4402.0 - Childhood Education and Care, Australia, June 2008 (Reissue)  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 29/07/2009   
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Any/additional formal care

Includes current and/or future requirements for a child care or preschool service for: children who do not currently use any child care or preschool; children who need additional child care or preschool services; and children who require a different type of service other than the child care or preschool service currently being used.

Approved care

Includes child care providers that meet the standards and requirements of the Australian Government quality assurance system. These requirements include having a license to operate, qualified and trained staff, being open certain hours, and meeting health, safety and other quality standards. Most long day care, family day care, before and/or after school care, vacation care, and some occasional care providers are approved child care providers.

Area of usual residence

State capital cities comprises the Statistical Divisions of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth and Hobart. Note that Darwin and Canberra are excluded from this category. Balance of Australia comprises all areas outside the capital cities mentioned above, plus Canberra and Darwin.

Before and/or after school care

A type of formal care provided for school aged children before and/or after school during the school term. Some services also provide care on 'pupil free days'. The services usually make use of established facilities such as schools, community halls, and recreation centres.

Brother/sister care

Informal care by the child's brothers or sisters, including step brothers or sisters.

Child care arrangements

Relates to those types of care described as formal and informal.

Child Care Benefit (CCB)

Assistance in the form of a payment made by the Australian Government to help with the costs of child care for families who use either approved or registered child care.

Child care last week

Refers to care in the survey reference week i.e. for interviews starting Monday 9 June and ending Sunday 15 June, the reference week starts on Monday 2 June and ends Sunday 8 June. For interviews starting Monday 16 June and ending Saturday 21 June, the reference week starts Monday 9 June and ends Sunday 15 June. With the exception of Tasmania where the survey reference week related to 26 May to 1 June 2008 to avoid Tasmanian school holidays.

Child Care Tax Rebate (CCTR)

A tax offset, passed by Parliament in December 2005. In general terms, as a result of the Child Care Tax Rebate, families with a tax liability will be eligible for 30 percent, as at June 2008, of out-of-pocket expenses incurred for approved child care, up to a maximum of $4,354 per child per year. The CCTR applies to out-of-pocket expenses for approved child care. The CCTR is available for families who receive Child Care Benefit (CCB) and meet the CCB work, study and training test.

Cost of care

Cost, net of Child Care Benefit (CCB) and the Child Care Tax Rebate (CCTR), to parents for a child to attend care.


Two or more persons, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering; and who are usually resident in the same household. The basis of a family is formed by identifying the presence of a couple relationship, lone parent-child relationship or other blood relationship. Some households will, therefore, contain more than one family.

Family composition

Refers to one parent or couple families.

Family day care

A type of formal care provided by experienced caregivers in their own homes, available for a full day or part day. Schemes are administered and supported by central coordination units.

Female parent/guardian

The natural, adopted or step mother of the child, the female guardian of the child, or the spouse or de facto partner of the male parent/guardian. The female parent/guardian must be resident in the same household as the child.

Formal care

Regulated care away from the child's home. The main types of formal care are before and/or after school care, long day care, family day care and occasional care.

Full-time/part-time workers

Full-time workers are employed persons who usually work 35 hours or more a week and others who, although they usually work less than 35 hours a week, worked 35 hours or more during the reference week.

Part-time workers are employed persons who usually work less than 35 hours a week and who did so during the reference week.

Government or state establishment

Includes any preschool/kindergarten conducted or managed principally by a state/territory or Australian Government agency. Excludes preschool/kindergarten program conducted in a Government child care agency.

Grandparent care

Informal care provided by the child's grandmother or grandfather.

Hours of care

Number of hours a child attended child care.

Hours paid for

Hours of child care that are paid for rather than the number of hours the child actually attended that care.

Hours worked

Number of hours actually worked by the child's parent(s).

Informal care

Non-regulated care, arranged by a child's parent/guardian, either in the child's home or elsewhere. It comprises care by (step) brothers or sisters, care by grandparents, care by other relatives (including a non-resident parent) and care by other (unrelated) people such as friends, neighbours, nannies or babysitters. It may be paid or unpaid.

Informal learning

Refers largely to unstructured, non-institutionalised learning activities that may occur in the family and/or in daily life.

Long day care

Regulated, centre-based care that is available to children between birth and school age for the full day or part day. Centres are usually open for most of the year.

Male parent/guardian

The natural, adopted or step father of the child, or the male guardian of the child, or the spouse or de facto partner of the female parent/guardian. The male parent/guardian must be resident in the same household as the child.


The mean of a numeric variable is calculated by summing the values of all observations in a data set and then dividing by the number of observations in the set. It is often referred to as the average.


The value that divides the population into two equal parts, one falling below the value and one above.

Non-government establishment

Includes any preschool/kindergarten conducted or managed by a non-government institution or organisation, including a catholic school or preschool/kindergarten or an independent school or preschool/kindergarten.

Non-resident parent

One of the child's natural parents who is not usually resident in the same household as the child.

Occasional care

A type of formal care provided mainly for children who have not started school. These services cater mainly for the needs of families who require short term care for their children.

Other formal care

A type of formal care other than before and/or after school care, long day care, family day care and occasional care.

Other person care

Informal care by people who are not related to the child such as family friends, babysitters, nannies or neighbours.

Other relative care

Informal care by relatives of the child excluding (step) brothers and sisters, and grandparents. It includes care by 'in-laws' who are not grandparents of the child, and other relatives such as aunt, uncle or cousin .

Parental involvement

Refers to parent's active behavioural engagement that supports or encourages children's learning activities.


Educational and development programs for children up to two years prior to commencing full-time primary education.

Preschool program in a long day care

A program in a long day care centre which is structured and planned as part of an early childhood education program with specific educational aims and objectives. The program aims to meet the educational and developmental needs of children of at least 3 years of age, although some younger children may be involved in such programs.

Registered care

Child care (for parents with work-related responsibilities) provided by nannies, grandparents, relatives or friends who are registered with the Family Assistance Office. It can also include care provided by some private preschools, kindergartens, some occasional care centres and some outside school hours care services.


The ABS has defined Remoteness within the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC). The ASGC Remoteness Structure is defined only in census years, commencing with the census year 2001, and includes all Collection Districts (CDs) across Australia. The purpose of the Remoteness Structure is to classify CDs which share common characteristics of remoteness into broad geographical regions called Remoteness Areas (RAs). The structure defines six RAs: Major Cities of Australia; Inner Regional Australia; Outer Regional Australia; Remote Australia; Very Remote Australia; and Migratory.

The delimitation criteria for RAs are based on the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA), which measures the remoteness of a point based on the physical road distance to the nearest Urban Centre (ASGC 2001) in each of five size classes. For this survey, the ASGC 2001 CDs were used. The RAs were derived by calculating the average ARIA index value for each CD and applying the ASGC 2001 RA criteria.

The Migratory category is out of scope of this survey.

The Remoteness Structure is described in detail in the publication Statistical Geography Volume 1 Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) 2001 (cat. no.1216.0).

Usual child care attendance

Refers to a child's typical attendance at, or use of, preschool/formal child care/ informal child care, including hours and costs.

Weekly income of parents

In couple families, total income received from all sources by the couple. In one parent families, the total income from all sources of the lone parent.

Work arrangements

Arrangements, such as flexible working hours, part-time work, shiftwork, job sharing or working at home, normally used by employed parents to assist them to care for their child(ren).