7113.0 - Agriculture, Australia, 1999-2000
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 04/10/2001
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ABOUT THIS PUBLICATION
This compendium presents a picture of Australian agriculture in recent years. It contains detailed statistics on crops, livestock and livestock products and characteristics of farms. Also included are detailed statistics on the financial performance of agricultural industries, the value of agricultural commodities produced (VACP) and summary trade data.
A special article about the wool industry in Australia has been included. It provides details of the history of the industry, a financial overview and an industry outlook.
For further information about this and other related publications, please contact Debbie Thomas on Hobart 03 6222 5948.
Following are extracts of the information contained in each chapter of this 131 page publication.
CHAPTER 1: AGRICULTURE AND THE AUSTRALIAN ECONOMY
Agriculture has historically played an important role in the development of Australia's economy. The contribution of agriculture to the Australian economy can be measured in a number of ways. The most direct measurement available is the gross value of agricultural production, which is the value placed on recorded production at wholesale prices realised in the market place. In 1999-2000 the gross value of agricultural production was $30.2 billion.
Other measures of the contribution of agriculture to the economy include:
CHAPTER 2: STRUCTURE OF AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY
The number of establishments having an estimated value of agricultural operations (EVAO) of $5,000 or more increased slightly, to 146,000 in the 12 months to June 2000. This was the result of an increase in farm numbers in Victoria, which was up by 600 or 2%, while the numbers in the other States were either down slightly or were little changed.
The pattern of rapidly declining numbers of establishments in the early 1990s has slowed, with the number of establishments remaining steady at around 145,000 between 1995 and 2000.
2.1 ESTABLISHMENTS WITH AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITY(a)
CHAPTER 3: VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES PRODUCED
The gross value of agricultural commodities produced in Australia increased by 5% to $30.2 billion in 1999-2000. Increases in the gross value of crops and in the gross value of livestock slaughterings and other disposals were partially offset by a decrease in the gross value of livestock products.
The largest commodities in terms of gross value of production in 1999-2000 were: cattle and calves slaughterings and other disposals with a value of $5.1 billion (up from $4.5 billion in 1998-99); wheat with $4.8 billion (up from $4.0 billion in 1998-99); milk with $2.8 billion (down from $2.9 billion in 1998-99) and wool with $2.1 billion (the same as in 1998-99).
CHAPTER 4: FINANCE
The estimates in this chapter are based on data collected in the annual Agricultural Finance Survey (AFS). The scope of the 1999-2000 AFS was businesses (or management units) with a predominant activity in the agriculture industry and an estimated value of agricultural operations (EVAO) of $22,500 or more. (These are referred to as 'farm businesses'.)
There were a number of improvements in the financial performance of the Australian farm business sector during 1999-2000. Total turnover was up, following increased sales of livestock and livestock products, and when combined with reductions in purchases and selected expenses, saw cash operating surplus increase by 25% ($1.4 billion). The total value of farm business assets at 30 June 2000 rose due to increases in value of land and buildings and value of financial assets. Net capital expenditure in 1999-2000 was again down on the previous year. The level of net farm business debt increased slightly with an increase in gross debt being mostly offset by an increase in the value of financial assets.
Aggregate turnover for all agricultural industries in 1999-2000 was $28.5 billion, $919 million higher than the 1998-99 figure of $27.6 billion. Turnover was boosted by increases in sales of livestock, sales of livestock products and other miscellaneous revenue but was offset by a decrease in sales of crops.
In 1999-2000, an estimated 12,300 farm businesses (12%) had a turnover of $500,000 or more. These farm businesses accounted for 50% of total turnover, 45% of gross farm indebtedness and 57% of total cash operating surplus made by all farm businesses.
In comparison, an estimated 19,200 farm businesses (18%) had a turnover of less than $50,000. These farm businesses accounted for 2% of total turnover, 4% of gross farm debt and less than 0.3% of total cash operating surplus. It should be noted that in aggregate these businesses had operated at a cash deficit for the previous two years.
4.1 AGGREGATE TURNOVER OF AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES
CHAPTER 5: LAND MANAGEMENT
An estimated 456 million hectares or 59% of Australia's land mass was used for agricultural activity in 1999-2000. Queensland had the largest estimated land area in agricultural use, with 145 million hectares, or 32% of the national total, followed by Western Australia with 106 million hectares, or 23% of the national total.
The estimated area planted to crops increased by 2% to 23.8 million hectares in 1999-2000. The area devoted to sown pastures and grasses also increased, up by 6% to 23.8 million hectares.
5.1 LAND USE, Area
CHAPTER 6: CROPS AND PASTURES
Within the cropping sector the production of wheat, canola and grain sorghum increased while the production of barley and oats fell. This increase in wheat production largely reflects the improved outlook for wheat prices at the time of planting the 1999-2000 crop. The increase in area sown to canola, despite poor price prospects at the time of sowing, reflects the benefits of rotational planting of canola, and the introduction of improved varieties which have allowed the utilisation of more marginal land for production. Reductions in sowings of barley and oats are blamed in part on poor price prospects and cutbacks in water allocations at planting time.
The total area of wheat planted increased by 5% to a near record 12.2 million hectares in 1999-2000, largely as a result of significant increases in Victoria and New South Wales (up by 286,000 hectares and 251,000 hectares, respectively). All other States, except Queensland which fell slightly, recorded increased plantings. Western Australia had the largest area planted with 4.6 million hectares, followed by New South Wales with 3.4 million hectares.
Production of wheat increased by 15% to a record 24.8 million tonnes in 1999-2000. Improved average yields in New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia combined with increased plantings in New South Wales and Victoria resulted in significant increases in production in these States. New South Wales recorded the biggest increase in production, up by 2.0 million tonnes (or 31%) to 8.6 million tonnes, followed by Victoria which was up by 1.2 million tonnes (or 81%) to 2.6 million tonnes. Dry conditions in South Australia resulted in lower than average yields, which more than offset increased plantings, and saw total production fall by 22% to 2.6 million tonnes. Western Australia remained the biggest producer of wheat with an 834,000 tonne (or 10%) increase in production giving a record State harvest of 9.0 million tonnes.
6.1 WHEAT PRODUCTION AND AREA
The area planted to canola in Australia increased by 53%, up from 1.2 million hectares in 1998-99 to a record 1.9 million hectares in 1999-2000, with increases recorded in all States. The biggest increase in plantings was in Western Australia, with the area sown up by 64% to 879,000 hectares.
Canola production increased by 46% to a record 2.5 million tonnes in 1999-2000. The greatest increases were in Western Australia (with production up by 57% to 963,000 tonnes) and New South Wales (with production up by 33% to 827,000 tonnes).
6.8 CANOLA PRODUCTION AND AREA
CHAPTER 7: HORTICULTURE
The 1999-2000 season saw increased production for most major fruit and vegetable crops.
The total area of vines reported increased by 14% to a record 140,000 hectares in 1999-2000. Increases were reported in all States with the biggest increases in South Australia (up 14% to 59,800 hectares), Victoria (up 12% to 36,300 hectares) and New South Wales (up 12% to 32,300 hectares).
The total production of grapes increased by 4% to a record 1.3 million tonnes in 1999-2000. A decrease in the total grape harvest in South Australia (down 3% to 483,000 tonnes) was offset by increases in Victoria (up 8% to 449,000 tonnes) and New South Wales (up 8% to 327,000 tonnes).
7.1 GRAPE PRODUCTION
The number of apple trees six years and over increased by 2% to 6.1 million trees, with increases reported in all States except New South Wales.
Total apple production fell by 4% to 320,000 tonnes in 1999-2000 after an increase the previous year. There was decreased production in all States except Queensland. The largest falls in production were reported in Victoria, the main growing State (down 9% to 98,200 tonnes) and in Tasmania (down 8% to 57,500 tonnes).
7.2 APPLE PRODUCTION
The total area planted to potatoes fell by 11% to 36,800 hectares in 1999-2000. Decreased plantings were reported in all States except Queensland. The biggest decreases were recorded in the main growing States of Tasmania (down 25% to 5,700 hectares), South Australia (down 10% to 8,000 hectares) and Victoria (down 8% to 9,600 hectares).
Australian potato production fell by 10%, or 127,000 tonnes, to 1.2 million tonnes during 1999-2000 with smaller harvests reported in all States except Queensland. There were slight improvements in crop yields across most States and these partially offset the falls in plantings. The biggest falls in production were recorded in Western Australia (down 25% to 82,100 tonnes), Tasmania (down 18% to 267,000 tonnes), and Victoria (down 8% to 295,000 tonnes).
7.9 POTATO PRODUCTION
CHAPTER 8: LIVESTOCK AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS
The number of meat cattle, sheep and lambs increased while the number of milk cattle, pigs and chickens decreased. It should be noted that these estimates are based on information obtained from the ACS conducted at 30 June 2000. Prior to 2000 information was obtained for the period ending 31 March. A study of respondent data indicated that there should be no significant difference in estimates collected because of the different reference period.
There were increases in the production levels of milk, wool, mutton and lamb and decreases in the production of beef and veal and pig meat.
At 30 June 2000 there were 24.4 million meat cattle and calves in Australia which was 5% (1.1 million head) more than the previous year. There were significant increases reported in herd sizes in Queensland, Western Australia and Victoria but these were partially offset by falls in New South Wales and Tasmania.
The number of establishments reporting meat cattle increased by 1% to 76,700 at 30 June 2000. This was mainly due to increased numbers of establishments with meat cattle in Queensland and New South Wales.
SPECIAL ARTICLE: THE AUSTRALIAN WOOL INDUSTRY
There is no doubt that Australia produces the world's best quality woollen fibre: Australian merino wool. The reasons behind Australia's high quality wool can be attributed to many factors, but are predominantly the experience and expertise of Australian farmers in selecting superior animals for breeding purposes, and in utilising the harsh Australian climate to produce clean, fine wool of high strength.
Sheep have been part of the Australian scene almost since the first fleet arrived at Botany Bay in 1788. In 1800, the colony's number of livestock was recorded as 203 horses, 1,044 cattle, 6,124 sheep and 4,017 pigs. However, it wasn't until the 1820s, when Australia imported around 5,000 merino sheep from Saxony, France and England, that the foundations of the Australian wool industry were laid.
This special article discusses the wool industry in Australia. It covers the development of the Australian Merino breed. It provides an historical and financial overview of the wool industry as well as discussing Australia's major wool markets and the industry outlook.
CHAPTER 9: TRADE
In 1999-2000, the total value of exports of agricultural products (exports classified to ANZSIC Subdivision 01, Agriculture, as their industry of origin) increased by 6% to $8.1 billion.
Following a decline in the late 1980s, the contribution of agricultural products to total exports remained relatively stable at around 9%, but dropped to 8% in 1999-2000.
The grain growing sector, which accounted for 59% of total agricultural exports, remained steady at $4.8 billion. Exports from the sheep farming sector increased significantly (from $1.6 billion in 1998-99 to $2.0 billion in 1999-2000).
9.2 CONTRIBUTION TO TOTAL EXPORTS BY AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS
1 This publication contains detailed statistics on crops, livestock and livestock products and characteristics of farms. Also included are detailed statistics on the financial performance of agricultural businesses, the value of agricultural commodities produced (VACP) and summary data on trade.
SCOPE AND COVERAGE
2 Estimates of farm production are based on information obtained from the Agricultural Commodity Survey (ACS) conducted at 30 June 2000. Prior to 2000 information was obtained for the period ending 31 March. The ABS has changed the collection period to 30 June to better align with other ABS surveys. A study of respondent data indicated that there should be no significant difference in estimates collected between the reference periods. Estimates of financial performance are derived from the 1999-2000 Agricultural Finance Survey (AFS) conducted for the financial year ended 30 June 2000. VACP quantity data are collected from the ACS and other Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) collections with some information from external sources (e.g. Australian Dairy Corporation). Most price information is obtained from non-ABS sources such as marketing boards, marketing reports, wholesalers, brokers and auctioneers.
3 The scope of the 1999-2000 ACS is establishments undertaking agricultural activity having an estimated value of agricultural operations (EVAO) of $5,000 or more. This is the same as the scope for Agricultural Censuses from 1993-94 to 1996-97 and the 1997-98 and 1998-99 ACS. Prior to 1993-94 scope has varied. Details are available on request. The scope of the 1999-2000 AFS is management units undertaking agricultural activity having an EVAO of $22,500 or more.
4 For the Agricultural Commodity Survey, the concept of an establishment is the same as that used by the ABS for all industry statistics collections. The establishment is the smallest accounting unit of business within a State or Territory, controlling its productive activities and maintaining a specified range of detailed data enabling value added to be calculated. In general an establishment covers all operations at a physical location, but may consist of a group of locations provided they are within the same State or Territory. The majority of establishments operate at one location only.
5 The management unit is the highest level accounting unit within a business, having regard for industry homogeneity, for which accounts are maintained; in nearly all cases it coincides with the legal entity owning the business (i.e. company, partnership, trust, sole operator, etc.). In the case of large diversified businesses, however, there may be more than one management unit, each coinciding with a 'Division' or 'line of business'. Management units which have a predominant activity in the agricultural sector are called farm businesses. Farm businesses which operate in more than one State are called 'multi-State farm businesses'.
6 From 1986-87 to 1992-93 inclusive, multi-State farm businesses contributed to Australian estimates but not to State level estimates. A methodology to apportion estimates for the multi-State management units to those States in which the management unit operated was developed and implemented from 1993-94 onwards.
7 The method of apportioning multi-State management units utilises a combination of size measures available from the agricultural survey and direct collection of additional data from the multi-State management units.
INDUSTRY SIZE AND CLASSIFICATION
8 Since 1991-92, units in the Agricultural Census, ACS and the AFS have been classified according to the methodology described in Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) (Cat. no. 1292.0). Prior to 1991-92, establishments were classified according to the methodology described in the 1983 edition of the Australian Standard Industrial Classification (ASIC), Volume 1 - The Classification (Cat. no. 1201.0). Therefore, care should be taken when making comparisons between years where different classifications have been used.
9 Industry value estimates, industry financial estimates and trade export estimates in this publication are presented in terms of ANZSIC.
10 The financial data items contained in this publication are comparable with those produced by the ABS for the mining, manufacturing and other industries of the economy. Data for all industries and comparisons between them are published in Business Operations and Industry Performance, Australia (Cat. no. 8140.0).
11 The estimates in this publication are based on information obtained from a sample drawn from the total farm population in scope of the collections, and are subject to sampling variability; that is, they may differ from the figures that would have been produced if all farms or farm businesses had been included in the ACS or AFS respectively. One measure of the likely difference is given by the standard error (SE), which indicates the extent to which an estimate might have varied by chance because only a sample was taken. There are about two chances in three that a sample estimate will differ by less than one SE from the figure that would have been obtained if all farms or farm businesses had been included, and about nineteen chances in twenty that the difference will be less than two SEs.
12 In this publication, sampling variability of the estimates is measured by the relative standard error (RSE) which is obtained by expressing the SE as a percentage of the estimate to which it refers. Most published estimates have RSEs less than 5%. For some States with limited production of certain commodities, RSEs are greater than 25%. If an estimate is identified by a single asterisk (e.g. *2) the RSE lies between 25% and 50%. If an estimate is identified by a double asterisk (e.g. **) the RSE is above 50% and is not published. Separate indication of the RSEs of all estimates is available on request.
13 Prior to 1997-98 the ACS was conducted as a census and therefore the estimates for that period are not subject to SEs.
14 From 1995-96, land rent paid and land rent received were no longer collected as separate items but were included in rent and leasing expenses and rent and leasing revenue. This has slightly affected the estimates of turnover, purchases, value added, adjusted value added and gross operating surplus. The effect on performance measures derived using these items is minimal.
15 Commencing with estimates for 1997-98, under new international standards, contribution to gross domestic product (GDP) by agricultural industries will be measured by the item 'industry value added' (IVA). Previously the corresponding contribution to GDP was measured by the item 'industry gross product (IGP). It should be noted that IVA is not the same item as 'value added'.
The relationship between IVA estimates and IGP estimates is:
Some further conceptual differences exist between IGP and IVA (particularly in relation to income from and expenditure on royalties for intellectual property and computer software not capitalised by the business). However, taking these items into account would have virtually no effect on the estimates of IVA in this publication and no attempt has been made to measure them for agricultural industries.
COMPARISON WITH AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL ACCOUNTS
16 At present, some differences exist between the income and expenditure estimates incorporated in the National Accounts and those included in this publication.
17 The National Accounts estimates measure the income accruing from production after allowing for related expenditures, while the estimates in this publication have been based on items generally reported on a cash basis. For instance, in the case of a farm business receiving payment in the current year for a previous year's production, the National Accounts would include the value of the transaction in the previous year while the AFS would include it in the current year.
18 The AFS measures the total sales of livestock by farm businesses (i.e. whether for slaughter, fattening or breeding), whereas the National Accounts measure only the value of the stock sold for slaughter. Consequently, purchases of livestock are included in the AFS estimates of expenses but are not reflected in the National Accounts.
19 Marketing costs in the National Accounts are based on expenses incurred in transporting farm produce between the farm and the principal markets, whether they are paid by the farm businesses or the buyer. On the other hand, only marketing costs actually incurred by the farm business are included in the AFS. In addition, the National Accounts estimates of marketing costs include the marketing expenses of various marketing boards which are not included in the AFS.
20 The National Accounts estimates for the agricultural industry exclude financial transactions related to non-agricultural activity, whereas the AFS estimates include financial data relating to all activities which are undertaken by management units, whose predominant activity is agriculture.
21 The National Accounts estimates of farm income relate to ANZSIC subdivisions 01 and 02 and hence also include estimates of income of management units predominantly involved in providing agricultural services (such as contract harvesting and aerial spraying). The AFS only includes financial data relating to agricultural services activities of management units which had a predominant activity of agriculture (i.e. coded to ANZSIC subdivision 01). A further difference is that in the National Accounts, payments to shearing contractors are regarded as wages, whereas in the AFS such payments are included under the item 'Payments to Contractors'.
22 The National Accounts estimates of farm production include the value of crops and seed produced and consumed on the farm, whereas the AFS includes only the value of proceeds for crops sold. Similarly, the National Accounts estimates for seed and fodder costs include the value of seed and fodder produced and consumed on the holding, whereas the AFS measures only the value of those items purchased.
23 The National Accounts also provide an estimate for the 'equipment' component of gross fixed capital expenditure for Division A of the ANZSIC, which includes expenditure by the forestry, fishing and hunting industries. On the other hand, the AFS provides an estimate for total gross fixed capital expenditure which includes not only expenditure on equipment but also expenditure on both dwellings and non-dwelling construction. This estimate is only for ANZSIC Division A, subdivision 01, Agriculture.
24 In view of these conceptual differences, the different sources of the estimates, and sampling error, caution should be exercised in drawing inferences from a comparison between the AFS estimates and the estimates in the National Accounts.
25 Real estimates of two key statistics derived from the AFS are included in this publication. These statistics are cash operating surplus (COS) and net worth. While real estimates are similar to the chain volume estimates published by the ABS (in that they are both designed to allow the calculation of growth rates free of the direct effects of inflation) they are slightly different measures. Chain volume measures can only be compiled for statistics that can be thought of as the aggregate of components, each of which is the product of a unit price and a quantity, such as turnover or expenditure. Chain volume estimates cannot be derived for those current price statistics that cannot be regarded as the product of price and quantity vectors, such as income statistics (e.g. COS), liabilities and financial assets, which can only be thought of as money values.
26 Nevertheless, 'real' estimates can be obtained by revaluing such current price values in terms of a basket of goods and services that the money is, or could be, spent on.
27 Real values of cash operating surplus and net worth have been derived by deflating the current price estimates with the implicit price deflator (IPD) of domestic final demand for the Australian estimates and State final demand for the State estimates. IPDs are themselves a derived measure, obtained by dividing a current price estimate with the corresponding chain volume estimate (they are revised annually). The IPD for Australian domestic final demand is published in table 1.7 of Australian System of National Accounts (Cat. no. 5204.0). IPDs for State final demand can be derived from the current prices and chain volume estimates of final demand published in tables 3 and 6-13 of Australian National Accounts: State Accounts (Cat. no. 5220.0).
CROPS, PASTURES AND HORTICULTURE
28 Statistics of area and production of crops relate, in the main, to crops sown during the year ended 30 June. Statistics of perennial crops relate to the position as at 30 June and the production during the year ended on that date, or of fruit set by that date. Statistics for apples and pears, which in some States are harvested after 30 June, are collected by supplementary collection forms and are included in this publication.
LIVESTOCK SLAUGHTERING AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS
29 The statistics on livestock slaughtering and meat production are based on a monthly collection from abattoirs and other major slaughtering establishments and include estimates of animals slaughtered on farms and by country butchers and other small slaughtering establishments. Care should be taken when using this information as the figures only relate to slaughtering for human consumption and do not include animals condemned or those killed for boiling down. Definitions of livestock categories may differ between States and within States, particularly with regard to calves.
30 Wool production statistics contained in this publication are derived from the ABS Wool Brokers and Dealers Receivals Collection.
31 Wool receivals statistics show the amount of taxable wool received by brokers and dealers from wool producers. It excludes wool received by brokers on which wool tax has already been paid by other dealers (private buyers) or brokers.
32 Milk statistics have been collected and provided to the ABS by the Australian Dairy Corporation.
33 Poultry slaughtering statistics have been compiled from returns supplied by commercial poultry slaughtering establishments. Producers in Tasmania, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory are not included in the aggregates derived from the Poultry and Game Birds Slaughtered collection. However, the statistics represent a high level of coverage.
34 The merchandise export statistics in this publication are compiled in broad agreement with the United Nations' recommendations for the compilation of international trade statistics.
35 International trade statistics are compiled by the ABS from information submitted by exporters and importers or their agents to the Australian Customs Service (Customs).
36 Commodity exports are presented according to the codes and descriptions of the Australian Harmonised Export Commodity Classification (AHECC).
37 Merchandise trade covers all movable goods which add to (imports) or subtract from (exports) the stock of material resources in Australia. Excluded are:
38 The United Nations' recommendations for the compilation of merchandise trade statistics recognise that the basic source used by most compiling countries-the customs record-will not be able to capture certain transactions. In Australia the following types of goods which fall within the scope of merchandise trade, are excluded because customs entries are not required:
For exports only:
39 The merchandise trade statistics in this publication are recorded on a general trade basis, i.e. exports include both Australian produce and re-exports.
40 Australian produce is defined as goods, materials or articles which have been produced or manufactured in Australia. Processing and assembly operations that leave imported components and products essentially unchanged are not considered as production or manufacture.
41 Re-exports are defined as goods, materials or articles originally imported into Australia which are exported in the same condition or after undergoing minor operations (e.g. blending, packaging, bottling, cleaning, husking and shelling) which leave them essentially unchanged.
42 The value of exports is the free on board (f.o.b.) transactions value of the goods expressed in Australian dollars. Goods shipped on consignment are initially valued at the f.o.b. Australian port of shipment equivalent of the current price offering for similar goods of Australian origin in the principal markets of the country to which the goods are despatched for sale. Exporters who do not know the value of the goods at shipment, and enter an approximate value, must subsequently submit an entry either confirming or revising the estimated return.
43 Restrictions are placed on the release of statistics for certain commodities for reasons of confidentiality. These restrictions do not affect total export and import figures, but they can affect statistics at all levels, that is, by country and/or by commodity. More information on the treatment of confidential data in international merchandise trade statistics can be obtained from the Information Paper, International Merchandise Trade Statistics, Australia: Data Confidentiality (Cat. no. 5487.0), or the Confidentiality Manager on (02) 6252 5409. Copies of the current Confidential Commodities List (CCL), in electronic or paper format, can be obtained from the Confidentiality Manager. The latest version is available on the ABS Website (www.abs.gov.au).
ABS DATA AVAILABLE ON REQUEST
44 As well as the statistics included in this and related publications, the ABS may have other relevant data available on request. Inquiries should be made to either Debbie Thomas on Hobart 03 6222 5948 or the National Information and Referral Service on 1300 135 070.
45 ABS publications draw extensively on information provided freely by individuals, businesses, governments and other organisations. Their continued cooperation is very much appreciated: without it, the wide range of statistics published by the ABS would not be available. Information received by the ABS is treated in strict confidence as required by the Census and Statistics Act 1905.
46 A range of agricultural publications is produced by the ABS, including:
47 For comparisons of the agriculture industry with other industries, users are referred to:
48 Current publications produced by the ABS are listed in the Catalogue of Publications and Products (cat. no. 1101.0). The ABS also issues, on Tuesdays and Fridays, a Release Advice (cat. no. 1105.0) which lists publications to be released in the next few days. The Catalogue and Release Advice are available from any ABS office.
ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS
49 The following abbreviations and symbols have been used in this publication:
50 The estimates for earlier years shown in this publication have been revised where necessary.
51 Where figures have been rounded, discrepancies may occur between sums of the component items and totals.
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