates, see Information Paper: Regional Labour Force Statistics, 2014 (cat. no. 6262.0).
- Composite estimation was applied to all estimates from July 1991 (previously only back April 2001).
- Refined procedures for respondent follow-up introduced, resulting in expected response rates ranging between 93 to 95% each month (previously 95 to 97% each month). These procedures were introduced as part of a broader program of ABS work to enhance the cost effectiveness of its response follow-up strategies, while maintaining the high quality of its statistics.
- 100% of private dwellings were offered online self-completion.
- New questionnaire implemented. Minor definitional changes made to active job search steps and duration of unemployment.
- For information on the changes made to the questionnaire, see Information Paper: Forthcoming Changes to Labour Force Statistics, Jun 2014 (cat. no. 6292.0).
- Changes made to the labour force seasonal adjustment methodology to account for the change in seasonal effects resulting from changes to the supplementary survey program, which were observed during the July-September 2014 period. These changes were applied to the period from December 2013. See articles in Labour Force, Australia, Oct 2014 and Labour Force, Australia, Nov 2014 (cat. no. 6202.0).
- Labour force data for the period July 2011 to January 2015 were revised to reflect updated population benchmarks.
- Further refinement to the changes to the labour force seasonal adjustment methodology to account for the change in seasonal effects resulting from changes to the supplementary survey program. These changes were applied to the historical period prior to December 2013.
- Commencement of quarterly population benchmark revisions, coinciding with the availability of updated benchmarks immediately prior to each quarter month (i.e. February, May, August and November).
- For more information on the rebenchmarking methodology, see the February 2015 issue of Labour Force, Australia (cat. no. 6202.0).
- Gross flow estimates were expanded to include the 'unmatched' components of the sample, for completeness.
- Minor wording change to one question relating to the job search activity undertaken during the reference week. The question wording was updated to remove reference to the defunct 'Job Services Australia' program. The wording of "Job Services Australia provider or any other employment agency" was changed to "employment agency". Analysis confirmed there was no statistical impact from this change.
- Introduction of 'Insights from the original data' commentary and accompanying spreadsheet; an enhanced approach to presenting sample decomposition for month-to-month movements.
- Introduction of 12 month rolling averages for regional labour force estimates, and accompanying advice.
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- Rebenchmarked labour force estimates for 2011-2017 released, based on preliminary 2016 Census-based population estimates.