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Housing in Sydney – Consolidation and Spread
POPULATION OF SYDNEY
In 2005, Sydney's population was estimated to be 4.3 million which was 63% of the NSW population and around one-fifth (21%) of the Australian population. To aid analysis in this article, Sydney's LGAs have been divided into three geographical rings: outer, middle and inner.(EndNote 6) In 2005, it was estimated that the outer ring contained over 2.3 million people (55%), the middle ring over 1.2 million (28%) and the inner ring over 700,000 (17%).
As would be expected, on average in both 1991 and 2005 the LGAs in the inner ring of Sydney had a higher population density (people per square kilometre) than LGAs in the outer ring. This is consistent with the greater proportion of units and apartments in the inner ring which accommodate more people per square kilometre. In 2005, Waverley (inner ring) had the highest population density with 6,647 people per square kilometre and Wollondilly (outer ring) had the lowest density (16 people per square kilometre) compared with all other LGAs. To put the population density of Sydney in perspective, in 2002 inner London had a population density of 8,980 while in outer London there were 3,582 people per square kilometre.(EndNote 7)
Between 1991 and 2005, Sydney's population grew by over half a million (582,000). The majority (68%) of the growth occurred in the outer ring, which increased by 21% in the fourteen years to 2005. Over the same period, growth in the denser middle and inner rings was more modest with increases of 10% and 12% respectively.
Within the outer ring, Camden and Liverpool experienced the greatest proportional growth in population between 1991 and 2005 (119% and 68% respectively), while Wyong's population increased by over one-third (37%).
Around half of the LGAs in the middle ring experienced a growth in population under 10% and the other half between 11% and 30% in the 1991–2005 period. Concord (now part of Canada Bay) grew by one-third (33%). In this same time period, most of the LGAs in the inner ring had increases in population of 10% or less. Three of the LGAs in the inner ring increased by more than 10%: Sydney City by 369%, South Sydney by 41% and North Sydney by 18%. The rapid growth in Sydney City was the result of an increase in the number of higher density dwellings in this LGA.
POPULATION DENSITY IN SELECTED SYDNEY LGAs — 1991 and 2005(a)
ESTIMATED RESIDENT POPULATION OF SYDNEY — 1991 and 2005(a)
PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN POPULATION BETWEEN 1991 AND 2005(a) – Outer ring of Sydney
Source: ABS Regional Population Growth, Australia.
PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN POPULATION BETWEEN 1991 AND 2005(a) – Middle and inner rings of Sydney: Enlargement
Source: ABS Regional Population Growth, Australia.
WHO LIVES IN OUTER, MIDDLE AND INNER SYDNEY?
In 2004, a greater proportion of the population in the outer (22%) and middle ring (19%) were dependent children (aged 0–14 years) than in the inner ring (13%). By comparison, the inner ring (23%) had a greater proportion of people aged between 25–34 years compared with the middle and outer rings (15% and 14% respectively).
AGE PROFILE OF SYDNEY — 2004
Around three-quarters (77%) of households in the outer ring were family households compared with just over two-thirds (70%) in the middle ring and just over one half (52%) in the inner ring. There was a similar proportion of couple family households without children among the three rings (around 22%). However, couple families with children were more common in the outer (41%) and middle (35%) rings than in the inner ring (19%).
A greater proportion of households in the inner ring were lone person households (31%) compared with the middle (22%) and outer (18%) rings. Around one in ten households (9%) in the inner ring were group households.
HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION IN SYDNEY — 2001
Not surprisingly, in 2001 the vast majority of dwellings in the outer ring were separate houses (80%) compared with the middle (59%) and inner (23%) rings where land was at a premium. Flats, units and apartments were much more common in the inner ring (55%) compared with the middle (30%) and outer (11%) rings.
DWELLING TYPE IN SYDNEY — 2001
In 2001, almost three-quarters (73%) of dwellings in the outer ring were either fully owned or being purchased, compared with almost two-thirds (65%) of the dwellings in the middle ring and half (50%) of the dwellings in the inner ring. Renting was the most common tenure type in Sydney's inner ring.
TENURE TYPE IN SYDNEY — 2001
...HOME AND WORK LOCATION
The majority (61%) of people in Sydney in 2001 lived and worked in the same geographical ring. However, a greater proportion of people both lived and worked in the inner ring (83%) where there were concentrations of employment, than lived and worked in either the middle (50%) or outer ring (58%). A considerable number of people (over 320,000) travelled from the outer and middle rings to the inner ring to work.
The 2003 NSW Household Travel Survey found that the distance people travelled was related to the trip's purpose with trips to work being the longest on average.(EndNote 8)
HOME AND WORK LOCATION IN SYDNEY — 2001
On average, between 2001 and 2005 there were 27,500 approvals per year for new residential buildings in Sydney. This number was equivalent to 1.8% of the total Sydney housing stock in 2001.
Just over half (51%) of all approvals for new residential buildings in the 2001–2005 period were for those situated in the outer ring, with 28% of all dwelling approvals in the middle ring and 20% of all approvals for dwellings in the inner ring.
Of all approvals in the outer ring, most (57%) were for houses, with 23% for flats, units or apartments and 20% for semi-detached, row or terrace houses. Conversely, within the inner ring, 86% of residential building approvals were for flats, units or apartments. Semi-detached, row or terrace houses accounted for 7% of the approvals in the inner ring as did separate houses.
Between 1991–1995 and 2001–2005 the trend in housing approvals has been toward higher density housing (flats, units and apartments) and away from separate houses. Between 1991–1995, houses contributed almost half (49%) of total residential building approvals, compared with 38% in 2001–05. Similarly, flats, units and apartments made up 28% of approvals in 1991–1995, increasing to 44% of the 2001–2005 building approvals.
AVERAGE ANNUAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING APPROVALS IN SYDNEY — 2001–2005
1 Housing Industry Association 2005, Housing Regulation in Victoria - Building Better Outcomes, HIA, Melbourne.
2 Australian Bureau of Statistics 2004, Household and Family Projections, Australia, 2001 to 2026, cat. no. 3236.0, ABS, Canberra.
3 Department of Planning 2005, City of Cities: A plan for Sydney's Future, Supporting Information, NSW Department of Planning, Sydney.
4 Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006, Year Book Australia, 2006, cat. no. 3101.0, ABS, Canberra.
5 University of Western Sydney 2001, The local impacts of urban consolidation: The experience of three councils, Final Report, Urban Frontiers Program, Sydney.
6 NewSouth Wales Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources, email 12 December 2005, <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
7 Statbase database, Office for National Statistics, Population density 2002, viewed 20 February 2006,<http://www.statistics.gov.uk/Statbase/Expodata/Spreadsheets/D7645.xls>.
8 Transport and Population Data Centre 2004, 2002 Household Travel Survey Summary Report, NSW Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources, Sydney.