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SCOPE AND COVERAGE
6 The scope of this collection is beer, wine, spirits, RTDs and cider (from 2004-05 onwards) available for consumption in Australia.
7 Data for beer, wine, spirits and RTDs are collected from import clearances via the Australian Customs and Border Protection Service (ACBPS), excise tariff data from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) (which only applies to alcohol sold in Australia and is collected for beer and spirits only), and domestic sales of Australian produced wine from winemakers. Domestic data for beer and wine also contains an estimated component for home production. Data for cider has been derived indirectly from ABS National Health Surveys.
8 It should be noted that estimates of 'apparent consumption' of alcoholic beverages (excluding cider) are derived using information related to supply (that is, data on domestic sales of Australian produced wine, excise data on alcohol produced for domestic consumption, data on imports and an estimated component for home production). No adjustments are made for:
9 All alcohol available for consumption in a particular year is therefore assumed to have been consumed in that year.
10 Import clearance data are used in this publication to measure the quantity of alcohol imported into Australia. Import clearances relate to goods which are brought into Australia directly for home consumption, plus goods cleared from a bonded warehouse (that is, goods cleared into the Australian market for home consumption following payment of duty). Refer to International Merchandise Trade, Australia: Concepts, Sources and Methods, 2001 (cat. no. 5489.0) for more information.
11 Data provided by the ATO are administrative by-product data collected for the levying of excise tariffs.
12 Data relating to domestic sales of Australian produced wine is obtained directly by the ABS from winemakers. See Shipments of Wine and Brandy in Australia by Australian Winemakers and Importers (cat. no. 8504.0) for more information.
13 Estimates of the volume of beer available for consumption (in terms of total volume and volume of pure alcohol) are obtained from excise data on Australian production and import clearance data, as well as an estimated amount for home production.
14 Changes were made to the excise data for beer provided by the ATO due to excise tariff reform in July 2006. Since then, only data on the dutiable quantity of alcohol in beer is provided to the ABS by the ATO. Data on the first 1.15% of alcohol in beer (which does not attract excise), and data on the total volume of beer, is no longer available, therefore this data is estimated using separate strength estimates for packaged and tap beer for each of the three beer strengths. This means the total quantity of alcohol and total volume of beer available for consumption, and apparent per capita consumption for beer, may not be directly comparable with data before 2006-07. The table below shows the average alcohol strengths of domestically produced beers for 2006-07 to 2011-12.
ALCOHOL CONTENT OF DOMESTICALLY PRODUCED BEER, 2006-07 to 2011-12
15 As a result of excise tariff reform in July 2006, beer brewed on commercial premises for non-commercial purposes not separately identified previously was introduced to the ATO collection. Beer less than 3% volume of alcohol is included in low strength beer, while beer greater than 3% volume of alcohol is included in full strength beer (as the amount of mid strength beer brewed on commercial premises for non-commercial purposes is negligible).
ALCOHOL CONTENT OF BEER, Type of beer
16 Prior to 2008-09, figures for beer included an estimated component for home production which was based on the survey Home Production of Selected Foodstuffs, Australia (cat. no. 7110.0), conducted in 1992. After a review into the estimated component for home production, incorporating advice from the industry, the estimate for the home production of beer was marginally increased from 2.1% of total domestic beer available for consumption to 2.2%.
17 In preparing the 2008-09 issue of Apparent Consumption of Alcohol, ABS undertook a comprehensive review of the alcohol content of wine in recognition of the effect that changing environmental conditions, industry practices and consumer preferences have had on wine. The review resulted in an increase of 1.9 percentage points for the average alcohol content of table wine, from 10.8% to 12.7% (12.2% and 13.4% for white and red table wines, respectively). The alcohol strength of sparkling and carbonated wine also increased while the alcohol content of vermouth decreased.
18 Research by the Australian Wine Research Institute (Godden and Gishen, 2005) indicates that, overall, the average alcohol content of wines in Australia have increased since the mid 1980s. As a result, for the publication Apparent Consumption of Alcohol: Extended Time Series, 1944-45 to 2008-09 (cat. no. 4307.0.55.002), assumptions used in the calculation of alcohol in table wine were revised back to 1980-81. This was done by interpolating between the previous assumption for alcohol content of table wine (10.8% in 1979-80) and the new level (around 12.7% for red and white wine combined, in 2008-09). As volumes of red and white wine are available from 2000-01 onwards, separate assumptions were made for red and white wine for these years. Similarly, the alcohol content of sparkling wines was assumed to increase linearly between 1979-80 (10.6%) and 2008-09 (11.2%). The same assumptions for wine are used in this publication. Assumed concentrations of alcohol in wine are listed in the following table.
ALCOHOL CONTENT OF WINE, 2004-05 to 2008-09 onwards
19 From 2009-10 onwards, data on domestic sales of vermouth are not available separately, but are included in 'Other wine not elsewhere included'. While alcohol content for these two categories differ, the very small amount of vermouth produced in recent years (less than 0.2% of total domestic wine volume in 2008-09) means that the inclusion of vermouth in 'Other wine not elsewhere included' has a negligible effect on the total volume of pure alcohol in wine.
20 Changes made to ACBPS tariff codes from 1 January 2012 resulted in the combining of previously discrete wine codes for some wine types. See Information Paper: Changes to AHECC and Customs Tariff, 2012 (cat. no. 5368.0.55.017) for more information. Sensitivity analysis performed by the ABS indicates that assumptions made about the alcohol content of these combined codes have only a negligible effect on the total volume of pure alcohol in wine.
21 For spirits and RTDs the amount of alcohol available for consumption is only available as the quantity of pure alcohol. Data are obtained from import clearance data from the ACBPS and excise data on domestic production of spirits from the ATO, with an adjustment to account for the excise paid on imported spirits which are commercially mixed with locally manufactured soft drinks after importation. Since 2003-04 the excise data used in these estimates have been obtained from the ATO. In previous years, excise data was obtained from the ACBPS.
22 Prior to 2011-12, estimates of the volume of pure alcohol of imported flavoured cider obtained from ACBPS had been included in estimates of spirits. However, as cider is being reported separately for the first time in this publication for 2004-05 onwards, imported flavoured cider has been removed from spirits for this period. This has a negligible effect on spirits, as the volumes of imported flavoured cider during this period were only small.
READY TO DRINK (PRE-MIXED BEVERAGES)
23 RTDs can include spirit based, wine based and other unspecified based products.
24 Import clearance data used to estimate RTDs are distilled alcoholic beverages not elsewhere specified and spirituous beverages not elsewhere specified (both having an alcoholic strength by volume exceeding 1.15% but not exceeding 10%).
25 Historically, it has not been possible to include estimates of the amount of alcohol available for consumption in the form of cider in this publication, as, unlike beer, wine, spirits and RTDs, no suitable source of data on either volume of cider or volume of pure alcohol in cider has been available. As cider has made up only a relatively small proportion of all alcohol consumed in Australia, this absence of data has not negatively affected the overall accuracy of estimates of the total volume of alcohol available for consumption.
26 Recent years, however, have seen an increase in the popularity of cider. Given this increase, some estimate of apparent consumption of cider is required.
27 Unlike estimates of apparent consumption of beer, which are calculated according to the dutiable quantity of alcohol in beer and obtained from the ACBPS and ATO, cider is in general taxed according to the price at which the cider is sold (under the Wine equalisation tax). The total monetary value of this tax cannot be used to derive estimates of the volume of cider available for consumption, as prices of cider vary by brand and by volume of container. Taxation data is therefore not a source of data for cider.
28 In the absence of a direct source of information, in this issue the volume of pure alcohol available for consumption in the form of cider has been derived indirectly from the 2004-05, 2007-08 and 2011-12 ABS National Health Surveys using self-reported information on individuals' consumption of alcohol in conjunction with total apparent consumption of alcohol.
Method for indirectly estimating apparent consumption of cider
29 The National Health Survey (NHS) is a population survey conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics on a regular basis (roughly every 3 years) that collects a range of health-related information. Included in the survey are a number of questions on individuals' consumption of alcohol in the week prior to the survey interview.
30 Each survey respondent who had consumed alcohol in the week prior to interview was asked questions about the type, brand, number and serving sizes of the beverages they had consumed. This information was used to calculate, for the main beverage types, both the total volume consumed and the total volume of pure alcohol consumed, for all Australia.
31 It should be noted that this information is not sufficient to determine total annual consumption of cider, or indeed other alcoholic beverages, in Australia. This is because data is collected for individuals' consumption over a single week only, and also due to under-reporting of consumption of alcohol in population surveys (both in terms of persons identifying as having consumed alcohol in a specific period, and in the quantities reported). For a discussion of potential data quality issues associated with the collection of alcohol data in the National Health Survey, see Alcohol Consumption in Australia: A Snapshot, 2007-08 (cat. no. 4832.0.55.001).
32 Instead, proportions of each beverage type relative to all beverages were calculated from the NHS (see table below). While some variation exists, the proportions for each beverage are relatively consistent between the NHS and Apparent Consumption of Alcohol data. For example, beer comprised 44.2% of total pure alcohol consumed according to the 2011-12 NHS, similar to the proportion recorded in Apparent Consumption of Alcohol for the same year (41.9%). This indicates that in proportional terms, the pattern of alcohol consumption in the NHS is similar to overall apparent consumption of alcohol, and can therefore be used to indirectly calculate estimates of the volume of pure alcohol from cider for inclusion in apparent consumption of alcohol data.
BEVERAGE TYPE, Proportion of total pure alcohol—National Health Survey and Apparent Consumption of Alcohol
33 According to the 2011-12 NHS, cider comprised 1.7% of the total volume of pure alcohol consumed. It was therefore assumed that cider would make up 1.7% of the total volume of pure alcohol of beer, wine, spirits and RTDs combined in the apparent consumption of alcohol collection (180.444 million litres; see table below). Applying 1.7% to this figure results in an estimate of 3.068 million litres of pure alcohol of cider available for consumption in 2011-12, and therefore 183.512 million litres of pure alcohol available for consumption from all beverages.
CIDER, Calculation of apparent consumption—2004-05 to 2011-12
34 Similarly, in the 2004-05 NHS cider comprised 0.7% of the total volume of pure alcohol consumed, resulting in 1.171 million litres of pure alcohol of cider available for consumption in 2004-05, while in the 2007-08 NHS cider comprised 0.6% of the total volume of pure alcohol consumed, resulting in 1.087 million litres of pure alcohol of cider available for consumption in 2007-08. For years between 2004-05 and 2007-08, and between 2007-08 and 2011-12, assumed proportions were calculated by interpolating between these years. Estimates of cider have not been produced for years prior to 2004-05 as information is not available from earlier National Health Surveys.
35 It should be noted that the method described above is an approximation, but allows an assessment of the relative impact of recent increases in cider on the total level of apparent consumption of alcohol in Australia.
POPULATION ESTIMATES USED IN CALCULATING APPARENT PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION
36 Apparent per capita consumption data included in this publication are calculated by dividing the quantity of beverage or pure alcohol available for consumption by the estimated resident population of Australia of persons aged 15 years and over in Australia at 31 December each year.
37 For more information on population estimates see Australian Demographic Statistics (cat. no. 3101.0).
38 In June 2013 ABS recast population estimates back to September 1991. Per capita figures from 1991-92 onwards in this publication have been revised using the recast population estimates. The effect of these revisions on per capita consumption is negligible. For more information see Recasting 20 years of ERP in the December 2012 issue of Australian Demographic Statistics (cat. no. 3101.0).
39 The Census and Statistics Act 1905 provides the authority for the ABS to collect statistical information, and requires that statistical output shall not be published or disseminated in a manner that is likely to enable the identification of a particular person or organisation. This requirement means that the ABS must take care and make assurances that any statistical information about individual respondents cannot be derived from published data.
ROUNDING OF DATA
40 Percentages and percentage movements have been calculated using un-rounded numbers, and may differ from figures obtained from rounded numbers presented in tables.
41 ABS publications draw extensively on information provided freely by individuals, business, governments and other organisations. Their continued cooperation is very much appreciated; without it, the wide range of statistics published by the ABS would not be available. Information received by the ABS is treated in strict confidence as required by the Census and Statistics Act 1905.
42 Other ABS products which may be of interest to users include:
43 ABS products and publications are available free of charge from the ABS website <https://www.abs.gov.au>. Click on Statistics to gain access to the full range of ABS statistical or reference information.
ADDITIONAL STATISTICS AVAILABLE
44 As well as the statistics included in this and related publications, the ABS may have other relevant data available on request. Enquiries should be made to the National Information and Referral Service on 1300 135 070 (email: firstname.lastname@example.org).
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