1370.0.55.001 - Measures of Australia's Progress: Summary Indicators, 2011  
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 06/10/2011   
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Assault is comprised of physical assault and threatened assault (definitions below).


Assets are entities functioning as stores of value and over which ownership rights are enforced by institutional units, individually or collectively, and from which economic benefits may be derived by their owners by holding them, or using them, over a period of time (the economic benefits consist of primary incomes derived from the use of the asset and the value, including possible holding gains/losses, that could be realised by disposing of the asset or terminating it). See 'Financial assets' and 'non-financial assets'.


The variety of all life forms on earth - the different plants, animals and micro-organisms, the genes they contain and the ecosystems which they form part of.


An incident where the respondent's home (primary residence) was broken into. Includes break-ins to garage, shed or any detached secure building such as games/hobby room etc. Caravans were only included if it was the respondent's permanent residence. Break-in incidents relating to a respondent's car or front or rear yard were excluded.

Carbon dioxide equivalents

Provides the basis for comparing the warming effect of different greenhouse gases. Different greenhouse gases have different effects and remain in the atmosphere for different periods of time. A tonne of methane, for example, contributes as much to global warming as 21 tonnes of carbon dioxide and thus has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 21, compared to carbon dioxide's GWP of 1. Each gas has a GWP so that each can be converted to a common CO2 equivalent (CO2-e). This enables emissions of different greenhouse gases to be compared and aggregated by converting them to carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-e).

Climate Change

A change in the weather over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years. It can be a change in the average weather or a change in the distribution of weather events around an average (for example, greater or fewer extreme weather events). Climate change may be limited to a specific region, or may occur across the whole earth. In recent usage, climate change usually refers to changes in modern climate, and is often referred to as global warming.

Commonwealth Rent Assistance (CRA)

Where applicable, Commonwealth Rent Assistance (CRA) has been excluded from the housing costs and gross income of recipients. CRA is a non-taxable income supplement paid through Centrelink to individuals and families who rent in the private rental market. It is only paid to recipients of another government benefit or pension, and is paid in conjunction with that other benefit. In this section, CRA payments have been modelled based on Centrelink eligibility requirements. Characteristics collected in the Survey of Income and Housing, such as the family and household composition, ages, type of government payments received, current weekly income from government allowances, rental payments and the tenure and landlord details, are used to calculate the eligibility and amount of CRA for each income unit within the survey sample.

Conservation Status

The Environment Protection and Biodiversity Act 1999 (Cwlth) classifies listed threatened species (fauna or flora) into six categories: extinct; extinct in the wild; critically endangered; endangered; vulnerable; and conservation dependent. The Act also classifies listed threatened communities into three categories: critically endangered; endangered; and vulnerable.

Disposable income

Gross income less income tax and the Medicare levy, i.e. remaining income after direct taxes are deducted, which is available to support consumption and/or saving. Income tax and the Medicare levy are imputed based on each person's income and other characteristics as reported in the survey. Disposable income is sometimes referred to as net income.


All persons aged 15 years and over who, during the reference week:

    • worked for one hour or more for pay, profit, commission or payment in kind in a job or business, or on a farm (comprising employees, employers and own account workers); or
    • worked for one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm (i.e. contributing family workers); or
    • were employees who had a job but were not at work and were:
      • away from work for fewer than four weeks up to the end of the reference week; or
      • away from work for more than four weeks up to the end of the reference week and received pay for some or all of the four week period to the end of the reference week; or
      • away from work as a standard work or shift arrangement; or
      • on strike or locked out; or
      • on workers' compensation and expected to return to their job; or
    • were employers or own account workers, who had a job, business or farm, but were not at work.

Strong evidence that a species faces a very high risk of extinction in the near future.

Equivalised income

Measures of household income (including the headline indicator) and wealth are adjusted or equivalised to take account of differing household size and composition. The equivalised measure factors in the sharing of income between household members and takes into account the economies of scale that arise from the sharing of dwellings, whilst also recognising that larger households need greater income levels to maintain the same standard of living as smaller households. The equivalence factor used gives a weighting of 1.0 to the first (or only) adult, a weight of 0.5 for each additional adult aged 15 years and over, and a weight of 0.3 for each child aged under 15. The equivalised income or wealth of lone person households is the same as the unequivalised value. For households comprising multiple people, the equivalised value is less than the total unequivalised value but greater than the per person share of the unequivalised value.

Estimated resident population (ERP)

The official measure of the population of Australia is based on the concept of usual residence. It refers to all people, regardless of nationality or citizenship, who usually live in Australia, with the exception of foreign diplomatic personnel and their families. It includes usual residents who are overseas for less than 12 months. It excludes overseas visitors who are in Australia for less than 12 months.


There is no reasonable doubt that the last member of a species has died.


The animals of a given region or period, taken collectively (as distinguished from the plants or flora).

Financial assets

Financial assets are mostly financial claims. Financial claims entitle the owner to receive a payment, or a series of payments, from an institutional unit to which the owner has provided funds. The exceptions are monetary gold, Special Drawing Rights (SDRs), and shares, which are treated as financial assets even though there is no financial claim on another institutional unit.

Financial assets include insurance technical reserves, monetary gold, SDRs, other accounts receivable/payable, securities other than shares, and shares and other equity.

Financial assets with the rest of the world

Foreign financial assets held by Australians (such as foreign shares, deposits and loans). See 'Financial assets'.

Greenhouse gases

A collective term for those gases which reduce the loss of heat from the earth's atmosphere and thus contribute to global warming and climate change. Examples of greenhouse gases are water vapour, carbon dioxide, atmospheric methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

Gross domestic product (GDP)

The total market value of goods and services produced in Australia within a given period after deducting the cost of goods and services used up in the process of production but before deducting allowances for the consumption of fixed capital. Thus gross domestic product, as here defined, is 'at market prices'. It is equivalent to gross national expenditure plus exports of goods and services less imports of goods and services.

Gross national expenditure (GNE)

The total expenditure within a given period by Australian residents on final goods and services (i.e. excluding goods and services used up during the period in the process of production). It is equivalent to gross domestic product plus imports of goods and services less exports of goods and services.

See 'Real gross domestic income' and 'Gross domestic product (GDP)'.

Higher education qualifications

Include Postgraduate Degree, Master Degree, Graduate Diploma, Graduate Certificate and Bachelor Degree.

Labour force

For any group, persons who were employed or unemployed, as defined.

Liabilities to the rest of the world

Liabilities owed by Australian residents to overseas entities. Australia's liabilities to the rest of the world include borrowings from overseas and foreign holdings of Australian currency, shares and other securities.

Life expectancy

Life expectancy refers to the average number of additional years a person of a given age and sex might expect to live if the age-specific death rates of the given period continued throughout his/her lifetime.

Low income group

Refers to the 20% of people in the second and third lowest income deciles after being ranked from lowest to highest, by their equivalised disposable household income.

Low income rental affordability

Housing costs as a proportion of gross household income for low income renters.

Low income renters

For the housing section, low income renter households are defined as households with equivalised disposable household income (excluding CRA) at or below the 40th percentile, calculated for capital city and balance of state, on a state-by-state basis. See also 'Commonwealth Rent Assistance (CRA)'.

Multifactor productivity

Multifactor productivity (MFP) is the part of output growth that cannot be attributed to the growth of labour or capital inputs. MFP reflects such things as business process innovations, advances in technology, or almost any other type of improvement in the efficiency of a firm's operations. When MFP rises, the economy can produce more output with the same quantity of labour and capital. MFP can be equated with technological change if certain conditions are met (e.g. firms seek to maximise profits, markets are competitive, and the coverage of inputs is complete). Because these conditions are typically not met, measured MFP will, in addition to technological change, include the effects of model misspecification and errors in the measurement of the variables.

National assets

The sum of non-financial assets (produced and non-produced) and financial assets with the rest of the world owned by Australian residents. See 'Asset', 'Financial assets with the rest of the world', 'Non-financial assets', 'Produced assets', 'Non-produced assets' and 'Resident'.

National liabilities

See 'Liabilities to the rest of the world'.

National net worth

National assets less national liabilities. See 'National assets' and 'National liabilities'.

Natural increase

Excess of births over deaths.

Net overseas migration (NOM)

Net overseas migration is the net gain or loss of population through immigration to Australia and emigration from Australia. It is:
  • based on an international traveller's duration of stay being in or out of Australia for 12 months or more;
  • the difference between the number of incoming travellers who stay in Australia for 12 months or more, who are not currently counted in the population, and are then added to the population (NOM arrivals); and the number of outgoing travellers (Australian residents and long-term visitors to Australia) who leave Australia for 12 months or more, who are currently counted within the population, and are then subtracted from the population (NOM departures).
The current method for estimating net overseas migration is based on a traveller's actual duration of stay or absence using the 12/16 rule, i.e. the duration of stay or absence does not have to be continuous and is measured over a 16 month period . Preliminary estimates are modelled on patterns of traveller behaviours observed in final NOM estimates for the same period one year earlier (for more information refer to ABS Australian Demographic Statistics, cat. no. 3101.0 or ABS Migration, Australia, cat. no. 3412.0).

Estimates for September quarter 2006 onwards use an improved methodology; caution should be exercised when comparing estimates over time.

Non-financial assets

Any asset that is not in the form of a financial claim on another economic unit, monetary gold or a statutory reserve deposit at the International Monetary Fund.

Non-produced assets

Non-produced assets are non-financial assets that come into existence other than through processes of production.

People with a vocational or higher education qualification

Proportion of people with either a vocational or higher education qualification (includes those whose level could not be determined).

There has been a break in the time series that is considered to have impacted on the comparability of data relating to qualifications: In 2001, the ABSCQ was replaced by the Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED) cat. no. 1272.0. The ASCED is a national standard classification, which can be applied to all sectors of the Australian education system.

Physical assault

An incident where anyone used physical force or violence against a respondent. Physical force or violence includes being: pushed, grabbed, shoved, slapped, hit with an open hand or fist, kicked or bitten. It also includes being hit with something else that could hurt a respondent i.e. a bat, hammer, belt, pot, ruler, etc. It includes being beaten, choked, stabbed, shot, burnt, dragged or hit deliberately by a vehicle. Includes assault in a respondent's line of work. It excludes incidents that occurred during the course of play on a sporting field, verbal abuse, and incidents of sexual assault or threatened sexual assault which also involved physical assault.

Population growth

The sum of natural increase and net overseas migration.

Produced assets

Produced assets are non-financial assets that have come into existence as outputs from production processes. Produced assets consist of fixed assets and inventories.

Real gross domestic income

Calculated by:
  • taking the volume measure of gross national expenditure (GNE)
  • adding exports of goods and services at current prices deflated by the implicit price deflator for imports of goods and services
  • deducting the volume measure of imports of goods and services
  • adding the current price statistical discrepancy for GDP(E) deflated by the implicit price deflator for GDP.
In the derivation of the aggregate all of the adjustments are made using the chain volume aggregation method used to derive all of the ABS chain volume estimates.

See 'Gross national expenditure (GNE)' and 'Real net national disposable income (RNNDI)'.

Real (income or wealth)

It is possible to deflate measures of income and wealth by a price index in order to measure purchasing power. By comparing the deflated value of the income with the actual value of the income, it is possible to determine by how much the purchasing power of the income or wealth has increased or decreased. Aggregates deflated in this way are generally described as "real". Real income or wealth is measured with reference to the price level in some selected reference year. Thus real values cannot exist in isolation, rather they vary depending upon the choice of reference year. In this product the all groups CPI is used to deflate income and wealth estimates.

Real net national disposable income (RNNDI)

Calculated by:
  • taking real gross domestic income
  • deducting real incomes payable to the rest of the world
  • adding real incomes receivable from the rest of the world
  • deducting the volume measure of consumption of fixed capital.
Real incomes payable and receivable are calculated by dividing the nominal income flows by the implicit price deflator for gross national expenditure. In the derivation of the aggregate, all of the adjustments are made using the chain volume aggregation method used to derive all of the ABS chain volume estimates.

See 'Real gross domestic income'.

Real net national disposable income (RNNDI) per capita

The ratio of RNNDI to the estimated resident population (ERP) of Australia. Population estimates use data published in the quarterly publication ABS Australian Demographic Statistics (cat. no. 3101.0). See 'Real net national disposable income (RNNDI)'.

Real net national worth per capita

The ratio of Real net national worth to the estimated resident population (ERP) of Australia. Population estimates use data published in the quarterly publication ABS Australian Demographic Statistics (cat. no. 3101.0). See 'Real' and 'National net worth'.


Residents are those entities that have a closer association with the territory of Australia than with any other territory. Examples are: general government bodies; financial and trading enterprises and non-profit bodies producing goods or services or both within the territory of Australia; and persons whose centre of interest is considered to lie in Australia. Any entity which is not determined to be a resident of Australia is classified as a resident of the rest of the world.

Rest of the world

The rest of the world consists of all non-resident institutional units that enter into transactions with resident units, or have other economic links with resident units.

Threatened assault

Includes any verbal and/or physical intent or suggestion of intent to inflict physical harm, which the person believed was able and likely to be carried out. Includes a threat or attempt to hit with a fist or anything else that could hurt, threats or attempts to slap, punch, spank or hit in any way with a fist or weapon such as a bat, hammer or pot, situations where a gun was left in an obvious place or if the person knew that the perpetrator had access to a gun. Includes toy guns, starter pistols etc. if the respondent believed they were real. Also includes incidents where a respondent was threatened in their line of work (e.g. while working as a security guard).

Includes both face-to-face and non face-to-face threatened assault.

Total fertility rate (TFR)

The sum of age-specific fertility rates (live births at each age of mother per female population of that age). It represents the number of children a female would bear during her lifetime if she experienced current age-specific fertility rates at each age of her reproductive life.


Persons aged 15 years and over who were not employed during the reference week, and
  • had actively looked for full-time or part-time work at any time in the four weeks up to the end of the reference week and were available for work in the reference week; or
  • were waiting to start a new job within four weeks from the end of the reference week and could have started in the reference week if the job had been available then.

Unemployment rate

The number of unemployed persons expressed as a percentage of the labour force.


A household or person reporting at least one of the crimes surveyed. Victims were counted once only for each type of crime, regardless of the number of incidents of that type.

Victimisation rate

The total number of victims of a given crime in a given population (who have been a victim of the crime at least once in the reference period) expressed as a percentage of that population. This is the most common measure derived from crime victim surveys.

Vocational education qualifications

Include Advanced Diploma, Diploma and Certificates I to IV (and certificate not further defined).


Strong evidence that a species faces a high risk of extinction in the medium term.


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