4727.0.55.006 - Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey: Updated Results, 2012–13  
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GLOSSARY

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander household

A household in an occupied private dwelling with at least one resident member who has been identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin. Other resident members of the household may have been identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin, of non-Indigenous origin, or have Indigenous status unknown.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people

People who identified themselves, or were identified by another household member, as being of Aboriginal origin, Torres Strait Islander origin, or both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin.

Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia

Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA) was developed by the Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing (DoHA) and the National Key Centre for Social Applications of GIS (GISCA). ARIA measures the remoteness of a point based on the physical road distance to the nearest Urban Centre in each of five size classes. For more information on how ARIA is defined see Information Paper: ABS Views on Remoteness, 2001 (cat. no. 1244.0) and Information Paper: Outcomes of ABS Views on Remoteness Consultation, Australia, Jun 2001 (cat. no. 1244.0.00.001). Also refer to Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 5 - Remoteness Structure, July 2011 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.005) available from the ABS web site.

Adequate daily intake of fruit

See Usual daily intake of fruit.

Adequate daily intake of vegetables

See Usual daily intake of vegetables.

Adult

A person aged 18 years or over.

Age standardisation


Age standardisation is a technique used to enhance the comparability of rates between populations with different age structures. As many population characteristics are age-related, (for example, long-term health conditions and employment patterns), adjustments are made to account for the confounding effects of the different age structures on the prevalence of these characteristics. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population has a larger proportion of young people and a smaller proportion of older people than the non-Indigenous population. For this reason, where appropriate, estimates for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and non-Indigenous people have both been age standardised to reflect the age structure of the same population — the total estimated resident population of Australia as at 30 June 2001. The age standardised rates are the rates that would have prevailed if both populations had this same age structure.

Proportions quoted in commentary in this publication are crude (non-age-standardised) rates. Rate ratios based on age-standardised rates are used to describe the relative prevalence of a characteristic (e.g. diabetes) in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population and non-Indigenous population. Tables which include comparisons between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and non-Indigenous people contain both crude and age standardised rates, as well as rate ratios based on age standardised rates. See also Rate ratios.

ASGS Remoteness Structure

The Remoteness Structure for the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) 2011, has five categories based on an aggregation of geographical areas which share common characteristics of remoteness, determined in the context of Australia as a whole. These categories are:

  • Major Cities of Australia
  • Inner Regional Australia
  • Outer Regional Australia
  • Remote Australia
  • Very Remote Australia

The criteria for these categories are based on the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA). For more details, see Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia.

Australian Standard Classification of Education

The Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED) is a national standard classification which includes all sectors of the Australian education system: that is, schools, vocational education and training, and higher education. ASCED comprises two classifications: Level of Education and Field of Education.

Bachelor Degree or above

Comprises Bachelor Degree, Graduate Diploma, Graduate Certificate and Postgraduate Degree. See also Australian Standard Classification of Education and Highest educational attainment.

Below Year 10


Comprises Year 9 or below, Certificates I and II, people who never attended school and people without a non-school qualification. See also Australian Standard Classification of Education and Highest educational attainment.

Blood pressure

See Measured blood pressure.

Body Mass Index (BMI)


Body Mass Index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify people as underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese. It is calculated from height and weight information, using the formula weight (kg) divided by the square of height (m). To produce a measure of the prevalence of underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese adults, BMI values are grouped according to the table below which allows categories to be reported against both the World Health Organization (WHO) and National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines.

BODY MASS INDEX, Adults

Category
Range

Underweight
Less than 18.50
Normal weight
18.50 — 24.99
Overweight
25.00 — 29.99
Obese
30.00 or more


Separate BMI classifications were produced for children. BMI scores were created in the same manner described above but also took into account the age and sex of the child. There are different cut-offs for BMI categories (underweight/normal combined, overweight or obese) for male and female children. These categories differ to the categories used in the adult BMI classification and follow the scale provided in Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM and Dietz WH, Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey, BMJ 2000; 320. For a detailed list of the cut-offs used to calculate BMI for children see the Australian Health Survey: Users' Guide, 2011-13 (cat. no. 4363.0.55.001).

Child


A person aged 0-17 years.

Conditions


See long-term medical condition.

Current daily smoker


A current daily smoker is a respondent who reported, at the time of interview, that they regularly smoked one or more cigarettes, cigars or pipes per day. See also Smoker status.

Diabetes mellitus


A chronic condition in which blood glucose levels become too high due to the body producing little or no insulin, or not using insulin properly.

Diastolic blood pressure


Measures the pressure in the arteries as the heart relaxes before the next beat. It is the lower number of the blood pressure reading.

Dietary guidelines


As specified by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) for daily fruit and vegetable consumption. See Usual daily intake of fruit and Usual daily intake of vegetables.

Employed


Persons aged 15 years or over who had a job or business, or who undertook work without pay in a family business for a minimum of one hour per week. Includes persons who were absent from a job or business. See also Employed full-time, Employed part-time, Employment to population ratio and Labour force participation rate.

Employed full-time

Employed persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week (in all jobs).

Employed part-time

Employed persons who usually worked less than 35 hours per week (in all jobs).

Employment to population ratio

For any group, the number of employed persons expressed as a percentage of the civilian population aged 15 years and over in the same group.

Health risk factors

Specific lifestyle and related factors impacting on health, including:
  • Tobacco smoking;
  • Body mass;
  • Dietary behaviour; and
  • Blood pressure.

Heart disease (Heart, stroke and vascular conditions)

A subset of reported long-term conditions comprising the following:
  • Angina. heart attack and other ischaemic heart diseases;
  • Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases;
  • Heart failure;
  • Oedema; and
  • Diseases of arteries, arterioles and capillaries.

High blood pressure


A measured blood pressure reading of 140/90 mmHg (millimetres of mercury) or higher. Data on high blood pressure in this publication refer to measured blood pressure only, and do not take into account whether people who might otherwise have high blood pressure are managing their condition through the use of blood pressure medications.

Highest educational attainment

The highest achievement a person has attained in any area of study. It is not a measurement of the relative importance of different fields of study, but a ranking of qualifications and other educational attainments regardless of the particular area of study or the type of institution in which the study was undertaken.

Highest year of school completed

The highest level of primary or secondary education which a person has completed, irrespective of the type of institution or location where that education was undertaken.

High sugar levels


High sugar levels in blood or urine.

Household

One or more persons, at least one of whom is at least 15 years of age, usually resident in the same private dwelling. In this survey, only households with at least one adult (aged 18 years and over) were included.

Hypertensive disease


Also known as hypertension or high blood pressure, hypertensive disease is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated, requiring the heart to work harder than normal to circulate blood through the blood vessels. Hypertension is a major risk factor for strokes and myocardial infarction (heart attacks) as well as several other medical conditions.Inadequate daily intake of fruit

See Usual daily intake of fruit.

Inadequate daily intake of vegetables

See Usual daily intake of vegetables.

Indigenous Regions

Indigenous Regions (IREGs) are the highest level of the Indigenous Structure of the 2011 Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS). IREGs are large geographical units loosely based on the former Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) boundaries. The ASGS Indigenous Structure has been designed for the purpose of disseminating Census data by spatial areas relevant to the distribution of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. IREG boundaries do not cross state or territory borders and are defined to cover the whole of geographic Australia. For more information, see Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 2 - Indigenous Structure, July 2011 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.002).

Kidney disease

A subset of symptoms including: problems or complaints about the kidneys, renal pain and renal colic (kidney stones).

Labour force participation rate

For any group, the labour force (employed persons plus unemployed persons) expressed as a percentage of the civilian population aged 15 years and over in the same group.

Labour force status

Identifies whether a person is employed, unemployed or not in the labour force.

Long-term health condition


A medical condition (illness, injury or disability) which has lasted at least six months, or which the respondent expects to last for six months or more. Some reported conditions were assumed to be long-term, including asthma, arthritis, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes, sight problems, rheumatic heart disease, heart attack, angina, heart failure and stroke. Rheumatic heart disease, heart attack, angina, heart failure and stroke were also assumed to be current.

Measured blood pressure

See Diastolic blood pressure, High blood pressure and Systolic blood pressure.

Non-remote areas

Major Cities, Inner Regional and Outer Regional areas combined. See ASGS Remoteness Structure for more information.

Non-school qualification

Non-school qualifications are awarded for educational attainments other than those of pre-primary, primary or secondary education. They include qualifications at the Postgraduate Degree level, Master Degree level, Graduate Diploma and Graduate Certificate level, Bachelor Degree level, Advanced Diploma and Diploma level, and Certificates I, II, III and IV levels. Non-school qualifications may be attained concurrently with school qualifications.

Not in the labour force


Persons who are not employed or unemployed as defined, including persons who:
  • Are retired;
  • No longer work;
  • Do not intend to work in the future;
  • Are permanently unable to work; or
  • Have never worked and never intend to work.

Rate ratios

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander to non-Indigenous rate ratios are calculated by dividing the proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with a particular characteristic by the proportion of non-Indigenous people with the same characteristic. If the characteristic of interest is highly correlated with age (e.g. prevalence of long term conditions), age standardised proportions are used to calculate Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander to non-Indigenous rate ratios. A rate ratio of 1.0 indicates that the prevalence of the characteristic is the same in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous populations. Rate ratios greater than 1.0 indicate higher prevalence in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population and rate ratios less than 1.0 indicate higher prevalence in the non-Indigenous population. Rate ratios produced for this publication were based on age standardised proportions to two decimal places.

Remote areas


Remote and Very Remote areas combined. See ASGS Remoteness Structure for more information.

Remoteness Area

See ASGS Remoteness Structure.

Self-assessed health status

A person's general assessment of their own health as: Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair or Poor.

Smoker status


The extent to which a respondent was smoking at the time of interview, and refers to regular smoking of tobacco, including manufactured (packet) cigarettes, roll-your-own cigarettes, cigars and pipes, but excludes chewing tobacco and smoking of non-tobacco products. Categorised as:
  • Current daily smoker - a respondent who reported at the time of interview that they regularly smoked one or more cigarettes, cigars or pipes per day;
  • Current smoker - Other - a respondent who reported at the time of interview that they smoked cigarettes, cigars or pipes, less frequently than daily;
  • Ex-smoker - a respondent who reported that they did not currently smoke, but had regularly smoked daily, or had smoked at least 100 cigarettes, or smoked pipes, cigars, etc at least 20 times in their lifetime; and
  • Never smoked - a respondent who reported they had never regularly smoked daily, and had smoked less than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and had smoked pipes, cigars, etc less than 20 times.

Systolic blood pressure

Measures the pressure in the arteries as the heart pumps blood during each beat. It is the higher number of the blood pressure reading. Torres Strait Islander people

People who identified themselves, or were identified by another household member, as being of Torres Strait Islander origin, or both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal origin.

Type of condition


All reported long-term medical conditions were coded to a classification developed by the ABS for use in the 2001 National Health Survey, which is based on the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems (ICD-10).

Unemployed


Persons aged 15 years and over who were not employed and actively looking for work in the four weeks prior to the survey, and were available to start work in the week prior to the survey. See also Labour force participation rate and Unemployment rate.

Unemployment rate

For any group, the number of unemployed persons expressed as a percentage of the labour force in the same group.

Usual daily intake of fruit


Refers to the number of serves of fruit (excluding drinks and beverages) usually consumed each day, as reported by the respondent. A serve is approximately 150 grams of fresh fruit or 50 grams of dried fruit. The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) 2003 Guidelines recommended a minimum of two serves of fruit per day for adults and three serves of fruit for children aged 12–17 years and one serve for children aged 5–11 years.

The NHMRC has since released new guidelines in 2013. As the 2012–13 AATSIHS only collected information on whole serves of fruit, the new guidelines have been applied as follows:


Age group
Inadequate daily intake of fruit

Children aged 2-8 years
less than one serve
Children aged 9-17 years
less than two serves
Adults aged 18 years and over
less than two serves


Usual daily intake of vegetables


Refers to the number of serves of vegetables (excluding drinks and beverages) usually consumed each day, as reported by the respondent. A serve is approximately half a cup of cooked vegetables or one cup of salad vegetables — equivalent to approximately 75 grams. The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) 2003 Guidelines recommended a minimum of five serves of vegetables per day for adults and four serves of vegetables for children aged 12–17 years, three serves for 8–11 years and two serves for children aged 5–7 years.

The NHMRC has since released new guidelines in 2013. As the 2012–13 AATSIHS only collected information on whole serves of vegetables, the new guidelines have been applied as follows:


Age group
Inadequate daily intake of vegetables

Children aged 2-3 years
less than two serves
Children aged 4-8 years
less than four serves
Children aged 9-17 years
less than five serves
Adult males aged 18-49 years
less than six serves
Adult males aged 50 years and over
less than five serves
Adults females aged 18 years and over
less than five serves


Waist circumference


Waist circumference is associated with an increased risk of metabolic complications associated with obesity. The World Health Organisation (WHO) and National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) approved the following guidelines for Caucasian men and women:

WAIST MEASUREMENT GUIDELINES, Adults

Men
Women

Not at riskWaist circumference less than 94 cm
Waist circumference less than 80 cm
Increased riskWaist circumference more than or equal to 94 cm
Waist circumference more than or equal to 80 cm
Greatly increased riskWaist circumference more than or equal to 102 cm
Waist circumference more than or equal to 88 cm

Waist-to-hip ratio

Waist-to hip ratio is associated with an increased risk of metabolic complications associated with obesity. The World Health Organisation (WHO) suggested the following guidelines for men and women:

WAIST-TO-HIP RATIO GUIDELINES, Adults

Men
Women

Not at riskWaist-to-hip ratio less than 0.90 cm
Waist-to-hip ratio less than 0.85 cm
Greatly increased riskWaist-to-hip ratio more than or equal to 0.90 cm
Waist-to-hip ratio more than or equal to 0.85 cm


Year 12 or Certificate III or above
Comprises Year 12 or equivalent, Certificate III and IV, Advanced Diploma, Diploma, Bachelor Degree, Graduate Diploma, Graduate Certificate and Postgraduate Degree. See also Australian Standard Classification of Education and Highest educational attainment.