To allow for the fact that the consumption of goods and services by households may be paid for, in cash or in kind, by the general government sector an alternative measure of consumption called actual consumption has been defined. It is measured by first separating government final consumption expenditure (GFCE) into individual and collective consumption. Individual consumption refers to services that are provided by general government to households which are consumed individually, for example health and education. Collective consumption, on the other hand, relates to the provision of public services such as policing and defence. Household actual consumption is measured as household final consumption expenditure plus individual consumption within GFCE. General government actual consumption is measured as GFCE less individual consumption. Actual consumption is a particularly useful measure for international comparison since countries often have different systems for providing individual services.
Adjusted disposable income
Consistent with the estimation of an alternative measure of consumption (see Actual consumption) an alternative measure of disposable income can also be measured. Adjusted household disposable income is measured by adding the value of individual consumption (recorded as transfers in kind on the income side of the account) to gross disposable income.
Agricultural factor income
The total factor income arising from production in agriculture and services to agriculture. It is equal to the estimated gross value of production (after the inventory valuation adjustment) less estimated production costs other than compensation of employees and consumption of fixed capital for all enterprises engaged in agriculture and services to agriculture. It includes agricultural output produced by the household sector for its own consumption.
The income accruing from agricultural production during the year. It is equal to gross agricultural product at factor cost less consumption of fixed capital, compensation of employees, and net rent and interest payments.
Agricultural production costs
Include all costs (other than compensation of employees and consumption of fixed capital) incurred in current production but exclude net rent and interest payable which are treated as appropriations out of operating surplus. In general, marketing costs are as shown in the statistical publication Value of Agriculture, Australia (cat. no. 7113.0) and represent the difference between the value at the farm or other place of production and at the wholesale markets. Other costs include taxes on production and imports, fertilisers, fuel, costs associated with inter-farm transfers of livestock and fodder, maintenance and other miscellaneous items.
Average compensation per employee
Calculated as total compensation of employees divided by the number of wage and salary earners from the monthly Labour Force Survey.
The amount receivable by the producer from the purchaser for a unit of a good or service produced as output, minus any tax payable plus any subsidy receivable, on that unit as a consequence of its production or sale; it excludes any transport charges invoiced separately by the producer.
Records the values of the non-financial assets that are acquired, or disposed of, by resident institutional units by engaging in transactions, and shows the change in net worth due to saving and capital transfers or internal bookkeeping transactions linked to production (changes in inventories and consumption of fixed capital).
See 'Productivity estimates'
Transactions in which the ownership of an asset (other than cash and inventories) is transferred from one institutional unit to another, in which cash is transferred to enable the recipient to acquire another asset or in which the funds realised by the disposal of another asset are transferred. Examples include general government capital transfers to private schools for the construction of science blocks or libraries and transfers to charitable organisations for the construction of homes for the aged.
Chain price indexes
Annually-reweighted chain Laspeyres price indexes referenced to the same year as the chain volume measures. They can be thought of as a series of indexes measuring price change from a base year to quarters in the following year using current price values in the base year as weights, linked together to form a continuous time series. In other words, chain price indexes are constructed in a similar fashion to the chain volume indexes.
Chain volume measures
Annually-reweighted chain Laspeyres volume indexes referenced to the current price values in a chosen reference year (i.e. the year when the quarterly chain volume measures sum to the current price annual values). Chain Laspeyres volume measures are compiled by linking together (compounding) movements in volumes, calculated using the average prices of the previous financial year, and applying the compounded movements to the current price estimates of the reference year.
Changes in inventories held by enterprises and general government
Obtained after adjusting the increase in book value of inventories by the inventory valuation adjustment. The need for an inventory valuation adjustment arises because the changes in the value of inventories as calculated from existing business accounting records do not meet national accounting requirements. For national accounting purposes, physical changes in inventories should be valued at the prices current at the times when the changes occur. The inventory valuation adjustment is the difference between the change in (book) value of inventories and the physical changes valued at average current prices. The physical changes at average current quarter prices are calculated by applying average quarterly price indexes to the changes in various categories of inventories in volume terms.
Services provided simultaneously to all members of the community or to all members of a particular section of the community, such as all households living in a particular region. Collective services are automatically acquired and consumed by all members of the community, or group of households in question, without any action on their part. Typical examples are public administration and the provision of security, either at a national or local level. Collective services are the ‘public goods’ of economic theory. By their nature, collective services cannot be sold to individuals on the market, and they are financed by government units out of taxation or other incomes. The defining characteristics of collective services are as follows: collective services can be delivered simultaneously to every member of the community or of particular sections of the community, such as those in a particular region; the use of such services is usually passive and does not require the explicit agreement or active participation of all the individuals concerned; and the provision of a collective service to one individual does not reduce the amount available to others in the same community or section of the community, i.e. there is no rivalry in acquisition. See also Individual consumption.
Compensation of employees
The total remuneration, in cash or in kind, payable by an enterprise to an employee in return for work done by the employee during the accounting period. It is further classified into two sub-components: wages and salaries; and employers’ social contributions. Compensation of employees is not payable in respect of unpaid work undertaken voluntarily, including the work done by members of a household within an unincorporated enterprise owned by the same household. Compensation of employees excludes any taxes payable by the employer on the wage and salary bill (e.g. payroll tax). See also Employers’ social contributions; Wages and salaries.
Consumption of fixed capital
The reduction in the value of fixed assets used in production during the accounting period resulting from physical deterioration, normal obsolescence or normal accidental damage. Unforeseen obsolescence, major catastrophes and the depletion of natural resources are not taken into account.
Estimates are valued at the prices of the period to which the observation relates. For example, estimates for 2002-03 are valued using 2002-03 prices. This contrasts to chain volume measures where the prices used in valuation refer to the prices of the previous year.
Transactions, other than those classified as capital transfers, in which one institutional unit provides a good, service or cash to another unit without receiving from the latter anything of economic value in return.
Current transfers to non-profit institutions
Transfers for non-capital purposes to private non-profit institutions serving households such as hospitals, independent schools, and religious and charitable organisations.
Current taxes on income, wealth, etc.
Include taxes on the incomes of households or the profits of corporations and taxes on wealth that are payable regularly every tax assessment period (as distinct from capital taxes that are levied infrequently).
Dividends from public corporations
Comprises that part of the net income of public corporations (financial and non-financial) which is paid to general government whether described by the corporations as dividends or transfer of profits. Income tax and other forms of taxation are excluded. Public corporation net income is derived by deducting consumption of fixed capital, interest payable and working expenses from interest receivable and charges for goods and services.
Economically significant prices
Prices which have a significant influence on both the amounts producers are willing to supply and the amounts purchasers wish to buy.
Employers' social contributions
Payments by employers which are intended to secure for their employees the entitlement to social benefits should certain events occur, or certain circumstances exist, that may adversely affect their employees' income or welfare - namely work-related accidents and retirement.
Exports of goods and services
The value of goods exported and amounts receivable from non-residents for the provision of services by residents.
Final consumption expenditure - general government
Net expenditure on goods and services by public authorities, other than those classified as public corporations, which does not result in the creation of fixed assets or inventories or in the acquisition of land and existing buildings or second-hand assets. It comprises expenditure on compensation of employees (other than those charged to capital works, etc.), goods and services (other than fixed assets and inventories) and consumption of fixed capital. Expenditure on repair and maintenance of roads is included. Fees, etc., charged by general government bodies for goods sold and services rendered are offset against purchases. Net expenditure overseas by general government bodies and purchases from public corporations are included. Expenditure on defence assets that are used in a fashion similar to civilian assets is classified as gross fixed capital formation; expenditure on weapons of destruction and weapon delivery systems is classified as final consumption expenditure.
Final consumption expenditure - households
Net expenditure on goods and services by persons and expenditure of a current nature by private non-profit institutions serving households. This item excludes expenditures by unincorporated businesses and expenditures on assets by non-profit institutions (included in gross fixed capital formation). Also excluded is expenditure on maintenance of dwellings (treated as intermediate expenses of private enterprises), but personal expenditure on motor vehicles and other durable goods and the imputed rent of owner-occupied dwellings are included. The value of 'backyard' production (including food produced and consumed on farms) is included in household final consumption expenditure and the payment of wages and salaries in kind (e.g. food and lodging supplied free to employees) is counted in both household income and household final consumption expenditure.
Records the net acquisition of financial assets and net incurrence of liabilities for all institutional sectors by type of financial asset.
Gross disposable income - households
Gross household income less income tax payable, other current taxes on income, wealth etc., consumer debt interest, interest payable by unincorporated enterprises, net non-life insurance premiums and other current transfers payable by households.
Gross domestic product (GDP)
Is the total market value of goods and services produced in Australia within a given period after deducting the cost of goods and services used up in the process of production but before deducting allowances for the consumption of fixed capital. Thus gross domestic product, as here defined, is 'at market prices'. It is equivalent to gross national expenditure plus exports of goods and services less imports of goods and services. Gross farm product is that part of gross domestic product which arises from production in agriculture and services to agriculture. Gross non-farm product arises from production in all other industries.
GDP per capita
The ratio of the chain volume estimate of GDP to an estimate of the resident Australian population. Population estimates use data published in the quarterly publication Australian Demographic Statistics (cat. no. 3101.0) and ABS projections.
Gross domestic product per hour worked
The ratio of the chain volume estimate of GDP to an estimate of hours worked. Hours worked estimates are derived as the product of employment and average hours worked.
Movements in chain volume estimates of GDP per hour worked are commonly interpreted as changes in labour productivity. However, it should be noted that these measures reflect not only the contribution of labour to changes in production per hour worked, but also the contribution of capital and other factors (such as managerial efficiency, economies of scale, etc.).
Gross entrepreneurial income
The gross entrepreneurial income for a corporation, quasi-corporation, or institutional unit owning an unincorporated enterprise engaged in market production is defined as its gross operating surplus or gross mixed income, plus property income receivable on the financial or non-financial assets owned by the enterprise, less interest payable on the liabilities of the enterprise and rents payable on land or other tangible non-produced assets rented by the enterprise. See Gross operating surplus, Gross mixed income.
Gross fixed capital formation - general government
Expenditure on new fixed assets plus net expenditure on second-hand fixed assets whether for additions or replacements (other than weapons of destruction and weapon delivery systems). Expenditure on new roadworks (or upgrading existing roads) is included but expenditure on road repair and maintenance is classified as government final consumption expenditure.
Gross fixed capital formation - private
Expenditure on fixed assets broken down into dwellings, non-dwelling construction, machinery and equipment, livestock, intangible fixed assets and ownership transfer costs. The machinery and equipment category includes plant, machinery, equipment, vehicles, etc. Expenditure on repair and maintenance of fixed assets is excluded, being chargeable to the production account. Additions to fixed assets are regarded as capital formation. Also included is compensation of employees and other costs paid by private enterprise in connection with own-account capital formation. Expenditure on dwellings, non-dwelling construction, and machinery and equipment is measured as expenditure on new and second-hand assets, less sales of existing assets. Ownership transfer costs comprise of stamp duty, real estate agents' fees and sales commissions, conveyancing fees and miscellaneous government charges.
Gross fixed capital formation - public corporations
Expenditure on new fixed assets plus net expenditure on second-hand fixed assets and including both additions and replacements. Also included is compensation of employees and other costs paid by public corporations in connection with capital works undertaken on own account.
Gross income - households
The total income, whether in cash or kind, receivable by persons normally resident in Australia. It includes both income in return for productive activity (such as compensation of employees, the gross mixed income of unincorporated enterprises, gross operating surplus on dwellings owned by persons, and property income receivable, etc.) as well as transfers receivable (such as social assistance benefits and non-life insurance claims).
Gross mixed income of unincorporated enterprises
The surplus or deficit accruing from production by unincorporated enterprises. It includes elements of both compensation of employees (returns on labour inputs) and operating surplus (returns on capital inputs).
Gross national disposable income
Is equivalent to gross national income plus all secondary income in cash or in kind receivable by resident institutional units from the rest of the world, less all secondary income in cash or in kind payable by resident institutional units to the rest of the world.
Gross national expenditure
The total expenditure within a given period by Australian residents on final goods and services (i.e. excluding goods and services used up during the period in the process of production). It is equivalent to gross domestic product plus imports of goods and services less exports of goods and services.
Gross national income (GNI)
The aggregate value of gross primary incomes for all institutional sectors, including net primary income receivable from non-residents. Gross National Income was formerly called gross national product (GNP).
Gross operating surplus
The operating surplus accruing to all enterprises, except unincorporated enterprises, from their operations in Australia. It is the excess of gross output over the sum of intermediate consumption, compensation of employees, and taxes less subsidies on production and imports. It is calculated before deduction of consumption of fixed capital, dividends, interest, royalties and land rent, and direct taxes payable, but after deducting the inventory valuation adjustment. Gross operating surplus is also calculated for general government and it equals general government's consumption of fixed capital.
Gross value added
The value of output at basic prices minus the value of intermediate consumption at purchasers' prices. The term is used to describe gross product by industry and by sector. Basic prices valuation of output removes the distortion caused by variations in the incidence of commodity taxes and subsidies across the output of individual industries.
The hours worked by all labour engaged in the production of goods and services, including hours worked by civilian wage and salary earners, employers, self-employed persons, persons working one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm, and members of the Australian defence forces.
Household saving ratio
The ratio of household net saving to household net disposable income. Household net saving is calculated as household net disposable income less household final consumption expenditure. Household net disposable income is calculated as household gross disposable income less household consumption of fixed capital.
Implicit price deflator
Obtained by dividing a current price value by its real counterpart (the chain volume measure). When calculated from the major national accounting aggregates, such as gross domestic product, implicit price deflators relate to a broader range of goods and services in the economy than that represented by any of the individual price indexes that are published by the ABS. Whereas the chain price indexes are chain Laspeyres indexes, the annual implicit price deflators are chain Paasche price indexes, i.e. each year-to-year movement is calculated using the current price value shares of the second of the two years to weight together the elemental price indexes.
Imports of goods and services
The value of goods imported and amounts payable to non-residents for the provision of services to residents.
An individual consumption good or service is one that is acquired by a household and used to satisfy the needs and wants of members of that household. Individual goods and services can always be bought and sold on the market, although they may also be provided free, or at prices that are not economically significant, or as transfers in kind. Individual goods and services are essentially ‘private’, as distinct from ‘public’. See also Collective consumption.
An institutional unit is an economic entity that is capable, in its own right, of owning assets, incurring liabilities, engaging in economic activities and engaging in transactions with other entities.
Intangible fixed assets
Includes such assets as computer software, entertainment, literary or artistic originals, and mineral exploration intended to be used for more than a year.
Intangible non-produced assets
Includes such assets as purchased goodwill, 3G spectrum licences, patented entities and leases on land and subsoil assets. Estimation of these assets is in its infancy. Currently only the value of 3G spectrum licences is included in the national and sector balance sheets.
Consists of the value of the goods and services used as inputs by a process of production, excluding compensation of employees and the consumption of fixed capital.
Consist of stocks of outputs that are held at the end of a period by the units that produced them prior to their being further processed, sold, delivered to other units or used in other ways and stocks of products acquired from other units that are intended to be used for intermediate consumption or for resale without further processing.
Labour productivity estimates
See 'Productivity estimates'
Livestock assets are classified as either fixed assets or inventories. Those livestock which are used in production of other products (e.g. breeding stock, animals for entertainment, sheep for wool and dairy cattle) are fixed assets. Inventories cover all other livestock types and includes those animals raised for meat or other one-off products (e.g. leather).
Machinery and equipment
Consists of transport equipment, computing equipment and other machinery and equipment other than that acquired by households for final consumption.
Output that is sold at prices that are economically significant or otherwise disposed of on the market, or intended for sale or disposal on the market.
Five industries are excluded from the market sector: Property and business services; Government administration and defence; Education; Health and community services; and Personal and other services. These are excluded because their outputs are not marketed and/or because their outputs are derived either wholly or primarily by using either deflated input cost data or hours worked as indicators of output. The chain volume measure of the production of a group of industries referred to as the market sector is defined to be the chain volume estimate of industry gross value added of all industries less the above five industries, less Ownership of dwellings (for which an index of capital services is used as the indicator of output), plus taxes less subsidies on products attributable to the market sector industries.
See 'Productivity estimates'
See 'Net lending to non-residents'
Calculated as the sum of the net saving of each of the resident sectors - households and unincorporated enterprises, non-financial corporations, financial corporations and general government. Also referred to as
Net domestic product
Calculated as GDP less consumption of fixed capital.
Net lending to non-residents
The excess of net acquisition of financial assets in the rest of the world by resident institutional units over their net incurrence of liabilities in the rest of the world.
Net saving - corporations
This is equal to the gross income receivable by corporations less income payable and consumption of fixed capital. Income receivable by corporations includes gross operating surplus, property income and current transfers receivable. Income payable includes property income and current transfers (including income taxes) payable.
Net saving - general government
The surplus of general government gross income over current use of income. Current use of income includes final consumption expenditure and current transfers (interest and other property income payable, social assistance benefits payments to residents, transfers to non-profit institutions, subsidies, etc.).
Net saving - households
Is equal to gross household disposable income less household final consumption expenditure and consumption of fixed capital. Household saving is estimated as the balancing item in the households income account. It includes saving through life insurance and superannuation funds (including net earnings on these funds), increased equity in unfunded superannuation schemes and the increase in farm assets with marketing boards.
Net secondary income from non-residents
All transfers to or from non-residents to resident government or private institutional units which are not payments for goods and services, compensation of employees or property income.
In the national and sectoral balance sheets, net worth represents the difference between the stock of assets (both financial and non-financial) and the stock of liabilities (including shares and other equity). Because it is derived residually, it can be negative.
Neutral holding gains/losses
The value of the holding gain that would accrue if the price of the asset changed in the same proportion as the general price level.
Nominal holding gains/losses
On a given quantity of asset, it is the value of the benefit accruing to the owner of that asset as a result of a change in its price or, more generally, its monetary value, over time.
Goods and services produced by any institutional unit that are supplied free or at prices that are not economically significant.
Other changes in real net wealth
Calculated as the sum of real holding gains, net capital transfers and other changes in volume.
Other changes in real net wealth - other differences
These arise due to a different treatment of stock and flow concepts between the balance sheet and capital account estimates. Net capital formation in mineral exploration is excluded from the change in net worth in the balance sheet and included in the capital account. Net capital formation in livestock inventories is included in the change in net worth in the balance sheet and excluded from the capital account.
Other changes in volume
A flow which recognises the entry and exit of assets across the asset boundary. An example is the discovery of new mineral resources.
Other subsidies on production
Consist of all subsidies, except subsidies on products, which resident enterprises may receive as a consequence of engaging in production. Other subsidies on production include: subsidies related to the payroll or workforce numbers, including subsidies payable on the total wage or salary bill, on numbers employed, or on the employment of particular types of persons, e.g. persons with disabilities or persons who have been unemployed for a long period. The subsidies may also be intended to cover some or all of the costs of training schemes organised or financed by enterprises. Subsidies aimed at reducing pollution are also included. See also Subsidies on products.
Other taxes on production
Consist of all taxes that enterprises incur as a result of engaging in production, except taxes on products. Other taxes on production include: taxes related to the payroll or workforce numbers excluding compulsory social security contributions paid by employers and any taxes paid by the employees themselves out of their wages or salaries; recurrent taxes on land, buildings or other structures; some business and professional licences where no service is provided by the Government in return; taxes on the use of fixed assets or other activities; stamp duties; taxes on pollution; and taxes on international transactions. See also Current taxes on income, wealth, etc., Taxes on production and imports and Taxes on products.
This consists of those goods and services that are produced within an establishment that become available for use outside that establishment, plus any goods and services produced for own final use.
Consist of incomes that accrue to institutional units as a consequence of their involvement in processes of production or their ownership of assets that may be needed for the purposes of production.
A number of productivity measures are included in this publication.
- Capital productivity estimates are indexes of real GDP per unit of capital services used in production. They have been derived by dividing the index of the chain volume measure of GDP by an index of capital services. The capital productivity indexes reflect not only the contribution of capital to changes in production, but also the contribution by labour and other factors affecting production.
- Labour productivity estimates are indexes of real GDP per person employed or per hour worked. They have been derived by dividing the chain volume measure of GDP by employment (or hours worked). Estimates are also made using labour inputs adjusted for the quality and composition of labour input. Labour productivity indexes reflect not only the contribution of labour to changes in product per labour unit, but are also influenced by the contribution of capital and other factors affecting production.
- Multifactor productivity estimates are indexes of real GDP per combined unit of labour and capital.
For a description of how these estimates are derived and the latest ABS developments in this area, refer to Information Paper: Experimental Estimates of Industry Multifactor Productivity
(cat. no. 5260.0.55.001). For a more comprehensive description the reader should refer to Chapter 27 of Australian National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods
(cat. no. 5216.0).
Is the income receivable by the owner of a financial asset or a tangible non-produced asset in return for providing funds, or putting a tangible non-produced asset at the disposal of another institutional unit.
The amount paid by the purchaser, excluding any deductible tax, in order to take delivery of a unit of a good or service at the time and place required by the purchaser. The purchaser’s price of a good includes any transport charges paid separately by the purchaser to take delivery at the required time and place.
Quality adjusted hours worked
This measure of labour input takes account of changes in the aggregate quality of labour due to changes in educational attainment and the length of experience in the workforce. Labour productivity and multifactor productivity estimates based on quality adjusted hours worked are also calculated. For a description of this work see the feature article, 'Further developments in the analysis of productivity growth in Australia
' in the September quarter 2001 issue of Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product
(cat. no. 5206.0).
Real gross domestic income
- taking the volume measure of gross national expenditure (GNE)
- adding exports of goods and services at current prices deflated by the implicit price deflator for imports of goods and services
- deducting the volume measure of imports of goods and services
- adding the current price statistical discrepancy for GDP(E) deflated by the implicit price deflator for GDP.
In the derivation of the aggregate all of the adjustments are made using the chain volume aggregation method used to derive all of the ABS chain volume estimates.
Real gross national income
Calculated by adjusting real gross domestic income for the real impact of primary income flows (property income and labour income) to and from overseas.
Real holding gains
A real holding gain/loss is the difference between the nominal holding gain/loss on assets and liabilities, and the neutral holding gain. It is the value of the additional command over real resources accruing to the holder of an asset as a result of a change in its price relative to the prices of goods and services in the economy.
Real net national disposable income
- taking real gross domestic income
- deducting real incomes payable to the rest of the world
- adding real incomes receivable from the rest of the world
- deducting the volume measure of consumption of fixed capital.
Real incomes payable and receivable are calculated by dividing the nominal income flows by the implicit price deflator for gross national expenditure. In the derivation of the aggregate, all of the adjustments are made using the chain volume aggregation method used to derive all of the ABS chain volume estimates.
Consists of receipt and payment of current transfers.
Services from consumer durables
Represents the value of services provided by consumer durables to the household in the accounting period. It arises because consumer durables, unlike other final consumption goods, are not used up in the accounting period in which they are purchased. It is measured in the same way as consumption of fixed capital, i.e. as the reduction in value of the stock of consumer durables during the accounting period resulting from physical deterioration, normal obsolescence or normal accidental damage. Unforeseen obsolescence is not taken into account.
Ideally, the service flow would be calculated in a manner analogous to the estimation of flows of capital services within the general capital stock model. Flows of capital services and flows of consumption of fixed capital are related but different concepts. Capital services relate to the changing efficiency of an asset whereas depreciation relates to the changing price of an asset.
Social assistance benefits in cash to residents
Includes current transfers to persons from general government in return for which no services are rendered or goods supplied. Principal components include: scholarships; maternity, sickness and unemployment benefits; family allowances; and widows', age, invalid and repatriation pensions.
Statistical discrepancy (I), (E) and (P)
Calculated as the differences between aggregate incomes, expenditures, or industry products respectively and the single measure of GDP. For years in which a balanced supply and use table is available to benchmark the national accounts, the same measure of GDP is obtained.
Subsidies on products
Subsidies payable per unit of a good or service. The subsidy may be a specific amount of money per unit of quantity of a good or service, or it may be calculated ad valorem as a specified percentage of the price per unit. A subsidy may also be calculated as the difference between a specified target price and the market price actually paid by a purchaser. A subsidy on a product usually becomes payable when the product is produced, sold or imported, but it may also become payable in other circumstances, such as when a product is exported, leased, transferred, delivered or used for own consumption or own capital formation.
Taxes less subsidies on production and imports
Defined as ‘taxes on products
’ plus ‘other taxes on production
’ less 'subsidies on products
' less 'other subsidies on production'.
Taxes on production and imports
Consist of ‘taxes on products
’ and ‘other taxes on production
’. These taxes do not include any taxes on the profits or other income received by an enterprise. They are payable irrespective of the profitability of the production process. They may be payable on the land, fixed assets or labour employed in the production process, or on certain activities or transactions. See also Current taxes on income and wealth
, Other taxes on production
and Taxes on products
Taxes on products
Taxes payable per unit of some good or service. The tax may be a specific amount of money per unit of quantity of a good or service (quantity being measured either in terms of discrete units or continuous physical variables such as volume, weight, strength, distance, time, etc.), or it may be calculated ad valorem as a specified percentage of the price per unit or value of the goods or services transacted. A tax on a product usually becomes payable when the product is produced, sold or imported, but it may also become payable in other circumstances, such as when a good is exported, leased, transferred, delivered, or used for own consumption or own capital formation. See also Current taxes on income and wealth
, Other taxes on production
and Taxes on production and imports
Terms of trade
Calculated by dividing the export implicit price deflator by the import implicit price deflator and multiplying by 100.
Total factor income
That part of the cost of producing the gross domestic product which consists of gross payments to factors of production (labour and capital). It represents the value added by these factors in the process of production and is equivalent to gross domestic product less taxes plus subsidies on production and imports.
Unit labour costs
These series represent a link between productivity and the cost of labour in producing output. A nominal
Unit Labour Cost (ULC)
measures the average cost of labour per unit of output while a real ULC adjusts a nominal ULC for general inflation. A ULC is calculated as the ratio of labour costs per hours worked by employees divided by volume
gross value added per total hours worked. Positive growth in a real ULC indicates that labour cost pressures exist.
Wages and salaries
Consist of amounts payable in cash including the value of any social contributions, income taxes, fringe benefits tax, etc., payable by the employee even if they are actually withheld by the employer for administrative convenience or other reasons and paid directly to social insurance schemes, tax authorities, etc., on behalf of the employee. Wages and salaries may be paid as remuneration in kind instead of, or in addition to, remuneration in cash. Separation, termination and redundancy payments are also included in wages and salaries. Wages and salaries are also measured as far as possible on an accrual rather than a strict cash basis. See also Employers’ social contributions
; Compensation of employees