4727.0.55.008 - Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey: Consumption of Food Groups from the Australian Dietary Guidelines, 2012-13  
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 02/11/2016  First Issue
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MILK, YOGHURT, CHEESE AND ALTERNATIVES

Certain dairy products and their non-dairy alternatives are an essential component of a healthy diet. Milk, cheese and yoghurt are rich sources of calcium, protein, vitamins and minerals. The Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) recommend choosing low fat varieties for everyone over two years of age as full fat varieties can increase the saturated fat content of the diet and reduced fat varieties enable nutrient guidelines to be met without exceeding energy requirements. Full fat varieties are recommended for children under two.1

Alternatives are available for those who do not consume dairy. Products such as calcium-enriched soy or rice drinks count towards the serves in this food group. Other products high in calcium such as almonds, tofu, seafood, fish with bones and many plant foods may also be consumed as alternatives but are not included in this analysis for the milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives food group.2


How much is a serve of milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives?*

A standard serve is (500-600 kJ) or:
  • 1 cup (250ml) fresh, UHT long life, reconstituted powdered milk or buttermilk
  • cup (120ml) evaporated milk
  • 2 slices (40 g) of hard cheese, such as cheddar
  • cup yoghurt

*Choose mostly reduced fat

Source: National Health and Medical Research Council1



CONSUMPTION OF MILK, YOGHURT, CHEESE AND ALTERNATIVES


In 2012-13 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 2 years and over consumed an average 1.2 serves of milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives per day. On average, 2-18 year olds consumed a greater number of serves than those 19 years and over (1.4 serves compared with 1.1 serves), with the peak consumption occurring among 2-3 year olds with an average 2.3 serves per day.

This graph show the mean serves of milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives from non-discretionary sources consumed per day for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 2-70 years by age group and sex.  See Table 1.1.
    (a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
    (b) Based on Day 1. See Glossary for definition.
    (c) From non-discretionary sources.
    Source: National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2012-13.


The average daily consumption of milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives for each age-sex group of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, with the exception of children aged 2-3 years and girls 4-8 years, was considerably lower than the respective recommend number of serves.

Milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives: Recommended number of serves per day and average serves consumed




Age group (years)

Recommended minimum(a)

Average(b)



Serves

Serves






Males

Females

Males

Females


2-3

1

1

2.5

2.1


4-8

2

1

1.2

1.4


9-11

2

3

1.5

1.3


12-13

3

3

1.0

1.1


14-18

3

3 *

1.5

0.8


19-50

2

2*

1.3

1.0


51-70

2

4

1.0

1.0


71+

3

4

..

..


Total(c)

..

..

1.3

1.1




(a) National Health and Medical Research Council, 2013, Australian Dietary Guidelines https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/n55_australian_dietary_guidelines_130530.pdf
(b) From non-discretionary sources
(c) Includes persons aged 71 years and over.
.. Not available.
*The Guidelines recommend 3.5 serves of milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives for pregnant women up to 18 years, and 4 serves for breastfeeding women the same age. For breastfeeding and pregnant women 19-50 years the Guidelines recommend 2.5 serves.
Source: National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2012-13


AMOUNT FROM MILK, YOGHURT, CHEESE AND ALTERNATIVES

Dairy milk provided almost two-thirds (65%) of the serves of this group. This was followed by cheese (30%), yoghurt and dairy snacks (4.9%) and 0.3% from dairy alternatives (such as calcium enriched soy and rice drinks).

This graph shows proportion of serves of types of from non-discretionary sources milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives by age group for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 2-70 years. See Table 5.1.
    (a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
    (b) Based on Day 1. See Glossary for definition.
    (c) From non-discretionary sources.
    (d) Includes dairy snacks such as custard and fromage frais.
    Source: National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2012-13.


Milk added to cereal accounted for 30% of the dairy milk consumed, with the milk in tea and coffee providing 28%.

The cheese contributing to the total non-discretionary milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives was most commonly consumed in sandwiches, rolls and on toast (58%). A further 14% was in (non-discretionary) pizza while 8% was consumed alone and not consumed as part of a mixed dish or combined with other food, with the remainder being consumed in other mixed dishes and combinations.


HIGHER, MEDIUM AND LOWER FAT VARIETIES3

The ADG recommends choosing reduced fat varieties of milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives for everyone over two years on most occasions in order to ensure nutrient requirements are met without exceeding energy requirements. The lower fat sub-group (defined as including reduced fat milk and other products having less than 4 g of fat per serving)4 made up 15% of all non-discretionary serves of the milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives group, with 54% being made up of medium fat (defined as regular fat milk plus other products with a fat level between 4 to 10 g per 100 g). Higher fat (which includes mostly cheese and yoghurts with fat content greater than 10 g per 100 g) accounted for 31%.

This graph shows proportion of serves of lower, medium and higher fat milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives from non-discretionary sources by age group for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 2-70 years.  See Table 4.1.
    (a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
    (b) Based on Day 1. See Glossary for definition.
    (c) From non-discretionary sources.
    (d) Includes mostly cheese and yoghurt with fat content greater than 10 g per 100 g.
    (e) Includes regular fat milk and alternatives plus yoghurt and cheese with fat content between 4 g and 10 g per 100 g.
    (f) Includes reduced fat milk and alternatives plus yoghurt and cheese with fat content less than 4 g per 100 g.
    Source: National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2012-13.


Adults 19 years and over consumed a larger proportion of lower fat varieties (18%) compared with those 2-18 years (11%) with the pattern being largely driven by the fat level of dairy milk consumed. For example, just 11% of the milk consumed by 2-18 year olds was lower/reduced fat, compared with 24% for adults 19 years and over.

The Higher fat component of the milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives group was mostly (93%) made up of cheese and accounted for 31% of all the non-discretionary milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives food group. Intakes of higher fat milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives were not significantly different between those aged 2-18 and 19 years and over.


BY REMOTENESS

Overall, the average serves of milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives consumed was higher in non-remote areas than remote (1.3 serves compared with 0.9 serves). Lower fat dairy foods contributed a higher proportion of serves for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in non-remote areas compared with people living in remote areas (17% and 7% respectively).


COMPARED WITH NON-INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

The average intake of milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was lower than that of non-Indigenous people (1.2 serves compared with 1.5 serves). This difference was reflected in both the 2-18 years and 19 years and over age groups. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people also derived a smaller share of serves from low fat dairy products than non-Indigenous people (15% compared with 29%).

This graph shows the mean serves of milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives from non-discretionary sources consumed per day for Australians aged 2-70 years by age group and Indigenous status.  See Table 1.1.
    (a) Based on Day 1. See Glossary for definition.
    (b) From non-discretionary sources.
    Sources: National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2012-13 and the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2011-12.


MILK, YOGHURT CHEESE AND ALTERNATIVE FROM DISCRETIONARY SOURCES

The milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives food group in the ADG excludes all discretionary sources. For this reason, the above analysis also excludes discretionary foods which contain milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives. However, if milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives from discretionary sources were included, they would raise average intakes by 0.2 serves, to 1.5 serves. Children and young people aged 2-18 years had a slightly higher intake of discretionary dairy with 0.3 serves, compared with 0.2 serves in those aged 19 years and over.

This graph shows the mean serves consumed per day of milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives from discretionary and non-discretionary sources for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 2-70 years.  See Table 9.1
    (a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
    (b) Based on Day 1. See Glossary for definition.
    Source: National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2012-13.


Frozen milk products (ice cream and frozen yoghurts) made up the largest proportion of milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives from discretionary sources, at 29%. Chocolate and chocolate based confectionery was the second highest with 17%. These were followed by pizzas (9%) and burgers (6%), both with saturated fat content greater than 5 g/100 g.


ENDNOTES

1. National Health and Medical Research Council, 2013, Australian Dietary Guidelines. Canberra: Australian Government. <https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/n55_australian_dietary_guidelines_130530.pdf >, Last accessed 27/10/2016

2. The ADGs also lists several foods that are likely to contain a similar amount of calcium as a serve of milk, yoghurt or cheese. However, as these alternatives are all classified elsewhere they have not been included within ‘dairy alternatives’. For more information, please see AHS ADG Classification system Explanatory Notes.

3. Lower fat products include reduced fat and skim milk, and yoghurt with less than 4g/100 g of fat. Higher fat dairy products include cheese and yoghurt with a fat content of greater than 10g/100 g. Medium fat products include cheese and yoghurt with a fat content between 4g and 10 g per 100 g. This group also includes regular fat milk, which although mostly has a fat level less than 4 g per 100 g, was included in medium fat to be consistent with the ADG modelling and recommendations. See AHS ADG Classification system Explanatory Notes.

4. National Health and Medical Research Council, 2011, A modelling system to inform the revision of the Australian guide to healthy eating, Canberra: Australian Government <https://www.eatforhealth.gov.au/sites/default/files/files/public_consultation/n55a_dietary_guidelines_food_modelling_111216.pdf>, Last accessed 27/10/2016