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APPENDIX SCORES AND SKILL LEVELS
Texts at this level are often dense or lengthy, including continuous, noncontinuous, mixed, or multiple pages. Understanding text and rhetorical structures become more central to successfully completing tasks, especially in navigation of complex digital texts. Tasks require the respondent to identify, interpret, or evaluate one or more pieces of information, and often require varying levels of inferencing. Many tasks require the respondent construct meaning across larger chunks of text or perform multistep operations in order to identify and formulate responses. Often tasks also demand that the respondent disregard irrelevant or inappropriate text content to answer accurately. Competing information is often present, but it is not more prominent than the correct information. Level 4 (From 325 to below 375) Tasks at this level often require respondents to perform multiplestep operations to integrate, interpret, or synthesize information from complex or lengthy continuous, noncontinuous, mixed, or multiple type texts. Complex inferences and application of background knowledge may be needed to perform successfully. Many tasks require identifying and understanding one or more specific, noncentral ideas in the text in order to interpret or evaluate subtle evidenceclaim or persuasive discourse relationships. Conditional information is frequently present in tasks at this level and must be taken into consideration by the respondent. Competing information is present and sometimes seemingly as prominent as correct information. Level 5 (From 375 to 500) At this level, tasks may require the respondent to search for and integrate information across multiple, dense texts; construct syntheses of similar and contrasting ideas or points of view; or evaluate evidenced based arguments. Application and evaluation of logical and conceptual models of ideas may be required to accomplish tasks. Evaluating reliability of evidentiary sources and selecting key information is frequently a key requirement. Tasks often require respondents to be aware of subtle, rhetorical cues and to make highlevel inferences or use specialised background knowledge. Numeracy For PIAAC, numeracy is defined as the ability to access, use, interpret, and communicate mathematical information and ideas, in order to engage in and manage the mathematical demands of a range of situations in adult life. This definition should be paired with the definition of numerative behaviour which is managing a situation or solving a problem in a real context, by responding to mathematical content/information/ideas represented in multiple ways. Level 1 (0 to below 225) Tasks in this level require the respondent to carry out basic mathematical processes in common, concrete contexts where the mathematical content is explicit with little text and minimal distractors. Tasks usually require onestep or simple processes involving e.g. counting; sorting; performing basic arithmetic operations; understanding simple percents such as 50%; locating and identifying elements of simple or common graphical or spatial representations. Level 2 (From 225 to below 275) Tasks in this level require the respondent to identify and act upon mathematical information and ideas embedded in a range of common contexts where the mathematical content is fairly explicit or visual with relatively few distractors. Tasks tend to require the application of two or more steps or processes involving e.g. calculation with whole numbers and common decimals, percents and fractions; simple measurement and spatial representation; estimation; interpretation of relatively simple data and statistics in texts, tables and graphs. Level 3 (From 275 to below 325) Tasks in this level require the respondent to understand mathematical information which may be less explicit, embedded in contexts that are not always familiar and represented in more complex ways. Tasks require several steps and may involve the choice of problemsolving strategies and relevant processes. Tasks tend to require the application of e.g. number sense and spatial sense; recognising and working with mathematical relationships, patterns, and proportions expressed in verbal or numerical form; interpretation and basic analysis of data and statistics in texts, tables and graphs. Level 4 (From 325 to below 375) Tasks in this level require the respondent to understand a broad range of mathematical information that may be complex, abstract or embedded in unfamiliar contexts. These tasks involve undertaking multiple steps and choosing relevant problemsolving strategies and processes. Tasks tend to require analysis and more complex reasoning about e.g. quantities and data; statistics and chance; spatial relationships; change, proportions and formulas. Tasks in this level may also require comprehending arguments or communicating wellreasoned explanations for answers or choices. Level 5 (From 375 to 500) Tasks in this level require the respondent to understand complex representations and abstract and formal mathematical and statistical ideas, possibly embedded in complex texts. Respondents may have to integrate multiple types of mathematical information where considerable translation or interpretation is required; draw inferences; develop or work with mathematical arguments or models; justify, evaluate and critically reflect upon solutions or choices. Problem solving in technologyrich environments (PSTRE) For PIAAC, PSTRE is defined as using digital technology, communication tools and networks to acquire and evaluate information, communicate with others and perform practical tasks. PIAAC focuses on abilities to solve problems for personal, work and civic purposes by setting up appropriate goals and plans, accessing and making use of information through computers and computer networks. At the time of publication, the cutoff points for the PSTRE skill levels were not available. Level 1 (yet to be determined) At this level, tasks typically require the use of widely available and familiar technology applications, such as email software or web browser. There is little or no navigation required to access the information or commands required to solve the problem. The problem may be solved regardless of one's awareness and use of specific tools and functions (e.g. a sort function). The task involves few steps and a minimal number of operators. At a cognitive level, the person can readily infer the goal from the task statement; problem resolution requires one to apply explicit criteria; there are few monitoring demands (e.g. the person does not have to check whether they have used the adequate procedure or made progress toward the solution). Identifying contents and operators can be done through simple match; only simple forms of reasoning, e.g. assigning items to categories are required; there is no need to contrast or integrate information. Level 2 (yet to be determined) At this level, tasks typically require the use of both generic and more specific technology applications. For instance, the person may have to make use of a novel online form. Some navigation across pages and applications is required to solve the problem. The use of tools (e.g. a sort function) can facilitate the resolution of the problem. The task may involve multiple steps and operators. In terms of cognitive processing, the problem goal may have to be defined by the person, though the criteria to be met are explicit. There are higher monitoring demands. Some unexpected outcomes or impasses may appear. The task may require evaluating the relevance of a set of items to discard distractors. Some integration and inferential reasoning may be needed. Level 3 (yet to be determined) At this level, tasks typically require the use of both generic and more specific technology applications. Some navigation across pages and applications is required to solve the problem. The use of tools (e.g., a sort function) is required to make progress toward the solution. The task may involve multiple steps and operators. In terms of cognitive processing, the problem goal may have to be defined by the person, and the criteria to be met may or may not be explicit. There are typically high monitoring demands. Unexpected outcomes and impasses are likely to occur. The task may require evaluating the relevance and the reliability of information in order to discard distractors. Integration and inferential reasoning may be needed to a large extent. COMPARABILITY OF TIME SERIES Data released in the previous ALLS and SAL publications are not comparable with PIAAC data for the following reasons:
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