4727.0.55.008 - Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey: Consumption of Food Groups from the Australian Dietary Guidelines, 2012-13  
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 02/11/2016  First Issue
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LEAN MEAT AND POULTRY, FISH, EGGS, TOFU, NUTS AND SEEDS AND LEGUMES/BEANS

The lean meat and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds and legumes/beans is a diverse group of foods, both nutritionally and biologically.1 This group is an important source of protein as well as a range of micronutrients such as iodine, iron, zinc, vitamin B12 and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3s).


How much is a serve of lean meats and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds and legumes/beans?*

A standard serve is (500-600 kJ) or:
  • 65 g cooked lean red meats such as beef, lamb, veal, pork, goat or kangaroo (about 90-100 g raw)
  • 80 g cooked lean poultry such as chicken or turkey (100 g raw)
  • 2 large eggs (120 g)
  • 1 cup (150 g) cooked or canned legmes/beans such as lentils, chickpeas or split peas**
  • 170 g tofu
  • 30 g nuts, seeds, peanut or almond butter or tahini or other nut or seed paste***

*Choose those with no added salt.
** Legumes/beans also contribute to serves within the Vegetables and legumes/beans group; see Glossary and Appendix 2 for more information.
***Nuts/seeds also contribute to serves within the unsaturated spreads and oils group; see Glossary and Appendix 2 for more information.

Source: National Health and Medical Research Council1



CONSUMPTION OF LEAN MEAT AND POULTRY, FISH, EGGS, TOFU, NUTS AND SEEDS AND LEGUMES/BEANS


In 2012-13, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people consumed an average 1.6 serves of lean meat and poultry, fish, eggs, nut and seeds and legumes/beans per day. The average number of serves consumed generally increased with age, peaking at 2.3 serves for males aged 19-50 years, and 1.5 serves for females 14-50 years. Males consumed more serves on average than females (1.8 serves and 1.3 serves respectively).

This graph shows the mean serves of lean meat and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds and legumes/beans from non-discretionary sources consumed per day for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, 2-70 years by age group & sex. See Table 1.1
    (a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
    (b) Based on Day 1. See Glossary for definition.
    (c) From non-discretionary sources.
    Source: National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2012-13.


The average daily consumption of lean meats and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds and legumes/beans for each age-sex group of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, with the exception of girls 2-3 years, was significantly less than the respective recommendations. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 9-13 years consumed an average of 1.2 serves, around one-half of the minimum recommended (2.5) for children this age.

Lean meat and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds and legumes/beans: Recommended number of serves per day and average serves consumed




Age group (years)

Recommended minimum(a)

Average(b)



Serves

Serves






Males

Females

Males

Females


2-3

1

1

0.7

0.8


4-8

1

1

0.9

0.9


9-11

2

2

1.2

1.3


12-13

2

2

1.2

0.9


14-18

2

2*

1.8

1.5


19-50

3

2*

2.3

1.5


51-70

2

2

1.9

1.4


71+

2

2

..

..


Total(c)

..

..

1.8

1.3




(a) National Health and Medical Research Council, 2013, Australian Dietary Guidelines https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/n55_australian_dietary_guidelines_130530.pdf
(b) Daily average consumed from non-discretionary sources
(c) Includes persons aged 71 years and over.
.. Not available.
*For pregnant women of all ages, the Guidelines recommend 3.5 serves of lean meats, poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds, and legumes/beans and 2.5 serves for breastfeeding women of all ages.
Source: National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2012-13


TYPES OF LEAN MEAT AND POULTRY, FISH, EGGS, TOFU, NUTS AND SEEDS AND LEGUMES/BEANS

Lean red meat plus poultry made up 79% of the serves consumed from the lean meat and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds and legumes/beans group. Red meat, including beef, veal, lamb, pork and kangaroo contributed almost half (49%), with poultry making up 30%. The remaining serves came from eggs (8.2%), fish and seafood (6.6%), nuts and seeds (4.8%) and legumes (1.8%).

This graph shows proportion of serves of types of lean meat and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds and legumes/beans from non-discretionary sources by age group for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 2-70 years.  See Table 6.1.
    (a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
    (b) Based on Day 1. See Glossary for definition.
    (c) From non-discretionary sources.
    (d) Legumes as a meat alternative. Legumes also count towards the Vegetables and legumes/beans food group.
    (e) Includes beef, veal, lamb, pork and kangaroo.
    Source: National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2012-13.


BY REMOTENESS

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in non-remote areas consumed 0.6 serves less of lean meat and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds and legumes/beans than Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in remote areas (1.4 serves compared with 2.0 serves).

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in remote areas derived a greater proportion of their serves from lean red meats (61% compared with 44% for people in non-remote areas). On the other hand just 19% of meat and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds and legumes/beans consumed by the remote population came from poultry compared with 34% among the non-remote population.


COMPARED WITH NON-INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

On average, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people consumed fewer serves of lean meats and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds and legumes/beans than non-Indigenous people (1.6 serves compared with 1.7 serves).

This graph shows the mean serves of lean meat and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds and legumes/beans from non-discretionary sources consumed per day for Australians aged 2-70 years by age group and Indigenous status. See Table 1.1
    (a) Based on Day 1. See Glossary for definition.
    (b) From non-discretionary sources.
    Sources: National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2012-13 and the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2011-12.


Overall, lean red meats and poultry contributed a greater share of serves for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people compared with non-Indigenous people (79% compared with 67%), while a smaller share came from nuts/seeds and legumes compared to non-Indigenous people (6.7% and 16% respectively).


CONSUMPTION OF NON-LEAN AND PROCESSED MEAT

The estimated number of serves of lean meat and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds and legumes/beans excluded meats defined as non-lean and/or processed. This is consistent with the Australian Dietary Guidelines advice that meat consumption should be limited to the lean and unprocessed varieties.1 The definitions of lean and unprocessed were based on the AHS ADG Classification system2 which used:
    • <10% fat as the criteria for ‘lean meat’ (e.g. lower fat mince)
    • the ‘unprocessed’ sub-classification only, in order to exclude meats such as ham, bacon, salami, and poultry luncheon meats.

In addition to these criteria, any lean meat and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds and legumes/beans from discretionary sources (such as battered, deep-fried fish) were excluded.

On average, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people consumed 0.5 serves of processed meats, and 0.4 serves of non-lean unprocessed meats per day. The greatest consumption of processed meats was among males aged 12-13 years who would consume an average 1.0 serves of processed meats per day.

Overall, the inclusion of higher fat and processed meats and all other discretionary sources of lean meats, poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds and legumes/beans would add an extra serve to the ADG average of 1.6 serves (from lean, unprocessed and non-discretionary sources).

The most common sources of discretionary meats were higher fat sausages, contributing 15% of total discretionary meat. Lamb and mutton (of higher fat varieties3) and beef (of higher fat varieties3) were the next highest sources, with each making up 9%. Ham was the fourth highest, contributing 8%.

This graph shows the mean serves consumed per day of lean meat and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds and legumes/beans from discretionary and non-discretionary sources for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 2-70 years by age group.
    (a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
    (b) Based on Day 1. See Glossary for definition.
    (c) Includes foods such as battered fish and lean chicken in a spring roll.
    (d) Includes lean meat and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds and legumes/beans.
    Source: National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2012-13.


The Guidelines include advice that weekly consumption of lean meats for adults be limited to a maximum of 455 g to reduce the health risks associated with meat and to promote variety within the food group.1 For adult males, the average weekly consumption4 of lean red meats was 506 g, while adult females averaged 315 g. Taking into account all forms of red meat (including all non-discretionary, lean, discretionary, higher fat and processed varieties), the total weekly consumption of red meats was estimated at 973 g for adult males and 637 g for adult females.

This graph shows the mean grams consumed per day of red meat for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 2-70 years by age group.
    (a) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
    (b) Based on Day 1. See Glossary for definition.
    (c) Includes beef, veal, lamb, pork and kangaroo.
    (d) Weekly consumption was calculated by multiplying Day 1 mean intake by 7. It includes all respondents, consumers and non-consumers.
    (e) Includes meats such as ham, bacon and sausages made from red meat.
    (f) Includes high fat unprocessed red meats plus unprocessed lean meats found in discretionary dishes.
    Source: National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2012-13.


ENDNOTES
    1. National Health and Medical Research Council, 2013, Australian Dietary Guidelines. Canberra: Australian Government. <https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/n55_australian_dietary_guidelines_130530.pdf >, Last accessed 27/10/2016

    2. Food Standards Australia New Zealand, 2016, Assessing the 2011-13 AHS against the Australian Dietary Guidelines - Classification System and Database Development Explanatory notes. Canberra: Australian Government <http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/science/monitoringnutrients/ausnut/>, Last accessed 27/10/2016

    3. Lamb and mutton and beef from non-lean varieties with a fat content ≥10%.

    4. Weekly consumption was calculated by multiplying Day 1 mean intake by 7. It includes all respondents, consumers and non-consumers.