SOURCES OF DATA
The Census of Population and Housing
The 2006 Census of Population and Housing collected information on a person’s main job, the one in which they usually worked the most hours, in the week before the Census. A range of demographic information including sex, age, birthplace, income, hours worked and state or territory of usual residence as well as details on occupation and industry are available from the Census. While this chapter gives some data from the Census on cultural employment, it is by no means exhaustive and substantially more can be found in the ABS publication Employment in Culture, Australia, 2006 (cat. no. 6273.0).
For the 2006 Census, occupation and industry data were dual coded. This gives users the option to use either Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO) (cat. no. 1221.0) or Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO) (cat. no. 1220.0) when analysing occupation, and Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) 1993 (cat. no. 1292.0) or ANZSIC 2006 when analysing industry data. This is why the figures in table 5.1 for employment in cultural industries differ to table 5.2. Unless comparing data over time, the 2006 occupation figures using ANZSCO and the 2006 industry figures using ANZSIC 2006 should be reported.
The list of cultural occupations shown in this chapter is based on the Occupation Classification of the Australian Culture and Leisure Classifications (ACLC) (cat. no. 4902.0). Occupations were selected because they require creative participation (e.g. Sculptors and Actors), or have a role in enabling others to participate in a cultural activity (e.g. Librarians).
Survey of Work in Selected Culture and Leisure Activities
The survey of Work in Selected Culture and Leisure Activities was conducted in 1993, 1997, 2001, 2004 and 2007 as part of the Monthly Population Survey. Unlike the Census, the surveys covered all cultural work including second jobs and both paid and unpaid involvement. The surveys asked people aged 15 years and over about their involvement in cultural activity over a 12-month period. Data for 2007 appear in Work in Selected Culture and Leisure Activities, Australia, April 2007 (cat. no. 6281.0).
Voluntary Work Survey
The 2006 Voluntary Work Survey collected information about volunteering for a range of organisations, including those relating to arts and heritage. The demographic details of volunteers, their reasons for volunteering and the frequency and duration of their involvement were all collected. Summary results from the 2006 survey are published in Voluntary Work, Australia, 2006 (cat. no. 4441.0). More in-depth analysis of cultural volunteers is presented in the feature article Cultural Encounters - Australia's Arts and Heritage Volunteers available from www.abs.gov.au.
Service Industries Surveys
While the Census, the survey of Work in Selected Cultural and Leisure Activities, and the Voluntary Work Survey obtained their data from the general population, the Service Industries Surveys collected information from employing cultural organisations. These organisations were able to provide information on the number of people they employed and the number of volunteers whose services they used.
Survey of Employee Earnings and Hours
The May 2006 Survey of Employee Earnings and Hours provides information on the composition and distribution of the earnings and hours of wage and salary earners. Data from this survey have been published in Employee Earnings and Hours, Australia, May 2006 (cat. no. 6306.0).
Choosing a Data Source
Each data source provides a different perspective on employment or voluntary work in the cultural sector. Which source to use is dependent on what one is trying to measure. For example, if seeking a regional breakdown (below state or territory level) or a fine level of detail on the occupation of a person working in a cultural industry, the Census is the most appropriate data source although it suffers from only referring to a person's main job. If information on the total number of people involved in culture is required and detailed data on the characteristics of those involved is less important, then the 'Work in Culture' Survey data would be the most useful. If trying to compare the number of people who volunteer to work in heritage and arts organisations, with those offering their services elsewhere, the Voluntary Work Survey should be used.
The Service Industry Surveys are the most appropriate source if details of the number of people working in selected industries are required. Unlike the Census, these surveys include people working in the industries in second jobs or in an unpaid capacity. However, the majority of Service Industry Surveys cited in this publication only collected information from employing organisations, therefore those organisations which rely solely on the services of volunteers are excluded. Recent changes in coverage have occurred in the 2003-04 Museums Survey and the 2003-04 Public Libraries Survey. These surveys now include employing and non-employing organisations.