4172.0 - Arts and Culture in Australia: A Statistical Overview, 2014  
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EMPLOYMENT AND VOLUNTARY WORK

INTRODUCTION

There are several surveys undertaken by the ABS which measure aspects of employment. Each has a different purpose, with different definitions and varying collection methodologies. Data from several of these data sources are presented in this chapter which, when taken together, provide a good picture of employment and voluntary work in the cultural sector in Australia. This chapter focuses mainly on the persons who undertake paid work in cultural industries and occupations. Information is also presented on unpaid involvement which includes voluntary work. Different aspects of the cultural sector are selected from the data sources described below.

SOURCES OF DATA

The Census of Population and Housing


The 2011 Census of Population and Housing collected information on a person’s main job in the week prior to the Census (i.e. the one in which they usually worked the most hours). A range of demographic information including sex, age, birthplace, income, hours worked and state or territory of usual residence as well as details on occupation and industry are available from the Census. While this chapter provides some data from the Census on cultural employment, it is by no means exhaustive and substantially more can be found in the ABS publication Employment in Culture, Australia, 2011 (cat. no. 6273.0).

For the 2011 Census, occupation and industry data were dual coded. This gives users the option to use Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations, First Edition, Revision 1 (ANZSCO) (cat. no. 1220.0) when analysing occupation data. Users can refer to Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006 (Revision 1.0) (cat. no. 1292.0) when analysing industry data.

The list of cultural occupations shown in this chapter is based on the Occupation Classification of the Australian Culture and Leisure Classifications 2008 (Second Edition) (ACLC) (cat. no. 4902.0). Occupations were selected because they require creative participation (e.g. sculptors and actors), or have a role in enabling others to participate in a cultural activity (e.g. librarians).

Survey of Work in Selected Culture and Leisure Activities


The survey of Work in Selected Culture and Leisure Activities was collected as a supplement to the monthly Labour Force Survey between 1993 and 2007. There were slight changes in methodology during this time. Unlike the Census, the survey covered all cultural work including second jobs and both paid and unpaid involvement. The survey asked people aged 15 years and over about their involvement in cultural activities over a 12 month period. Data from the most recent, and final, survey appears in the ABS publication Work in Selected Culture and Leisure Activities, Australia, Apr 2007 (cat. no. 6281.0).

Voluntary Work


The 2010 General Social Survey (GSS) contained a voluntary work module and collected information about volunteering for a range of organisations, including those relating to arts and heritage. Data relating to the demographic details of volunteers, their reasons for volunteering and the frequency and duration of their involvement were all collected. Summary results from the 2010 survey are published in Voluntary Work, Australia, 2010 (cat. no. 4441.0).

Service Industry Surveys


Different surveys collect information about different populations. The Census, Work in Selected Culture and Leisure Activities and Voluntary Work obtain their data from households whereas the Service Industry Surveys collected information from cultural organisations. These organisations were able to provide information on the number of people they employed and the number of volunteers whose services they used. The suite of Service Industry Surveys has been discontinued.

Survey of Employee Earnings and Hours


The May 2012 survey of Employee Earnings and Hours provides information on the composition and distribution of the earnings and hours of wage and salary earners. Data from this survey have been published in Employee Earnings and Hours, Australia, May 2012 (cat. no. 6306.0).


CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING

The 2011 Census of Population and Housing found there were approximately 310,723 persons whose main job in the week prior to Census night was in a cultural occupation, an increase of 9% from 284,793 persons employed in 2006. Of those employed in a cultural occupation, the largest numbers were Design workers (71,220) followed by Architects and urban planners (38,567).

According to the 2011 Census of Population and Housing, more males (53%) than females (47%) worked in cultural occupations. Some occupations have greater gender imbalances than others, for example more than 90% of all Sound technicians, Camera operators and Directors of photography were male and around 95% of all Make up artists were female. More information can be found in Employment in Culture, Australia, 2011 (cat. no. 6273.0).

PERSONS EMPLOYED BY OCCUPATION(a)(b)(c), 2011


Occupation
Persons employed
no.

Built, Collectable and Environmental Heritage Workers
12 044
Library and Archive Workers
25 799
Other Heritage Workers
67
Writers and Print Media Workers
25 472
Performing Artists and Music Composers
16 029
Performing Arts Support Workers
17 957
Visual Arts and Crafts Professionals
15 360
Architects and Urban Planners
38 567
Design Workers
71 220
Broadcasting, Film and Recorded Media Equipment Operators
8 276
Printing Workers
24 048
Other Arts Support Workers
21 824
Other Arts Workers
5 083
Other Cultural Occupations
28 977
Total Cultural Occupations
310 723


(a) Cells in this table have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data.
(b) In their main job in the week prior to Census Night.

(c) The cultural occupations included are a subset of the ANZSCO First Edition Alternative View Culture and Leisure. For more information see Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations, First Edition, Revision 1 (ANZSCO) (cat. no. 1220.0).
Source: ABS data available on request, Census of Population and Housing, 2011.


The Census also found that 358,162 persons worked in a cultural industry compared to 346,227 persons employed in 2006. Employment in cultural industries increased by 3%. The largest percentage increase in employment was in the Internet Publishing and broadcasting industry (96%). This was followed by a 43% increase in the Creative artists, musicians, writers and performers industry. The largest percentage decrease in employment was 31% in the Video and other electronic media rental and hiring industry followed by the Other publishing (except software, music and internet) industry at 26%.

The cultural industry that employed the most people was the Architectural services industry (33,835 persons), followed by the Advertising services industry (30,456 persons) and the Printing industry (30,344 persons). The smallest employing industries were Other publishing (except software, music and internet) (203 persons), Music publishing (295 persons) and Motion picture and video distribution (658 persons).

PERSONS EMPLOYED IN CULTURAL INDUSTRIES(a)(b)(c)(d), 2006 and 2011


Persons 2006
Persons 2011
Percentage Change
no.
no.
%

Libraries and Archives
7 007
7 344
4.8
Museum Operation
6 414
7 515
17.2
Zoological and Botanical Gardens Operation
2 570
3 190
24.1
Nature Reserves and Conservation Parks Operation
6 143
7 384
20.2
Printing
37 542
30 344
-19.2
Newspaper Publishing
26 571
23 471
-11.7
Magazine and Other Periodical Publishing
8 576
8 019
-6.5
Internet Publishing and Broadcasting
1 160
2 275
96.1
Book Publishing
6 374
6 090
-4.5
Other Publishing (except Software, Music and Internet)
274
203
-25.9
Book and Magazine Wholesaling
3 622
2 858
-21.1
Entertainment Media Retailing
5 632
4 970
-11.8
Newspaper and Book Retailing
28 011
24 406
-12.9
Architectural Services
30 088
33 835
12.5
Advertising Services
27 653
30 456
10.1
Other Specialised Design Services
18 633
22 467
20.6
Motion Picture and Video Distribution
871
658
-24.5
Motion Picture and Video Production
7 363
8 702
18.2
Motion Picture Exhibition
8 903
9 872
10.9
Post-Production Services and Other Motion Picture and Video Activities
897
1 207
34.6
Music Publishing
237
295
24.5
Music and Other Sound Recording Activities
815
852
4.5
Reproduction of Recorded Media
2 288
1 947
-14.9
Radio Broadcasting
5 224
5 480
4.9
Free-to-Air Television Broadcasting
12 649
14 057
11.1
Cable and Other Subscription Broadcasting
2 927
3 239
10.7
Performing Arts Operation
4 318
5 450
26.2
Creative Artists, Musicians, Writers and Performers
14 479
20 690
42.9
Performing Arts Venue Operation
2 674
3 372
26.1
Video and Other Electronic Media Rental and Hiring
10 975
7 552
-31.2
Professional Photographic Services
7 114
9 288
30.6
Arts Education
15 704
17 562
11.8
Religious Services
27 556
27 492
-0.2
Funeral, Crematorium and Cemetery Services
4 963
5 620
13.2
Total cultural industries
346 227
358 162
3.4


(a) Cells in this table have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data.
(b) In their main job in the week prior to Census Night.
(c) Industries defined by the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006, (Revision 1.0) (cat. no. 1292.0).
(d) Includes not stated or inadequately described.
Source: ABS data available on request, Census of Population and Housing, 2011.


The 2011 Census found that 3.1% of employed persons (310,725 persons) in Australia worked in a cultural occupation. The Census also found that some 3.6% of employed people (358,162 persons) worked in a cultural industry. In 2011, a large proportion of persons employed in a cultural occupation worked in a non-cultural industry (42.3% or 131,318 persons). A librarian employed in a university is an example of a cultural occupation within a non-cultural industry.

PERSONS EMPLOYED IN CULTURAL OCCUPATIONS(a)(b)(c), By whether working in cultural industries(d), 2011


Occupations
Total Cultural industries
Non-cultural industries
All industries
no.
no.
no.

Built, Collectable and Environmental Heritage Workers
5 478
6 398
12 044
Library and Archive Workers
5 720
19 950
25 798
Other Heritage workers
34
32
66
Writers and Print Media Workers
17 620
7 368
25 474
Performing Artists and Music Composers
11 446
4 138
16 031
Performing Arts Support Workers
13 944
3 715
17 961
Visual Arts and Crafts Professionals
11 518
3 608
15 360
Architects and Urban Planners
22 613
15 715
38 566
Design Workers
31 015
38 886
71 214
Broadcasting, Film and Recorded Media Equipment Operators
5 559
2 425
8 275
Printing Workers
15 503
8 209
24 048
Other Arts Support Workers
14 447
7 015
21 821
Other Arts Workers
3 218
1 664
5 086
Other Cultural
16 246
12 195
28 981
Total Cultural occupations
174 361
131 318
310 725
Non-cultural occupations
181 142
9 217 239
9 558 585
All occupations
358 162
9 466 280
10 058 325


(a) Cells in this table have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data.
(b) In their main job in the week prior to Census Night.
(c) Industries defined by the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006 (Revision 1.0) (cat. no. 1292.0).
(d) The cultural occupations included are a subset of the ANZSCO First Edition Alternative View Culture and Leisure. For more information see ANZSCO - Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations, First Edition, Revision 1 (cat. no. 1220.0).
Source: ABS data available on request, Census of Population and Housing, 2011


WORK IN SELECTED CULTURE AND LEISURE ACTIVITIES SURVEY

Due to the large number of people involved in the cultural sector through second jobs and unpaid work, the Census was unable to fully represent employment within this sector. To account for this, the ABS conducted a survey to collect more information on all the ways in which people could be involved in the sector.

Work in Selected Culture and Leisure Activities, Australia, Apr 2007 (cat. no. 6281.0) found that there were about 3.5 million people (22% of the population aged 15 years and over) in Australia who had worked in a culture or leisure activity in the 12 months prior to interview. Of these, some 701,800 stated that their involvement was part of their main job.

It should be noted that this involvement could have been a relatively minor part of the job the person held (e.g. taking photographs for inclusion in their organisation's newsletter). Involvement was defined to exclude those activities undertaken only for the person's own, family's or friends' use - these were classed as hobbies.


INVOLVEMENT BY PAYMENT STATUS AND STATE OR TERRITORY(a), By sex, 12 months ending April 2007


Some paid involvement(b)
Unpaid involvement only
Total persons involved(c)
Persons with no involvement
Total persons
Participation rate
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
%

MALES
New South Wales
166.4
325.7
497.9
2 181.7
2 679.7
18.6
Victoria
134.1
242.5
382.4
1 630.7
2 013.1
19.0
Queensland
102.3
188.8
296.1
1 276.7
1 572.8
18.8
South Australia
36.3
88.1
127.1
483.8
610.9
20.8
Western Australia
51.6
95.3
150.3
644.6
794.9
18.9
Tasmania
9.4
32.8
42.6
146.4
189.0
22.5
Northern Territory
*6.3
8.0
14.3
44.2
58.5
24.4
Australian Capital Territory
12.9
19.2
32.5
92.9
125.4
25.9
Australia
519.3
1 000.4
1 543.1
6 501.1
8 044.2
19.2
FEMALES
New South Wales
177.1
442.6
624.3
2 129.3
2 753.6
22.7
Victoria
144.7
344.5
494.9
1 593.6
2 088.5
23.7
Queensland
103.0
277.5
383.9
1 210.0
1 594.0
24.1
South Australia
38.9
126.3
167.3
462.4
629.7
26.6
Western Australia
48.5
154.3
203.6
600.9
804.6
25.3
Tasmania
10.7
41.4
52.3
144.4
196.7
26.6
Northern Territory
6.6
10.9
17.5
38.0
55.5
31.5
Australian Capital Territory
13.3
30.6
44.0
87.6
131.6
33.5
Australia
542.8
1 428.2
1 987.9
6 266.4
8 254.3
24.1
PERSONS
New South Wales
343.5
768.3
1 122.2
4 311.1
5 433.3
20.7
Victoria
278.8
587.1
877.3
3 224.3
4 101.6
21.4
Queensland
205.3
466.4
680.1
2 486.7
3 166.8
21.5
South Australia
75.3
214.4
294.3
946.2
1 240.5
23.7
Western Australia
100.0
249.6
353.9
1 245.5
1 599.4
22.1
Tasmania
20.1
74.2
94.9
290.8
385.7
24.6
Northern Territory
12.9
18.9
31.8
82.2
114.0
27.9
Australian Capital Territory
26.2
49.8
76.5
180.5
257.0
29.8
Australia
1 062.1
2 428.6
3 531.0
12 767.4
16 298.5
21.7

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
(a) Involvement is for 12 months prior to interview.
(b) Includes persons who only received goods or services as payment.
(c) Includes persons who did not state whether involvement was paid.
Source: Work in Selected Culture and Leisure Activities, Australia, Apr 2007 (cat. no. 6281.0)


There were 360,300 people who had some paid involvement in culture and leisure activities in the 12 months prior to interview who stated that the activity was not related to their main job held in the last week. For example, many people worked as Live performers (65,700) Writers (56,400) or Designers (49,100), in addition to their primary job.

The most common types of cultural activities which formed part of the person's main job were Design (230,700 people), Writing (184,300 people), Creating artworks with a computer (98,400 people) and Designing web sites (83,300 people).

PERSONS WITH PAID INVOLVEMENTS(a)(b), Type of activity by whether part of main job(c), 12 months ending April 2007


Activity part of main job(c)
Activity not part of main job(c)
Total persons with some paid involvement
('000)
('000)
('000)

Heritage
Museums
8
1
10
Public art galleries
10
5
15
Libraries and archives
29
7
*36
Heritage organisations
4
*6
**10
Botanic gardens
*7
**3
9
National parks and reserves
**8
5
13
Zoos and aquaria
6
2
8
Total heritage(d)
60
23
84
Arts
Visual art activities
Drawing
65
28
92
Painting
28
30
58
Sculpture
13
5
18
Photography
53
34
87
Print-making
22
4
26
Creating artworks with a computer
98
39
137
Other visual art activities
11
7
18
Total visual art activities(d)
185
97
282
Craft activities
Pottery and ceramics
14
3
17
Textiles
23
17
40
Jewellery making
10
23
33
Furniture-making and wood crafts
36
16
52
Glass crafts
5
3
8
Other craft activities
14
11
25
Total craft activities(d)
74
65
139
Writing
184
56
241
Publishing
81
25
106
Performing arts
Performer
13
26
39
No involvement as performer
23
15
38
Total performing arts(d)
36
41
77
Music
Live performer
25
66
91
No involvement as live performer
20
9
28
Total music(d)
45
74
119
Radio
11
14
25
Television
20
24
43
Film production
16
19
35
Cinema and video distribution
12
9
21
Designing websites
83
29
112
Designing computer games and other interactive software
34
6
40
Design
231
49
280
Teaching
65
46
111
Festival organising
51
32
83
Art or craft show organising
23
13
36
Government arts departments and agencies
14
6
20
Total arts(d)
669
347
1 016
Total(d)
702
360
1 062

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
(a) Involvement is for 12 months prior to interview.
(b) Includes persons who only received goods or services as payment.
(c) Main job held in the week prior to interview. If the person held multiple jobs during this week, it was the respondent's decision as to which was the main job.
(d) Components may not add to totals as some persons were involved in more than one activity.
Source: Work in Selected Culture and Leisure Activities, Australia, Apr 2007 (cat. no. 6281.0)

VOLUNTARY WORK

Some cultural industries rely heavily on the activities of volunteers to assist their paid workforce. The voluntary work module within the General Social Survey (GSS) defined a volunteer as someone who willingly gave unpaid help in the form of time, services or skills, through an organisation or group. Results from the 2010 GSS found that 6.1 million people (36% of the Australian population aged 18 years and over) undertook some sort of voluntary work in the 12 months prior to interview. Some 403,900 people (7% of the population) undertook voluntary work for heritage and arts organisations.

PERSONS UNDERTAKING VOLUNTARY WORK FOR HERITAGE AND ARTS ORGANISATIONS, 2010


Number of volunteers
Percent of the population
'000
%

Males
200.2
7.0
Females
203.7
6.3
Persons
403.9
6.6

Source: Voluntary Work, Australia, 2010 (cat. no. 4441.0)


SERVICE INDUSTRY SURVEYS

The Service Industry Surveys collect information from employers in selected cultural industries. The table below displays the number of employees in these industries. Care must be taken when interpreting these figures as different industries were surveyed in different years.

According to Film, Television and Digital Games, Australia, 2011-12, the Film and video production industry was the highest employing industry with 13,414 employees in 2011-12. Other cultural industries with large numbers of employees were Public libraries (12,471 employees in 2003-04) and Television services (10,032 employees in 2006-07).

PERSONS EMPLOYED IN SELECTED CULTURAL INDUSTRIES, Various years


Full-time
Part-time and casual
Working proprietors and partners of unincorporated businesses
Salaried directors of incorporated businesses
Total
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

June 2012
Film and video
Production services
na
na
na
na
13 414
Post-production services
na
na
na
na
2 346
Television services(a)
Commercial television broadcasting
na
na
na
na
7 856
June 2008
Museums and art galleries
3 608
4 248
na
na
7 856
June 2007
Performing arts operation
2 658
3 223
291
396
6 569
Performing arts venue operation
1 472
4 367
na
38
5 876
Television services(a)
Commercial television broadcasting
5 086
1 894
na
na
6 980
Subscription television broadcasting
na
na
na
na
3 052
June 2004
Public libraries(b)
5 889
6 583
na
na
12 471
June 2003
Performing arts festivals
345
927
na
na
1 272

na not available
(a) Excludes public television broadcasters and community broadcasters.
(b) Excludes national and state archives, special libraries and libraries located in educational institutions.
Source: Museums, Australia, 2007-08 (cat. no. 8560.0); Performing Arts, Australia, 2006-07 (cat. no. 8697.0); Public Libraries, Australia, 2003-04 (cat. no. 8561.0); Film, Television and Digital Games, Australia, 2011-12 (cat. no. 8679.0).

Many cultural industries are run as commercial operations and are exclusively staffed by paid employees. A few industries, however, rely heavily on the assistance of volunteers. The Service Industry Surveys found that 23,426 volunteers helped in the running of Museums during June 2008, which is more than three times the number of people with paid employment in the industry at that time. Similarly, 6,582 people undertook voluntary work for Performing arts operations during June 2007. This was slightly more than the number of paid employees (6,569).

Some 6,853 people undertook voluntary work for Public libraries during June 2004, which is approximately one volunteer for every two paid employees. Performing arts venue operations employed 5,876 people in 2007, with an additional 1,935 people volunteering in this industry.

VOLUNTEERS IN SELECTED CULTURAL INDUSTRIES, Various years


Volunteers
no.

June 2008Museums
23 426
June 2007 Performing arts operation
6 582
Performing arts venue operation
1 935
June 2004 Public libraries(a)
6 853

(a) Excludes libraries operated privately by organisations for internal reference purposes, and libraries located in educational institutions.
Source: Museums, Australia, 2007-08 (cat. no. 8560.0); Performing Arts, Australia, 2006-07 (cat. no. 8697.0); Public Libraries, Australia, 2003-04 (cat. no. 8561.0).

EMPLOYEE EARNINGS AND HOURS

Data pertaining to the earnings of wage and salary earners by occupation is available from the ABS publication Employee Earnings and Hours, Australia, May 2012 (cat. no. 6306.0). Results from the May 2012 Survey of Employee Earnings and Hours indicate that Arts professionals who worked as full-time employees (excluding those who were self-employed), worked an average of 37.5 hours per week and had weekly earnings of $1,699.80. Media professionals worked an average of 38.2 hours per week and Printing trades workers worked an average of 37.7 hours per week. By comparison, all wage and salary earners worked an average of 37.9 hours per week with earnings totalling $1,297.20.

For more detailed occupation data, the 2011 Census of Population and Housing would be a more appropriate source.

FULL–TIME ADULT NON–MANAGERIAL EMPLOYEES(a), Earnings and hours(b), 2012


Males
Females
Total
$
hours
$
hours
$
hours

Arts professionals
1 271.60
37.1
*2 305.80
38.0
1 699.80
37.5
Media professionals
1 826.40
np
np
np
np
38.2
Printing trades workers
1 023.70
np
np
np
np
37.7
All occupations
1 356.30
38.3
1 207.30
37.5
1 297.20
37.9


* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) Selected cultural occupations based on ANZSCO (First edition 2006).
(b) Average weekly total earnings and hours paid for ordinary time. Comprises regular wages and salaries in cash, including amounts salary sacrificed. Excluded are non-cash components of salary packages, over-time payments, retrospective pay, pay in advance, leave loadings, severance pay, and termination and redundancy payments.
Source: Employee Earnings and Hours, Australia, May 2012 (cat. no. 6306.0)