4156.0 - Sports and Physical Recreation: A Statistical Overview, Australia, 2012 Quality Declaration 
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 20/12/2012  Final
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Aboriginal people

People who identify or are identified as being of Aboriginal origin. May also include people identified as being of both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin. See also Indigenous and Torres Strait Islander People.


Includes callisthenics, gymnasium work, exercise bike, circuits.

Air sports

Includes parachuting, gliding, hang-gliding, model aircraft.


Attendance at a sporting event, match or competition as a spectator, irrespective of whether an admission fee is paid.

Attendance rate

For any group, the number of persons who attended a sporting event at least once during the year, expressed as a percentage of the total population of that group.

Australian Culture and Leisure Classifications (ACLC)

The ABS (2008a) ACLC, 2008 (Second Edition) (cat. no. 4902.0) consists of three classifications; Industry, Product, and Occupation Classifications. The categories used for the presentation of data in this publication are those which closely align with one or more of the sport and physical recreation classes from the relevant classification within the ACLC. For example, the categories used to present industry data are those which closely align with classes in the ACLC Industry Classification Division 3, Sports and Physical Recreation.


Includes indoor and outdoor.

Capital city

The six state capital city statistical divisions. The Darwin Statistical Division and the Canberra Statistical Division are excluded.

Casual employees

Casual employees usually receive a higher rate of pay, to compensate for lack of permanency and leave entitlements.


A person of any age who is a natural, adopted, step, or foster son or daughter of a couple or lone parent, usually resident in the same household. A child is also any individual under 15 years old, usually resident in the household, who forms a parent-child relationship with another member in the household. This includes otherwise related children and unrelated children under 15 years old. In these cases in order to be classified as a child, the person can have no child or partner of their own usually resident in the household.

Club or association

Includes work social club, community club, church group, old scholars association.

Country of birth

Classified according to the ABS (2011f) Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), Second Edition (cat. no. 1269.0).


A couple refers to two usual residents, both aged at least 15 years, who are either married to each other or living in a de facto relationship with each other.

Couple with dependent children

See Family types.


Includes BMX and mountain bikes.

Dependent child

All persons under 15 years old; and persons aged 15 to 24 years who are full-time students, have a parent in the household and do not have a partner or child of their own in the household.


In the context of health experience, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (World Health Organisation 2011) defines disability as an umbrella term for impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions. It denotes the negative aspects of the interaction between an individual (with a health condition) and that individual's contextual factors (environment and personal factors).

In the Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers, a person has a disability if they report they have a limitation, restriction or impairment, which has lasted, or is likely to last, for at least six months and restricts everyday activities. This includes:

  • loss of sight (not corrected by glasses or contact lenses)
  • loss of hearing where communication is restricted, or an aid to assist with, or substitute for, hearing is used
  • speech difficulties
  • shortness of breath or breathing difficulties causing restriction
  • chronic or recurrent pain or discomfort causing restriction
  • blackouts, fits, or loss of consciousness
  • difficulty learning or understanding
  • incomplete use of arms or fingers
  • difficulty gripping or holding things
  • incomplete use of feet or legs
  • nervous or emotional condition causing restriction
  • restriction in physical activities or in doing physical work
  • disfigurement or deformity
  • mental illness or condition requiring help or supervision
  • long-term effects of head injury, stroke or other brain damage causing restriction
  • receiving treatment or medication for any other long-term conditions or ailments and still being restricted
  • any other long-term conditions resulting in a restriction.


All persons aged 15 years and over who, during the reference week:
  • worked for one hour or more for pay, profit, commission or payment in kind in a job or business, or on a farm (comprising employees, employers and own account workers); or
  • worked for one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm (i.e. contributing family workers); or
  • were employees who had a job but were not at work and were:
      • away from work for less than four weeks up to the end of the reference week; or
      • away from work for more than four weeks up to the end of the reference week and received pay for some or all of the four week period to the end of the reference week; or
      • away from work as a standard work or shift arrangement; or
      • on strike or locked out; or
      • on workers' compensation and expected to return to their job; or
  • were employers or own account workers, who had a job, business or farm, but were not at work.

Employment at end June

Working proprietors and partners, and employees (including working directors) working for the business during the last pay period ending in June. It excludes volunteers and subcontracted workers.


Two or more persons, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering; and who are usually resident in the same household. The basis of a family is formed by identifying the presence of a couple relationship, lone parent-child relationship or other blood relationship. Some households will, therefore, contain more than one family. For the purposes of the Time Use diary, family members who are usually resident in the same household are referred to as 'in household' family while family members who live outside of the household are referred to as family 'living elsewhere'.

Family types

Families are classified to one of the following categories:
  • Couple only - two persons in a registered or de facto marriage who usually live in the same household.
  • Couple family with dependent children - a family consisting of a couple with at least one dependent child. The family may also include non-dependent children, other relatives and unrelated individuals.
  • One parent family with dependent children - a family comprising a lone parent with at least one dependent child. The family may also include non-dependent children, other relatives and unrelated individuals.
  • Other families:
      • one couple with their non-dependent children only
      • one couple, with or without non-dependent children or other relatives, plus unrelated individuals
      • a lone parent with his/her non-dependent children, with or without other relatives and unrelated individuals
      • two or more related individuals where the relationship is not a couple relationship or a parent-child relationship (e.g. two brothers).

Free time

The amount of time left when committed, contracted and necessary time have been taken out of a person's day. Social and community interaction and recreation and leisure activities are included in this time category.

Full-time employees

Employees who normally work the agreed or award hours for a full-time employee in their occupation. If agreed or award hours do not apply, employees are regarded as full-time if they usually work 35 hours or more per week.

Generalised trust

Generalised trust refers to trust that individuals have toward other people in general.


Includes trampolining.


Excludes indoor hockey, ice hockey.

Horse riding

Includes equestrian, rodeo, polo, polocrosse.


A group of people who usually reside and eat together. This may be:
  • a one person household, that is, a person who makes provision for his or her own food or other essentials for living without combining with any other person; or
  • a multi-person household, that is, a group of two or more persons, living within the same dwelling, who make common provision for food or other essentials for living.

Household expenditure

The cost of goods and services acquired during the reference period for private use, whether or not those goods were paid for or consumed. For example, goods purchased by credit card are counted as expenditure at the time they were acquired rather than at the time the credit card bill was paid.

Expenditure is net of refunds or expected refunds. For example, payments for health services are net of any refunds received or expected to be received. Similarly, gambling wins are offset against gambling outlays to show net gambling expenditure.

Household Expenditure Survey

A survey, conducted at approximately five-yearly intervals, which records the expenditure of households rather than individuals because some expenditures (e.g. on domestic inground swimming pools, caravans, boats) are usually for the benefit of everyone in the household and therefore cannot be attributed in a meaningful way to any particular person in the household.

Information about most types of expenditure is obtained from a diary maintained by all persons aged 15 years and over in households selected in the sample. Some infrequent items of expenditure are collected on a 'recall' or 'last payment' basis', the length of the recall period ranging from two years for house purchases to three months for health expenses.

A household's expenditure on sports, physical recreation and other leisure can be affected by many things including:
  • the size of the household - the more people a household contains, the larger the expenditure is likely to be
  • the location of the household
  • the income of the household - expenditure on many goods and services increases as income increases
  • the composition of the household - the age and sex of household members and their relationships within the household will impact on their interests and spending habits.

Ice/snow sports

Includes ice hockey, ice skating, snow skiing.


Refers to people who identified themselves, or were identified by another household member, as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin.

Indigenous household

An Indigenous household where one of more of the Usual Residents is Indigenous. See also Indigenous.


Involvement in sport or physical activity in either a playing role, or a non-playing role such as coach, umpire or administrator.

Labour costs

Include wages and salaries, employer contributions to superannuation funds, workers' compensation costs, payroll tax and fringe benefits tax. Exclude payments to self-employed persons such as consultants, contractors and persons paid solely by commission without a retainer; and payments to proprietors and partners of unincorporated businesses.

Main English speaking countries

Comprise United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, Canada, United States of America, and South Africa.

Martial arts

Include Taekwondo, Aikido, judo, karate, kickboxing.

Motor sports

Include car and motor cycle racing and rallying; and speedway, drag and go-kart events.

Social and community interaction

A major activity classification group which includes activities relating to social interaction participation such as attending a concert, a library or amusement park. Also included are attending sporting events, participating in religious ceremonies and community participation such as attendance at meetings.


Includes indoor and outdoor netball.

Net takings

Gross takings less payments of prize money and winnings.

Non-dependent child

Persons aged 15 years and over who:
  • do not have a spouse or offspring of their own in the household
  • have a parent in the household
  • are not full-time students aged 15-24 years.

Not-for-profit organisations

Organisations not permitted to be a source of income, profit or other financial gain for the units that establish, control or finance them.

Operating profit before tax

A measure of the level of profit achieved prior to extraordinary items being brought to account, income tax being deducted and dividends being paid. It is derived as total income minus total expenses plus closing inventories minus opening inventories.

Organised sport and physical activities

Sport and physical activities which were organised by a club, association or school. The club or association need not be sporting body. It may be a work social club, church group or old scholars association. Physical activity such as aerobics and other exercise sessions organised by fitness centres or gymnasia are also included.

Paid involvement

Persons were classed as being paid for involvement in sport or physical activity in a particular role if they received any payment at all for that involvement. If a person undertook more than one role, payment had to be received for each role for all involvements to be classed as paid.


Persons playing a sport or undertaking physical activity. Persons involved only in non-playing roles such as coach, umpire or administrator are excluded.

Participation rate

For any group, the number of persons involved (either as participants or otherwise) in sport or physical activities, expressed as a percentage of the total population of that group.

Part-time employees

Employees who normally work less than the agreed or award hours for a full-time employee in their occupation. If agreed or award hours do not apply, employees are regarded as part-time if they usually work less than 35 hours per week.

Remoteness Area

Within a state or territory, each Remoteness Area represents an aggregation of non-contiguous geographical areas which share common characteristics of remoteness, determined in the context of Australia as a whole.

The delimitation criteria for Remoteness Areas are based on the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA). ARIA measures the remoteness of a point based on the physical road distances to the nearest Urban Centre. Not all Remoteness Areas are represented in each state or territory.

There are six Remoteness Areas in this structure:
  • Major Cities of Australia.
  • Inner Regional Australia.
  • Outer Regional Australia.
  • Remote Australia.
  • Very Remote Australia.
  • Migratory.

For more information, see ABS (2011a) Australian Standard Geographical Classification, 2011 (cat. no. 1216.0).

SAR of China

Special Administrative Region of China.

Shooting sports

Include pistol and rifle shooting, hunting, and paintball.


Excludes indoor soccer.

Social capital

Networks, together with shared norms, values and understandings which facilitate cooperation within and among groups (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2001).

Sports hospitality clubs

Clubs which obtained the largest portion of their income from the provision of hospitality services, but identified themselves as being sport or physical recreation clubs.

Surf sports

Include surfing and windsurfing. Exclude surf-lifesaving.


Includes indoor and outdoor tennis.

Torres Strait Islander people

People identified as being of Torres Strait Islander origin. May also include people identified as being of both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal origin. See also Indigenous.


Persons aged 15 years and over who were not employed during the reference week, and:
  • had actively looked for full-time or part-time work at any time in the four weeks up to the end of the reference week and were available for work in the reference week; or
  • were waiting to start a new job within four weeks from the end of the reference week and could have started in the reference week if the job had been available then.


Includes indoor and outdoor volleyball.

Volunteer rate

For any group, the number of volunteers, expressed as a percentage of the total population of that group.


Persons who willingly gave unpaid help in the form of time, service or skills, to assist an organisation or group. The reimbursement of expenses and the bestowing of small gifts are not regarded as payment for services rendered. Hence, persons who received these (and nothing else) are still treated as volunteers.


Includes jet skiing.


Monday to Friday are regarded as weekdays, Saturdays and Sundays as weekends. All persons were asked to complete a diary for two days, either or both of which could be weekdays or weekends. The seven days were spread through the whole population as evenly as possible.

Weekly ordinary time cash earnings

Weekly earnings of employees which are attributable to award, standard or agreed hours of work, including allowances, penalty payments, payments by measured result and regular bonuses and commissions. Amounts salary sacrificed are also included. Excluded are non-cash components of salary packages, overtime payments, retrospective pay, pay in advance, leave loadings, severance pay, and termination and redundancy payments.

Weekly total cash earnings

Weekly total cash earnings of employees is regular wages and salaries in cash and is equal to weekly ordinary time cash earnings plus weekly overtime cash earnings.