4156.0 - Sport and Recreation: A Statistical Overview, Australia , 2003  
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 29/03/2006   
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Contents >> Glossary



Includes callisthenics, gymnasium work, exercise bike, circuits.

Air sports

Includes parachuting, gliding, hang-gliding, model aircraft.


Attendance at a sporting event, match or competition as a spectator, irrespective of whether an admission fee is paid.

Attendance rate

For any group, the number of persons who attended a sporting event at least once during the year, expressed as a percentage of the total population of that group.

Australian Culture and Leisure Classifications (ACLC)

The ACLC consists of three parts; the Industry Classification, the Product Classification, and the Occupation Classification. The categories used for the presentation of data in this publication are those which closely align with one or more of the sport and recreation classes from the relevant classification within the ACLC. For example, the categories used to present industry data are those which closely align with classes in the ACLC Industry Classification Division 3, Sports and Physical Recreation; or with other leisure classes in Division 4 Other Culture and Leisure.


Includes indoor and outdoor.

Capital city

The six state capital city statistical divisions. The Darwin Statistical Division and the Canberra Statistical Division are excluded.

Casual employees

Employees not entitled to take paid holidays.

Club or association

Includes work social club, community club, church group, old scholars association.

Country of birth

Classified according to the Australian Standard Classification of Countries for Social Statistics (ASCCSS) (cat. no. 1269.0). The group 'Main English speaking countries' comprises United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, Canada, United States of America, and South Africa.


Includes BMX and mountain bikes.


For the definition of employed persons, see the ABS publication Labour Force, Australia (cat. no. 6203.0).

Employment at end June

Working proprietors and partners, and employees (including working directors) working for the business during the last pay period ending in June. It excludes volunteers and subcontracted workers.

Exercise level

Based on frequency, intensity (i.e. walking, moderate exercise and vigorous exercise) and duration of exercise (for recreation, sport or fitness) in the 2 weeks prior to interview. From these components, an exercise score was derived using factors to represent the intensity of the exercise. Scores were grouped for output as follows:

  • Sedentary - Less than 100 (includes no exercise)
  • Low - 100 to less than 1600
  • Moderate - 1600-3200, or more than 3200 but less than 2 hours of vigorous exercise
  • High - More than 3200 and 2 hours or more of vigorous exercise.

Full-time employees

Employees who usually work 35 hours a week or more.

Gambling industries

Include businesses mainly engaged in operating casinos, or in providing other gambling services such as lotteries and lotto-type games, TAB and totalisators, and bookmaker services.

Gambling commissions

Includes commissions received by agencies for TAB operations; commissions from lotteries, keno, lotto, football pools and instant money for businesses or clubs which operate on a commission basis and do not have ownership of the machines; commissions for racing clubs from on-course totalisator operators for the right to operate a totalisator on the racetrack; and commissions from poker/gaming machines applicable to businesses or clubs which operate on a commission basis and who do not have ownership of the machines.

Gambling and gaming taxes and levies

Includes all taxes and levies paid to the government and funds transferred to government bodies. The latter component applies to lottery and TAB businesses which have an agreement to transfer a percentage of their profit or turnover to government bodies in return for the right to operate in a particular state or territory. It includes any franchise or licence fees paid to government where applicable. It also includes turnover tax paid to government by bookmakers. This is a regulatory fee which bookmakers must pay to the relevant state government and is based on a percentage of their turnover. This percentage may vary across states.

Government funding

Recurrent funding for operational costs (e.g. wages and salaries, rent, food), bounties, subsidies and export grants, Jobstart, apprenticeship schemes, and funding provided for specific capital items or on a once-off basis.


Includes trampolining.


Excludes indoor hockey, ice hockey.

Horse riding

Includes equestrian, rodeo, polo, polocrosse.


A group of people who usually reside and eat together. This may be:

  • a one person household, that is, a person who makes provision for his or her own food or other essentials for living without combining with any other person; or
  • a multi-person household, that is, a group of two or more persons, living within the same dwelling, who make common provision for food or other essentials for living.

Household expenditure

The cost of goods and services acquired during the reference period for private use, whether or not those goods were paid for or consumed. For example, goods purchased by credit card are counted as expenditure at the time they were acquired rather than at the time the credit card bill was paid.

Expenditure is net of refunds or expected refunds. For example, payments for health services are net of any refunds received or expected to be received. Similarly, gambling wins are offset against gambling outlays to show net gambling expenditure.

Household Expenditure Survey

A survey, conducted at approximately five-yearly intervals, which records the expenditure of households rather than individuals because some expenditures (e.g. on domestic inground swimming pools, caravans, boats) are usually for the benefit of everyone in the household and therefore cannot be attributed in a meaningful way to any particular person in the household.

Information about most types of expenditure is obtained from a diary maintained by all persons aged 15 years and over in households selected in the sample. Some infrequent items of expenditure are collected on a 'recall' or 'last payment' basis' the length of the recall period ranging from two years for house purchases to three months for health expenses.

A household's expenditure on sports, physical recreation and other leisure can be affected by many things including:

  • the size of the household - the more people a household contains, the larger the expenditure is likely to be
  • the location of the household
  • the income of the household - expenditure on many goods and services increases as income increases
  • the composition of the household - the age and sex of household members and their relationships within the household will impact on their interests and spending habits.

Ice/snow sports

Include ice hockey, ice skating, snow skiing.


Involvement in sport or physical activity in either a playing role, or a non-playing role such as coach, umpire or administrator.

Labour costs

Include wages and salaries, employer contributions to superannuation funds, workers' compensation costs, payroll tax and fringe benefits tax. Exclude payments to self-employed persons such as consultants, contractors and persons paid solely by commission without a retainer; and payments to proprietors and partners of unincorporated businesses.

Main English speaking countries

Comprise United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, Canada, United States of America, and South Africa.

Martial arts

Include Taekwondo, Aikido, judo, karate, kickboxing.

Motor sports

Include car and motor cycle racing and rallying; and speedway, drag and go-kart events.


Includes indoor and outdoor netball.

Net takings

Gross takings less payments of prize money and winnings.

Not-for-profit organisations

Organisations not permitted to be a source of income, profit or other financial gain for the units that establish, control or finance them.

Operating profit before tax

A measure of the level of profit achieved prior to extraordinary items being brought to account, income tax being deducted and dividends being paid. It is derived as total income minus total expenses plus closing inventories minus opening inventories.

Organised sports and physical activities

Sports and physical activities which were organised by a club, association or school. The club or association need not be sporting body. It may be a work social club, church group or old scholars association. Physical activity such as aerobics and other exercise sessions organised by fitness centres or gymnasia are also included.

Paid involvement

Persons were classed as being paid for involvement in sport or physical activity in a particular role if they received any payment at all for that involvement. If a person undertook more than one role, payment had to be received for each role for all involvements to be classed as paid.


Persons playing a sport or undertaking physical activity. Persons involved only in non-playing roles such as coach, umpire or administrator are excluded.

Participation rate

For any group, the number of persons involved (either as participants or otherwise) in sports or physical activities, expressed as a percentage of the total population of that group.

Part-time employees

Employees who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

SAR of China

Special Administrative Region of China.

Shooting sports

Include pistol and rifle shooting, hunting, and paintball.


Excludes indoor soccer.

Sports hospitality clubs

Clubs which obtained the largest portion of their income from the provision of hospitality services, but identified themselves as being sports or physical recreation clubs

Surf sports

Include surfing and windsurfing. Exclude surf-lifesaving.


Includes indoor and outdoor tennis.


For the definition of unemployed persons, see the ABS publication Labour Force, Australia (cat. no. 6203.0).


Includes indoor and outdoor volleyball.

Volunteer rate

For any group, the number of volunteers, expressed as a percentage of the total population of that group.


Persons who willingly gave unpaid help in the form of time, service or skills, to assist an organisation or group. The reimbursement of expenses and the bestowing of small gifts are not regarded as payment for services rendered. Hence, persons who received these (and nothing else) are still treated as volunteers.


Includes jet skiing.

Weekly ordinary time earnings

Weekly earnings of employees which are attributable to award, standard or agreed hours of work. They are calculated before taxation and any other deductions (e.g. superannuation, board and lodging) have been made. Included are award and workplace and enterprise bargaining payments and other agreed base rates of pay, over-award and over-agreement payments, shift and other allowances, commissions and retainers, bonuses and similar payments related to the reference period, payments under incentive or piecework, payments under profit sharing schemes normally paid each pay period, payments for leave taken during the reference period, workers' compensation payments made through the payroll, and salary payments made to directors. Excluded are overtime payments, retrospective pay, pay in advance, leave loadings, severance pay, termination and redundancy payments, payments under salary packaging attracting Fringe Benefit tax, and other payments not related to the reference period.

Weekly total earnings

Weekly ordinary time earnings of employees plus weekly overtime earnings of employees.

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