1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2012
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 24/05/2012
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Statistics contained in the Year Book are the most recent available at the time of preparation. In many cases, the ABS website and the websites of other organisations provide access to more recent data. Each Year Book table or graph and the bibliography at the end of each chapter provides hyperlinks to the most up to date data release where available.
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DOMESTIC AIRLINE ACTIVITY
The total hours flown and the number of aircraft departures by the major domestic and regional airlines are shown in graph 24.6. In 2010, there were 935,000 hours flown, while aircraft departures totalled 595,000, representing increases of 35% and 24% respectively since 2003.
In addition to domestic and regional scheduled services, activities undertaken by the general aviation industry include private and business flying, agriculture, charter, training and test and ferry flying (graph 24.7). Flying training, charter and aerial work together accounted for 74% of general aviation hours flown in 2009.
ROAD TRANSPORT ACTIVITY
Motor vehicles travelled an estimated total distance of 226,632 million kilometres in the year ended 31 October 2010, at an average of 14,900 kilometres per vehicle (table 24.8). Business use accounted for an estimated 35% of aggregate distance travelled and private use accounted for 65%. Of total private use travel, 36% consisted of travel to and from work and 64% was for personal and other use.
The localities in which motor vehicles travelled are described in table 24.9. Only 5% of total distance travelled represented interstate trips, while 55% of distance travelled was within the capital city of the state or territory in which the vehicle was registered.
Registered motor vehicles in Australia consumed an estimated 31,186 million litres of fuel in the 12 months ended 31 October 2010 (table 24.10). Of the total fuel consumed by motor vehicles in this period, 58% was petrol and 36% was diesel.
Passenger vehicles used 15,497 million litres of petrol in the 12 months to 31 October 2010. This was 84% of all fuel used by passenger vehicles. Only 8% of passenger vehicle fuel used was diesel.
A total of 6,334 million litres of diesel was used by articulated and rigid trucks. This was 57% of all diesel used. Light commercial vehicles used 2,665 million litres, which was 24% of all diesel.
The average rate of fuel consumption for all motor vehicles in the 12 months ended 31 October 2010 was 13.8 litres per 100 kilometres. Articulated trucks had the highest average fuel consumption with 56.2 litres per 100 kilometres, followed by buses with 29.5 litres per 100 kilometres and non-freight carrying trucks with 29.0 litres per 100 kilometres. The average fuel consumption rate for passenger vehicles was 11.3 litres per 100 kilometres.
In March 2003, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries (FCAI) adopted a voluntary target aimed at progressively improving fuel consumption for new petrol passenger vehicles to an average of 6.8 litres per 100 kilometres by 2010.
In mid 2005, to reflect the need to reduce carbon emissions, a new industry target was established to reduce average carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for all new light vehicles (less than 3.5 tonnes gross mass) to 222 grams of CO2 per kilometre by 2010. This target incorporates a significant range of vehicles (cars, SUVs and light trucks, etc.) and all fuel types (petrol, diesel, LPG, etc.).
Over recent years, there has been a continuous improvement in average new vehicle emissions. From an estimated 252 grams of CO2 per kilometre in 2002, national average carbon emissions (NACE) for all new light vehicles sold in Australia for 2010 was 212.6 grams of CO2 per kilometre. This decline in carbon emissions of new vehicles was well below the voluntary target of 222 grams of CO2 per kilometre set five years earlier.
Graph 24.11 shows the total fuel consumption of registered vehicles for the yearly collection periods of the ABS Survey of Motor Vehicle Use for 1999 to 2010.
Between 1999 and 2010, total consumption for all types of petrol rose from 16,026 million litres to 18,108 million litres, a rise of 13%. Over the same period, the consumption of diesel fuel rose from 6,285 million litres to 11,087 million litres, an increase of 76%, while the use of other fuel types fell by 10%, from 2,221 million litres in 1999 to 1,992 million litres in 2010.
Table 24.12 shows the sales of petroleum products for Australia for the years 1990 to 2010. Sales of automotive gasoline (petrol) in 2010 totalled 18,668 million litres, an increase of 1,517 million litres or 8.8%, compared with total sales of 17,151 million litres in 1990.
Unleaded petrol was introduced into the Australian market at the start of 1986 to reduce the toxicity of emissions into the atmosphere from motor vehicle engines. The use of unleaded petrol allowed catalytic converters to be fitted to, and used by, the motor vehicles which were sold in Australia from 1986, as the lead in leaded petrol (used as an engine anti-knock agent and valve seat lubricant) contaminates the converter and prevents it from treating the engine's exhaust gases.
Leaded petrol was phased out in Australia as of the first of January 2002. It was replaced with the alternative lead replacement petrol (LRP), consisting of a high octane, 96 Research Octane Number (RON) premium unleaded petrol containing a non-lead additive that protected against valve-seat recession. In 2002, sales of LRP were 2,051 million litres. The number of cars that require LRP has gradually reduced to the point that it has become effectively not viable for fuel suppliers to produce, store and distribute the fuel, and for service stations to retail it. This has resulted in a very limited availability of LRP, as it is being progressively phased out of the market. Sales of this fuel were 100,000 litres in 2010.
In 2005, sales of premium unleaded petrol, which can have a RON of 95 to 98, depending on the particular product (compared with 91 for regular unleaded petrol) were 2,494 million litres, falling to 2,051 million litres in 2010.
Unleaded petrol sales accounted for 30% of total automotive gasoline sales in 1990. By 2010, unleaded petrol accounted for 100% of total automotive gasoline sales (standard unleaded 64%, premium unleaded 11%, proprietary brand fuel 10% and E10 fuel 15%). Federal Government legislation imposes a 10% limit on the amount of ethanol in automotive petrol.
In 2010, automotive diesel fuel sales volume was 19,287 million litres, a rise of 9,265 million litres (92%) compared with 10,022 million litres sold in 1990.
TRANSPORT PASSENGER ACTIVITY
Personal travel occurs for many reasons, including school, business, recreation and travel to and from work. While road transport accounts for the majority of domestic passenger trips undertaken, rail services are used by a considerable number of urban commuters. Air services provide for a large proportion of long distance passenger travel.
Road passenger vehicle activity
In the year ended 31 October 2010, Australia’s 12.3 million registered passenger vehicles travelled an estimated 163.4 billion kilometres (table 24.13), each averaging 13,200 km. Australia’s 653,186 motor cycles travelled 2.4 billion km, while the fleet of 72,509 buses travelled 2.0 billion km.
Rail passenger activity
The passenger operations of rail operators are shown in table 24.14. The number of urban and non-urban rail journeys remained fairly steady between 2008–09 and 2009–10. Heavy rail accounted for 80% of urban rail passenger journeys in 2009–10.
Domestic air passenger activity
At 31 December 2010, four major domestic airlines operated in Australia – Qantas, Virgin Blue, Jetstar and Tiger Airways. Regional airlines such as Regional Express Airlines (REX), Brindabella Airlines, Northwest Regional Airlines and others provided connecting services to regional airports. There were 188 security-regulated airports in Australia at the end of 2007.
Passenger departures were 7% higher in 2010, compared with 2009 (table 24.15). In both 2009 and 2010, domestic airlines accounted for 89% of total Australian domestic passenger departures, and regional airlines accounted for 11%.
The number of domestic passenger movements at the top 10 airports in Australia is shown in table 24.16. In 2010, all these airports recorded increases in passenger movements compared with 2009. The strongest growth, in percentage terms, was recorded by the Gold Coast (11%), followed by Melbourne (9%) and Sydney and Darwin (both 8%). The lowest growth was recorded by Hobart (0.4%).
International air passenger activity
Passengers arriving or departing Australia primarily travel by air.
Of total international passengers (26.8 million) carried to and from Australia in 2010, 5.5 million travelled between Australia and New Zealand and 4.0 million travelled between Australia and Singapore (table 24.17).
Graph 24.18 shows the number of international passengers who travelled through each of Australia's international airports in 2010. Sydney's share of total international passenger traffic was 43%, followed by Melbourne (22%), Brisbane (16%) and Perth (12%).
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