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CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS INVOLVED
Overall, while a higher percentage of females (17.8%) than males (15.7%) aged 15 years and over worked in a culture or leisure activity, the participation rate for paid involvement was slightly higher for males (6.5%) than for females (5.5%). Females had a higher unpaid rate of involvement than males, with 12.3% of females (934,500) having unpaid involvement only, compared with 9.2% of males (677,000).
PARTICIPATION RATE, By Sex
Generally, participation in culture and leisure activities declined with age from a rate of 20.6% for those aged 15 to 24 years to 9.1% for persons aged 65 years and over. The participation rate for those receiving some payment was highest for the 25 to 34 year age group (8.8%).
PARTICIPATION RATE, By Age
Persons born in Australia and persons born overseas in main English speaking countries had the same participation rate (18.4%). However, those born overseas in other countries had a significantly lower participation rate (8.7%). Of those born in Australia, 6.4% received some payment for working in a culture or leisure activity. This compares with 7.8% of those born overseas in main English speaking countries and 3.2% of those born overseas in other countries.
The participation rates of persons living in the eight States and Territories varied between 14.9% (New South Wales) and 28.8% (Australian Capital Territory).
As participation appears to be related to age and sex, differences in age and sex profiles of the States and Territories should be considered when making comparisons. For example, the proportions of the population in the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory that are younger adults are higher than the Australian average, while the populations of South Australia and Tasmania have a greater than average percentage of older persons.
The following table shows the participation rates for each State and Territory recorded from the survey, as well as standardised rates which take account of the differing age and sex profiles of the States and Territories. The standardised rate presented is based on the age and sex profile of the Australian estimated population at 31 March 2001.
PARTICIPATION RATES, By State and Territory
The standardised results indicate that the age and sex profiles of the States and Territories do not have a large impact on the participation rates recorded, with the exception of the Northern Territory.
The participation rate for residents in the six State capital cities (16.3%) was lower than for residents in the Rest of State regions (17.6%). Persons living in the State capital cities had a slightly higher participation rate for paid involvements (6.5%) than those in the Rest of State regions (5.2%). The rate for unpaid involvements only was lower in the State capital cities (9.8%) than in the Rest of State regions (12.4%).
PARTICIPATION RATE, By Region
LABOUR FORCE STATUS
There were about 1.8 million employed persons (19.5% of all employed persons) who worked in a culture or leisure activity at some time during the 12 months prior to interview. (Note: Labour force status was reported in the survey for the week prior to interview.) Unemployed persons and those not in the labour force had participation rates of 19.5% (126,200 persons) and 11.6% (607,900 persons), respectively. Females employed part time (21.9%) had a similar participation rate to females who were employed full time (21.7%), while males employed part time (22.6%) had a significantly higher participation rate than males employed full time (16.9%).
PARTICIPATION RATE, By Labour Force Status
Information was collected for 37 different culture and leisure activities in this survey.
Over half a million persons (536,900) indicated that they had some writing involvement in the 12 months ending in April 2001. This included writing books, writing for magazines or newspapers, and writing for newsletters or journals. Over half a million persons (503,200) had involvement in visual art activities, with two-fifths of these (201,900) indicating computer art as at least one of their mediums. Almost 400,000 persons indicated that they had taken part in craft activities which included furniture-making and wood crafts (123,900), textiles (94,400) and pottery and ceramics (56,900). Other activities with large numbers of persons involved were performing arts (364,600), design (349,800) and fete organising (317,500).
There were substantially higher numbers of males than females involved in music (165,200 males compared with 116,600 females), design (197,800 and 152,000) and interactive content creation (160,600 and 73,100). Conversely, females outnumbered males by at least two to one for fete organising (233,600 females compared with 84,000 males), art and craft show organising (97,300 and 25,100) and library and archive involvements (55,300 and 20,700). A noticeably higher number of females than males were also involved in craft activities (261,600 females compared with 134,800 males), performing arts (241,300 and 123,300) and teaching culture and leisure activities (105,600 and 58,800), which exclude primary and secondary teaching.
More persons had paid involvement in writing (214,800), design (210,700) and visual art activities (175,800) than any other culture or leisure activity in the survey. Paid involvement includes persons who received payment in dollars as well as those who only received payment in-kind. Of the 900,000 persons who received some payment, 53,700 (6.0%) received only payment in-kind.
INVOLVEMENT AS PART OF MAIN JOB
Of the 900,000 persons who received some payment for their involvement in culture and leisure activities, 554,700 persons (61.6%) stated their involvement was part of their main job. Over 70% of persons involved in libraries and archives, design, or art and craft show organising indicated that their involvement was part of their main job.
DURATION OF ACTIVITIES
Most persons involved in culture and leisure activities had only a short-term or part-time involvement over the 12 month period, with many undertaking the activities for less than 10 hours per week and less than 13 weeks in the year. For example, of the 536,900 persons involved in writing, over half (50.9%) were involved for less than 10 hours per week for less than 13 weeks in the year. Design was one activity where involvement was often of a longer duration. Of the 349,800 persons involved in design, almost one-third (30.3%) were involved for 10 hours or more per week for 13 weeks or more in the year.
Because most persons involved in culture and leisure activities had only a short-term or part-time involvement, the annual income received by persons from these activities was reasonably low. For example, there were 107,300 persons (50.0%) with paid involvement in writing who received an annual income from this activity of less than $5,000. However, 65,700 (31.2%) persons received an annual income of at least $20,000 from their involvement in design.
There were over 1.1 million persons who had completed training in an arts or cultural field. The more commonly reported areas in which training was completed were Crafts (261,900 persons), Music (242,700 persons) and Fine arts (192,700).
Of all the persons who had completed training in an arts or cultural field, 69.0% were employed at the time of the survey. The percentage of persons employed ranged from 60.4% for persons with training in Fine arts to 79.7% for persons with training in Design.
Almost two-fifths (39.4%) of persons who had completed training in an arts or cultural field had done some work in a related culture or leisure activity in the previous 12 months. Persons with training in librarianship were those most likely to be using that training - some 72.2% of persons who had completed training in the area of Librarianship had a work involvement in a library or archive in the previous 12 months.
Activities which were undertaken solely for the person's own or family use were classified as hobby activities. For this survey, data on hobby activities were only collected for art and craft, writing and music.
There were almost 2.4 million persons who were involved in art and craft as a hobby activity only. Likewise, 321,200 persons were involved in writing as a hobby activity only and 103,900 persons were involved in music as a hobby activity only. These persons were not included in the total number of persons (2.5 million) with a work involvement in culture and leisure activities.
COMPARISON WITH 1993 AND 1997 SURVEYS
The Work in Selected Culture and Leisure Activities Survey was also conducted in 1993 and 1997. Due to some changes in the survey's methodology and the questionnaires used, caution should be exercised when making comparisons between the three surveys.
To enable valid comparisons over time, data for 1997 and 2001 are presented based on 1993 survey categories. While most categories were comparable across the three time periods, some categories in 2001 could only be compared with 1997, while others could not be compared at all. Activities that were not comparable across all three surveys due to changes in the questionnaire were excluded from the comparison below. Specifically, persons who were only involved in zoos and aquaria; botanic gardens; writing; publishing; performing arts; some art activities (electronic art/computer art and other art activities); some craft activities (other craft activities); design; and teaching cultural activities were excluded.
The overall participation rate increased by 1.5 percentage points between 1993 and 1997 (from 9.0% to 10.5%) but then decreased slightly between 1997 and 2001. The participation rate of persons who received some payment for their involvement in culture and leisure activities stood at 2.8% in 1993, 3.1% in 1997 and 3.5% in 2001. The percentage of the population who only had unpaid involvement increased from 6.1% in 1993 to 7.3% in 1997, but then fell to 6.7% in 2001.
ABOUT THIS PUBLICATION
This publication presents information on the number and basic demographic characteristics of persons working in selected culture and leisure activities over a 12-month period. It also presents data on the types of activities undertaken, the time spent on activities, whether any payment was received, the amount of money received, and whether those activities were part of the main job. It also provides information on whether any training in arts or cultural fields was received.
The most recent data presented in this publication were collected in April 2001 as part of the Monthly Population Survey and refer to persons aged 15 years and over. The survey was previously conducted in 1993 and 1997. Data for those years are included for comparative purposes.
Data on this topic were also collected in the four quarterly Population Survey Monitor (PSM) surveys from November 1998 to August 1999. Annual estimates produced from these data were presented in the 1998-99 issue of this publication. Due to methodological differences, comparisons with the 1998-99 survey are not presented in this publication.
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