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Industry of Employment
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Applicable to: Employed persons
A. Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
D. Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services
F. Wholesale Trade
G. Retail Trade
H. Accommodation and Food Services
I. Transport, Postal and Warehousing
J. Information Media and Telecommunications
K. Financial and Insurance Services
L. Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services
M. Professional, Scientific and Technical Services
N. Administrative and Support Services
O. Public Administration and Safety
P. Education and Training
Q. Health Care and Social Assistance
R. Arts and Recreation Services
S. Other Services
T. Inadequately Described
&&&& Not stated
@@@@ Not applicable
VVVV Overseas visitor
Total number of categories:
one digit level 20
two digit level 106
three digit level 293
four digit level 721
More Detailed Description
Quality Statement - Industry of Employment (IND06P)
There are many aspects which can affect the quality of Census data; the following information should be considered when viewing data on Industry of Employment (IND06P).
Industry of Employment (IND06P) is mainly coded using written responses on the business name and address of a person’s employer (Questions 40 and 41 on the household form) and on the type of industry and main goods or services produced by the business of their employer (Questions 42 and 43). In the first instance, industry of employment was obtained by matching business name and address responses to ABS lists of business names for which main industry activity was already known. This occurred for 44.7% of responses. The remaining responses were coded using the responses about type of industry and main goods/services produced. All coding processes were subject to sample checks to ensure an acceptable level of quality. This method represents a change from 2001 when industry of employment was based primarily on Census responses on type of industry and main goods produced, with limited use of business name information.
Lists of business names were sourced from the ABS Business Register which is also the source for ABS business collection survey samples. Therefore 2006 Census data should be more consistent with other business data collected by the ABS than in 2001.
Where possible standard procedures are used to obtain an industry of employment code, however the level of detail provided in response to Census questions, and therefore the ease with which they can be coded, varies. Standard automated processes were used to obtain codes for 68.2% of all responses about industry of employment and 31.8% of the more difficult to code responses were obtained using standard clerical coding procedures.
Note that there has been an increase between 2001 and 2006 in the number of persons whose industry of employment was coded to inadequately described or unclassifiable (to 1.2% of persons). This is due mainly to a change in processing procedures for 2006, when some of the less detailed responses were coded to this category rather than attempting to find the nearest possible appropriate code.
The non-response rate for 2006 was 1.4% compared with 1.7% for 2001. Unlike some other census variables the non-response rate is not affected by persons who were imputed into dwellings that did not return a Census form, as IND06P is only applicable for persons with a labour force status of employed.
Comparisons with other data sources
The table below compares 2006 Census data at the broader Division level for industry with data from the August 2006 Labour Force Survey (the Labour Force Survey provides Australia's official estimates of employment and unemployment, and includes quarterly information on industry of employment). There are a range of differences in the scope, coverage, timing, measurement of underlying labour force concepts and collection methodologies of the two collections, and these are the major contributors to the differences in the counts of persons employed in different industries for these collections. Labour Force figures on industry of employment are generally higher as Census data is unadjusted for underenumeration and only includes those usual residents present in Australia on Census Night. Note that Census estimates are also affected by non-response (persons imputed into dwellings that do not return a Census form, as well as persons who were included on a completed form but did not respond to relevant labour force questions). Labour Force Survey estimates only include fully responding questionnaires and are adjusted to account for any non-response. (In the table below, persons for whom IND06P was not stated have been removed to facilitate comparison). In comparing the two data sources below, the proportions of persons in each industry division are similar at this broad level.
Comparison of 2006 Census and Labour Force Survey, August 2006,
Industry Divisions, ('000s)
The Census can provide industry data for small geographic areas or population groups, together with a range of other demographic and social characteristics. It also produces data at the 4 digit level while the LFS only produces estimates at the 3 digit level and estimates below the national level can be subject to high sample errors. However be mindful that Census data at lower levels of the classification may be subject to response error. The LFS conducts personal interviews (either in person, or via telephone) which allows interviewers to clarify concepts and questions for respondents. This is not possible in the census where a self-enumeration (paper or on-line) response method is used and responses are sometimes not provided in sufficient detail to obtain an appropriate code.
Correspondence with 2001 data
For the 2001 Census the ANZSIC 1993 classification was used. The latest edition of ANZSIC (ANZSIC 2006) was released in February 2006 and so IND06P in the 2006 Census is based on this newer edition of the classification.
However, to facilitate comparison with previous Censuses, industry of employment data is also available from the 2006 Census classified to ANZSIC 1993 (IND93P), that is for each employed person record in the 2006 Census there is a 2006 and a corresponding 1993 ANZSIC code available. These, codes while sourced from the ABS Business Register, were extracted at different points in time. For this reason, Census data may report ANZSIC93/ANZSIC06 correspondences that fall outside the official correspondence published in Australia New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification Cat No 1292.0. This affects less than 1% of data at the division level.
The ABS aims to produce high quality data from the Census. To achieve this, extensive effort is put into Census form design, collection procedures, and processing procedures.
There are four principal sources of error in Census data: respondent error, processing error, partial response and undercount. Quality management of the Census program aims to reduce error as much as possible, and to provide a measure of the remaining error to data users, to allow them to use the data in an informed way.
When completing their Census form, some people do not answer all the questions which apply to them. In these instances, a 'not stated' code is allocated during processing, with the exception of non-response to age, sex, marital status and place of usual residence. These variables are needed for population estimates, so they are imputed using other information on the Census form, as well as information from the previous Census.
The processing of information from Census forms is now mostly automated, using scanning, Intelligent Character Recognition and other automatic processes. Quality assurance procedures are used during Census processing to ensure processing errors are kept at an acceptable level. Sample checking is undertaken during coding operations, and corrections are made where necessary.
The Census form may be completed by one household member on behalf of others. Incorrect answers can be introduced to the Census form if the respondent does not understand the question or does not know the correct information about other household members. Many of these errors remain in the final data.
More detailed information on data quality is available in the 2006 Census Dictionary (cat. no. 2901.0), in the section titled Managing Census Quality.