1370.0 - Measures of Australia's Progress, 2010  
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 15/09/2010   
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Water (inland)



The departure of an element from its long-period average value for the location concerned. For example, if the maximum rainfall for June in Melbourne was 20 millimetres higher than the long-term average for this month, the anomaly would be +20 mm. The current international standard is to use the 30 year average from 1961 to 1990 as the long-term average.

Distributed water

Distributed water is water supplied to a user including through a non-natural network (piped or open channel), and where an economic transaction has occurred for the exchange of this water. The majority of distributed water is supplied by the 'Water supply, sewerage and drainage services' industry (ANZSIC group 3701). The water supply component consists of units mainly engaged in storage, purification or distribution of water by pipeline or carrier. It also includes the operation of irrigation systems that supply water to a farm and the supply of steam and hot water.


Gigalitre, one thousand million litres.

In-stream use

The use of freshwater in situ (eg. within a river or stream). This can include recreation, tourism, scientific and cultural uses, ecosystem maintenance, hydro-electricity and commercial activities and dilution of waste. The volume of water required for most in-stream uses can not be quantified, with the exception of hydro-electricity generation.


Kilolitre, one thousand litres.

Large dams

The storage capacity of large dams is available from the ANCOLD Register of Large Dams (ANCOLD 2006). Large dams are defined as dams with a crest or wall height of greater than 15 metres, or as dams with a dam wall height of greater than 10 metres but meeting other size criteria as follows: having a crest more than 500 metres in length; creating a reservoir capacity of no less than 1,000 ML; the ability to deal with a flood discharge of no less than 2,000 cubic metres per second; or, being of unusual design (ANCOLD 2001).


Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Reuse water

Drainage, waste or storm water that has been used again without first being discharged to the environment. It may be treated to some extent.

Water consumption

Water consumption is equal to distributed water use plus self-extracted water use plus reuse water use minus distributed water supplied to other users minus in-stream use (where applicable).


  • Inland waters references

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