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Examples include general government capital transfers to private schools for the construction of science blocks or libraries, assistance to first home owners and transfers to charitable organisations for the construction of homes for the aged.
Chain price indexes
Annually-reweighted chain Laspeyres price indexes referenced to the same year as the chain volume measures. They can be thought of as a series of indexes measuring price change from a base year to quarters in the following year using current price values in the base year as weights, linked together to form a continuous time series. In other words, chain price indexes are constructed in a similar fashion to the chain volume indexes. Quarterly chain price indexes are benchmarked to annual chain price indexes in the same way as their chain volume counterparts. Unlike implicit price deflators, chain price indexes measure only the impact of price change.
Chain volume measures
Annually-reweighted chain Laspeyres volume indexes referenced to the current price values in a chosen reference year (i.e. the year when the quarterly chain volume measures sum to the current price annual values). Chain Laspeyres volume measures are compiled by linking together (compounding) movements in volumes, calculated using the average prices of the previous financial year, and applying the compounded movements to the current price estimates of the reference year. Quarterly chain volume estimates are benchmarked to annual chain volume estimates, so that the quarterly estimates for a financial year sum to the corresponding annual estimate.
Changes in inventories
The difference in value between inventories held at the beginning and end of the reference period by enterprises and general government. For national accounting purposes, physical changes in inventories should be valued at the prices current at the times when the changes occur. For these purposes, changes in inventories are obtained after adjusting the increase in book value of inventories by the inventory valuation adjustment. The need for the latter arises because the changes in the value of inventories as calculated from existing business accounting records do not meet national accounting requirements. The inventory valuation adjustment is the difference between the change in (book) value of inventories and the physical changes valued at current prices. The physical changes at average current quarter prices are calculated by applying average quarterly price indexes to the changes in various categories of inventories in volume terms.
Compensation of employees
Total remuneration, in cash or in kind, payable by an enterprise to an employee in return for work done by the employee during the accounting period. It is further classified into two sub-components: wages and salaries; and employers’ social contributions. Compensation of employees is not payable in respect of unpaid work undertaken voluntarily, including the work done by members of a household within an unincorporated enterprise owned by the same household. Compensation of employees excludes any taxes payable by the employer on the wage and salary bill (e.g. payroll tax). See also Employers’ social contributions and Wages and salaries.
Computer programs, program descriptions and supporting materials for both systems and applications software. Included are purchased software and, if the expenditure is large, software developed on own-account. It also includes the purchase or development of large databases that the enterprise expects to use in production over a period of more than one year. The ASNA does not separately identify databases from computer software as recommended by the 2008 SNA.
Consumption of fixed capital
The value of the reproducible fixed assets used up during a period of account as a result of normal wear and tear, foreseen obsolescence and the normal rate of accidental damage. Unforeseen obsolescence, major catastrophes and the depletion of natural resources are not taken into account.
Contributions to growth in GDP
The contributions to growth for a given aggregate 'A' is calculated as:
100 * ((PYAt - PPAt) / PPAt) x (PPAt / PPGDPt)
Additivity for contributions to growth exists for the years where the statistical discrepancy is zero, effectively 1995-96 onwards, by using GDP expressed in the prices of the previous year. For the period 1986-87 to 1994-95, where the statistical discrepancy is not zero, the result is close to additive but not exact because the statistical discrepancy cannot be expressed in prices of the previous year. Additionally, quarterly contribution to growth estimates will not add to GDP growth due to the existence of a statistical discrepancy between the three quarterly measures of GDP.
Cultivated biological resources
Includes livestock raised for breeding, dairy, wool, etc., and vineyards, orchards and other plantations of trees yielding repeat products that are under the direct control, responsibility and management of institutional units. Immature cultivated assets are excluded unless produced for own use.
Estimates are valued at the prices of the period to which the observation relates. For example, estimates for this financial year are valued using this financial year’s prices. This contrasts to chain volume measures where the prices used in valuation refer to the prices of the previous year.
Current taxes on income, wealth, etc
Include taxes on the incomes of households or the profits of corporations and taxes on wealth that are payable regularly every tax assessment period (as distinct from capital taxes that are levied infrequently).
Transfers, other than those classified as capital transfers, in which one institutional unit provides a good, service or cash to another unit without receiving from the latter anything of economic value in return.
Buildings, or designated parts of buildings, that are used entirely or primarily as residences, including any associated structures, such as garages, and all permanent fixtures customarily installed in residences. Houseboats, barges, mobile homes and caravans used as principal residences of households are also included, as are public monuments identified primarily as dwellings. The costs of site clearance and preparation are also included in the value of dwellings.
Employers’ social contributions
Payments by employers which are intended to secure for their employees the entitlement to social benefits should certain events occur, or certain circumstances exist, that may adversely affect their employees' income or welfare - namely work-related accidents and retirement.
Exports of goods and services
The value of goods exported and amounts receivable from non-residents for the provision of services by residents.
Records all current transactions between Australian residents and non-residents.
Is the part of gross domestic product which derives from production in agriculture and services to agriculture.
Final consumption expenditure - general government
Net expenditure on goods and services by public authorities, other than those classified as public corporations, which does not result in the creation of fixed assets or inventories or in the acquisition of land and existing buildings or second-hand assets. It comprises expenditure on compensation of employees (other than those charged to capital works, etc.), goods and services (other than fixed assets and inventories) and consumption of fixed capital. Expenditure on repair and maintenance of roads is included. Fees, etc., charged by general government bodies for goods sold and services rendered are offset against purchases. Net expenditure overseas by general government bodies and purchases from public corporations are included. Expenditure on defence assets is classified as gross fixed capital formation.
Final consumption expenditure - households
Net expenditure on goods and services by persons and expenditure of a current nature by private non-profit institutions serving households. This item excludes expenditures by unincorporated businesses and expenditures on assets by non-profit institutions (included in gross fixed capital formation). Also excluded is expenditure on maintenance of dwellings (treated as intermediate expenses of private enterprises), but personal expenditure on motor vehicles and other durable goods and the imputed rent of owner-occupied dwellings are included. The value of 'backyard' production (including food produced and consumed on farms) is included in household final consumption expenditure and the payment of wages and salaries in kind (e.g. food and lodging supplied free to employees) is counted in both household income and household final consumption expenditure.
Gross disposable income - households
Gross household income less income tax payable, other current taxes on income, wealth etc., consumer debt interest, interest payable by unincorporated enterprises and dwellings owned by persons, net non-life insurance premiums and other current transfers payable by households.
Gross domestic product (GDP)
Is the total market value of goods and services produced in Australia within a given period after deducting the cost of goods and services used up in the process of production but before deducting allowances for the consumption of fixed capital. Thus gross domestic product, as here defined, is 'at market prices'. It is equivalent to gross national expenditure plus exports of goods and services less imports of goods and services.
GDP per capita
The ratio of the chain volume estimate of GDP to an estimate of the resident Australian population. Population estimates use data published in the quarterly publication Australian Demographic Statistics (cat. no. 3101.0) and ABS projections.
Gross domestic product per hour worked
The ratio of the chain volume estimate of GDP to an estimate of hours worked. Hours worked estimates are derived as the product of employment and average hours worked.
Movements in chain volume estimates of GDP per hour worked are commonly interpreted as changes in labour productivity. However, it should be noted that these measures reflect not only the contribution of labour to changes in production per hour worked, but also the contribution of capital and other factors (such as managerial efficiency, economies of scale, etc.).
Gross fixed capital formation
Expenditure on new fixed assets plus net expenditure on second-hand fixed assets, including both additions and or replacements. Expenditure on repair and maintenance of fixed assets is excluded, being chargeable to the production account. Compensation of employees and other costs paid by corporations in connection with own-account capital formation are included.
Gross income - households
The total income, whether in cash or kind, receivable by persons normally resident in Australia. It includes both income in return for productive activity (such as compensation of employees, the gross mixed income of unincorporated enterprises, gross operating surplus on dwellings owned by persons, and property income receivable, etc.) as well as transfers receivable (such as social assistance benefits and non-life insurance claims).
Gross mixed income of unincorporated enterprises (GMI)
The surplus or deficit accruing from production by unincorporated enterprises. It includes elements of both compensation of employees (returns on labour inputs) and operating surplus (returns on capital inputs).
Gross national expenditure (GNE)
The total expenditure within a given period by Australian residents on final goods and services (i.e. excluding goods and services used up during the period in the process of production). It is equivalent to gross domestic product plus imports of goods and services less exports of goods and services.
Gross national income (GNI)
The aggregate value of gross primary incomes for all institutional sectors, including net primary income receivable from non-residents.
Gross operating surplus
The operating surplus accruing to all enterprises, except unincorporated enterprises, from their operations in Australia. It is the excess of gross output over the sum of intermediate consumption, compensation of employees, and taxes less subsidies on production and imports. It is calculated before deduction of consumption of fixed capital, dividends, interest, royalties and land rent, and direct taxes payable, but after deducting the inventory valuation adjustment. Gross operating surplus is also calculated for general government and it equals general government's consumption of fixed capital.
Gross value added
The value of output at basic prices minus the value of intermediate consumption at purchasers' prices. The term is used to describe gross product by industry and by sector. Basic prices valuation of output removes the distortion caused by variations in the incidence of commodity taxes and subsidies across the output of individual industries.
The hours worked by all labour engaged in the production of goods and services, including hours worked by civilian wage and salary earners, employers, self-employed persons, persons working one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm, and members of the Australian defence forces.
Household saving ratio
The ratio of household net saving to household net disposable income. Household net saving is calculated as household net disposable income less household final consumption expenditure. Household net disposable income is calculated as household gross disposable income less household consumption of fixed capital.
Implicit price deflator
Obtained by dividing a current price value by its real counterpart (the chain volume measure). When calculated from the major national accounting aggregates, such as gross domestic product, implicit price deflators relate to a broader range of goods and services in the economy than that represented by any of the individual price indexes that are published by the ABS. Movements in an implicit price deflator reflect both changes in price and changes in the composition of the aggregate for which the deflator is calculated.
Imports to domestic sales ratio
Imports of merchandise goods divided by domestic sales. This ratio is calculated using current price estimates. See also Domestic sales.
Imports of goods and services
The value of goods imported and amounts payable to non-residents for the provision of services to residents.
Shows how gross disposable income is used for final consumption expenditure and the consumption of fixed capital (depreciation), with the balance being net saving. Income flows are divided into primary income and secondary income. Primary incomes are incomes that accrue to institutional units as a consequence of their involvement in processes of production or ownership of assets that may be needed for purposes of production. Secondary incomes are incomes that are redistributed between institutional units by means of payments and receipts of current transfers. Income redistribution also includes social transfers in kind.
Consists of taxes on the income of households, corporations and non-residents, and taxes on wealth which are levied regularly (wealth taxes which are levied irregularly are classified as capital taxes and are recorded in the sectoral capital accounts).
Intellectual property products
Are as a result of research and development, investigation or innovations leading to knowledge that the developers can market or use for their own benefit. Includes computer software, research and development, entertainment, literary or artistic originals, and mineral exploration intended to be used for more than a year.
Receivable by the owners of financial assets such as deposits, loans, and securities other than shares for putting the financial asset at the disposal of another institutional unit.
Machinery and equipment
Includes transport equipment and other machinery and equipment, other than that acquired by households for final consumption.
The 'market sector' is defined to include all industries except for Public administration and safety (O); Education and training (P); Health care and social assistance (Q) and Ownership of dwellings.
Mineral and petroleum exploration
The value of expenditures on exploration for petroleum and natural gas and for non-petroleum mineral deposits. These expenditures include pre-licence costs, licence and acquisition costs, appraisal costs and the costs of actual test drilling and boring, as well as the costs of aerial and other surveys, transportation costs etc., incurred to make it possible to carry out the tests.
Calculated as the sum of the net saving of each of the resident sectors - households and unincorporated enterprises, non-financial corporations, financial corporations and general government.
Net domestic product
Calculated as GDP less consumption of fixed capital.
Net lending to non-residents
The excess of net acquisition of financial assets in the rest of the world by resident institutional units over their net incurrence of liabilities in the rest of the world.
Net non-life insurance premiums
Defined as non-life insurance premiums plus premium supplements less the non-life insurance service charge.
Balancing item of the income account, this is equal to total income receivable less total income payable, final consumption expenditure and consumption of fixed capital. Represents the excess of income over consumption.
Net secondary income from non-residents
All transfers to or from non-residents to resident government or private institutional units which are not payments for goods and services, compensation of employees or property income.
Consists of non-residential buildings and other structures. ‘Non-residential buildings’ are buildings other than dwellings, including fixtures, facilities and equipment that are integral parts of the structures and costs of site clearance and preparation.
‘Other structures’ are structures other than buildings, including streets, sewers and site clearance and preparation other than for residential or non-residential buildings. Also included are shafts, tunnels and other structures associated with the extraction of mineral and energy resources. Major improvements to land, such as dams, are also included.
Non-farm GDP arises from production in all industries other than agriculture.
All inventories except those classified to farm and public authorities inventories.
Non-life insurance claims
Claims payable in settlement of damages that result from an event covered by a non-life insurance policy in the current accounting period.
Other current taxes on income, wealth etc.
Other current taxes on income, wealth etc. consists mainly of payments by households to obtain licences to own or use vehicles, boats or aircraft, and for licences to hunt, shoot or fish.
Other subsidies on production
Consists of all subsidies, except subsidies on products, which resident enterprises may receive as a consequence of engaging in production. Other subsidies on production include: subsidies related to the payroll or workforce numbers, including subsidies payable on the total wage or salary bill, on numbers employed, or on the employment of particular types of persons, e.g. persons with disabilities or persons who have been unemployed for a long period.
Other taxes on production
Consists of all taxes that enterprises incur as a result of engaging in production, except taxes on products. Other taxes on production include: taxes related to the payroll or workforce numbers excluding compulsory social security contributions paid by employers and any taxes paid by the employees themselves out of their wages or salaries; recurrent taxes on land, buildings or other structures; some business and professional licences where no service is provided by the government in return; taxes on the use of fixed assets or other activities; stamp duties; taxes on pollution; and taxes on international transactions.
Ownership transfer costs
Consists of fees paid to lawyers, fees and commissions paid to real estate agents and auctioneers, stamp duty, Title Office charges and local government charges. Ownership transfer costs in the ASNA relate to dwellings and non-dwelling construction.
Private business investment
Second hand asset sales by the public sector to private corporations are included in private business investment in the components non-dwelling construction and machinery and equipment. As the public sector also sells secondhand assets to the household sector and to the external sector, not all secondhand asset sales by the public sector will be included in private business investment.
Private non-farm inventories to total sales ratio
Private non-farm inventories divided by total sales. This ratio is calculated using current price estimates. See also Total sales.
A common method of examining changes in productivity over an extended period involves identifying and dividing the data into productivity 'growth cycles'. Year to year changes in measured productivity may reflect changes that are conceptually distinct from the notion of productivity. By analysing averages of productivity statistics between growth cycle peaks, the effects of some of these temporary influences can be minimised, allowing better analysis of the drivers of productivity growth in different periods. Productivity growth cycle peaks are determined by comparing the annual MFP estimates with their corresponding long-term trend estimates. The peak deviations between these two series are the primary indicators of a growth-cycle peak, although general economic conditions at the time are also considered.
Property income flows attributable to insurance policy holders
Includes imputed flows relating to life insurance, superannuation and non-life insurance operations. These include imputed interest from life insurance and pension funds to households; premium supplements which are an imputed property income flow from non-life insurance corporations to policy-holders; and imputed interest from the general government sector to households, which is recorded on the account of the unfunded superannuation schemes operated by the general government sector.
Public authorities inventories
Include estimates for general government, public non-financial corporations and public financial corporations. Recorded inventories include demonetised gold transactions (gold sales and gold loans) by the Reserve Bank of Australia and the construction of military equipment for export.
The amount paid by the purchaser, excluding any deductible tax, in order to take delivery of a unit of a good or service at the time and place required by the purchaser. The purchaser’s price of a good includes any transport charges paid separately by the purchaser to take delivery at the required time and place.
Real gross domestic income
Measures the purchasing power of the total incomes generated by domestic production.
It is calculated by:
In the derivation of the aggregate all of the adjustments are made using the chain volume aggregation method used to derive all of the ABS chain volume estimates.
Real gross national income
The real aggregate value of gross primary incomes for all institutional sectors, including net primary income receivable from non-residents. It is calculated by adjusting real gross domestic income for the real impact of primary income flows (property income and labour income) to and from overseas.
Real net national disposable income
Is calculated by:
Real incomes payable and receivable are calculated by dividing the nominal income flows by the implicit price deflator for gross national expenditure. In the derivation of the aggregate, all of the adjustments are made using the chain volume aggregation method used to derive all of the ABS chain volume estimates.
In connection with price or volume indexes, the reference period means the period to which the indexes relate. It is typically set equal to 100 for price indexes and to the corresponding current price values of the reference year for volume indexes, and it does not necessarily coincide with the base period.
Imputed transactions related to that component of income that is not distributed to equity and or unit holders in direct foreign investment enterprises, and resident and non-resident investment funds in the form of dividends.
Rent on natural assets
Income receivable by the owner of a natural resource (the lessor or landlord) for putting the natural resource at the disposal of another institutional unit (a lessee or tenant) for use of the natural resource in production.
Research and development
Creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and to enable this stock of knowledge to be used to devise new applications. It is included in Intellectual property products as a produced fixed asset.
Social assistance benefits
Current transfers payable to households by government units to meet the same needs as social insurance benefits, but which are not made under a social insurance scheme incorporating social contributions and social insurance benefits. They may be payable in cash or in kind. In Australia, they include the age pension and unemployment benefits.
Statistical discrepancy (I), (E) and (P)
For years in which a balanced supply and use table is available to benchmark the national accounts, the same measure of GDP is obtained regardless of whether one sums incomes, expenditures or gross value added for each industry. For other years, however, statistical discrepancies between the measures remain. The differences between those three separate estimates and the single measure of GDP for those years are called statistical discrepancy (I), statistical discrepancy (E) and statistical discrepancy (P), respectively.
Subsidies on products
Subsidies payable per unit of a good or service. The subsidy may be a specific amount of money per unit of quantity of a good or service, or it may be calculated ad valorem as a specified percentage of the price per unit. A subsidy may also be calculated as the difference between a specified target price and the market price actually paid by a purchaser. A subsidy on a product usually becomes payable when the product is produced, sold or imported, but it may also become payable in other circumstances, such as when a product is exported, leased, transferred, delivered or used for own consumption or own capital formation.
Taxes on production and imports
Consists of ‘Taxes on products’ and ‘Other taxes on production’. These taxes do not include any taxes on the profits or other income received by an enterprise. They are payable irrespective of the profitability of the production process. They may be payable on the land, fixed assets or labour employed in the production process, or on certain activities or transactions.
Taxes on products
Taxes payable per unit of some good or service. The tax may be a specific amount of money per unit of quantity of a good or service (quantity being measured either in terms of discrete units or continuous physical variables such as volume, weight, strength, distance, time, etc.), or it may be calculated ad valorem as a specified percentage of the price per unit or value of the goods or services transacted. A tax on a product usually becomes payable when the product is produced, sold or imported, but it may also become payable in other circumstances, such as when a good is exported, leased, transferred, delivered, or used for own consumption or own capital formation.
Terms of trade
Terms of trade represent the relationship between export and import prices. Australia's terms of trade are calculated by dividing the implicit price deflator of exports by the implicit price deflator of imports.
Total factor income
That part of the cost of producing the gross domestic product which consists of gross payments to factors of production (labour and capital). It represents the value added by these factors in the process of production and is equivalent to gross domestic product less taxes plus subsidies on production and imports.
Unfunded superannuation claims
Represent the liabilities of the general government sector to public sector employees in respect of unfunded retirement benefits. In Australia, most governments operate, or used to operate, superannuation schemes for their employees that are unfunded or only partly funded.
Unit labour costs
These series represent a link between productivity and the cost of labour in producing output. A nominal Unit Labour Cost (ULC) measures the average cost of labour per unit of output while a real ULC adjusts a nominal ULC for general inflation. A ULC is calculated as the ratio of labour costs per hours worked by employees divided by volume gross value added per total hours worked. Positive growth in a real ULC indicates that labour cost pressures exist.
Wages and salaries
Consist of amounts payable in cash including the value of any social contributions, income taxes, fringe benefits tax, etc., payable by the employee even if they are actually withheld by the employer for administrative convenience or other reasons and paid directly to social insurance schemes, tax authorities, etc., on behalf of the employee. Wages and salaries may be paid as remuneration in kind instead of, or in addition to, remuneration in cash. Separation, termination and redundancy payments are also included in wages and salaries.
Weapons systems consist of delivery systems such as warships, submarines, fighter aircraft, bombers and tanks. They are classified as produced non-financial fixed assets.
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