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15 This survey cycle facilitates the formation of estimates of expenditure for financial years (12 months ending 30 June) which are presented in Tables 5 and 6 of this publication. For example, as the table above shows for 2001-2002:
16 Businesses are requested to provide actual expenditure data by State/Territory each quarter. Additionally, in each December quarter they are asked to provide by State/Territory:
17 These expectations data by State/Territory are not included in this publication but are released on AusStats and are available on request.
18 The survey frames and samples are revised each quarter to ensure that they remain representative of the survey population. The timing for creating each quarter's survey frame is consistent with that of other ABS business surveys. This provides for greater consistency when comparing data across surveys.
19 Additionally, with these revisions to the sample, some of the units from the sampled sector are rotated out of the survey and are replaced by others to spread the reporting workload equitably.
20 Adjustments are included in the estimates to allow for lags in processing new businesses to the ABS Business Register, and the omission of some businesses from the register. The majority of businesses affected and to which adjustments apply are small in size. As an indication of the size of these adjustments, in the March quarter 2002 they represented about 1.7% of the total estimate of new capital expenditure.
CLASSIFICATION BY INDUSTRY
21 The Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) has been developed for use in both countries for the production and analysis of industry statistics. For more information, users are referred to Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 (Cat. no. 1292.0).
22 In order to classify new capital expenditure by industry, each statistical unit (as defined above) is classified to the (ANZSIC) industry in which it mainly operates.
CHAIN VOLUME MEASURES
23 The chain volume measures appearing in this publication are annually reweighted chain Laspeyres indexes referenced to current price values in the chosen reference year (currently 1999-2000). The current price values may be thought as being the product of a price and quantity. The value in chain volume terms can be derived by linking together movements in volumes, calculated using the average prices of the previous financial year and applying compound movements to the current price estimates of the reference year. Each year's quarter-to-quarter growth rates in the chain volume series are based on the prices of the previous financial year, except for those quarters of the latest incomplete year which are based upon the second most recent financial year. Quarterly chain volume estimates for a financial year sum to the corresponding annual estimate.
24 With each release of the June quarter issue of this publication, a new base year is introduced and the reference year is advanced one year to coincide with it. This means that with the release of the June quarter 2002 issue of this publication, the chain volume measures for 2001-2002 will have 2000-2001 (the previous financial year) as their base year rather than 1999-2000, and the reference year will be 2000-2001. A change in the reference year changes levels but not growth rates for all periods. A change in the base year can result in revisions, small in most cases, to growth rates for the last year.
25 Chain volume measures are not generally additive. In other words, component chain volume measures do not, in general, sum to a total in the way original current price components do. For capital expenditure data, this means that the original chain volume estimates for industry groups will not add to total capital expenditure for Australia. In order to minimise the impact of this, the ABS uses the latest base year as the reference year. By adopting this approach, additivity does exist for the quarters following the reference year and non-additivity is relatively small for the quarters in the reference year and those immediately preceding it. For further information on chain volume measures refer to Information Paper: Introduction of Chain Volume Measures in the Australian National Accounts (Cat. no. 5248.0).
DERIVATION AND USEFULNESS OF REALISATION RATIOS
26 Once actual expenditure for a financial year is known, it is useful to investigate the relationship between each of the prior 6 estimates of expenditure for that financial year and the actual expenditure (see Page 4 for an explanation of the derivation of the 7 estimates). The resultant realisation ratios (subsequent actual expenditure divided by expected expenditure) then indicate how much expenditure was actually incurred against the amount expected to be incurred at the various times of reporting. Realisation ratios can also be formed separately for 3 or 6 month expectations as well as the 12 month E2 estimates or combinations of estimates containing at least some expectation components (e.g. 6 months actual and 6 months expected expenditure).
27 Realisation ratios provide an important tool in understanding and interpreting expectation statistics for future periods. The application of realisation ratios enables the adjustment of expectation data for known under (or over) realisation patterns in the past and hence provides a valid basis for comparison with other expectation data and actual expenditure estimates. Once this has been done the predictions can be more validly compared with each other and with previously derived estimates of actual expenditure for earlier years. For example, if one wished to make a prediction about actual expenditure for 2001-2002 based on the June 2001 survey results and compare this with 2000-2001 expenditure, it is necessary to apply the relevant realisation factors to the expectation to put both estimates on the same basis.
28 There are many ways in which realisation ratios can be applied to make predictions of actual expenditure for a future period. A range of realisation ratios for both type of asset and industry estimates is provided in tables 5 and 6.
29 In using realisation ratios to adjust expectations data, attention should be paid to the range of values that has occurred in the past. A wide range of values is indicative of volatility in the realisation patterns and hence greater caution should be exercised regarding the predictive value of the expectation, even after adjustment by application of realisation ratios. This is particularly the case with the early 12 month expectations for the following financial year collected in the December and March surveys.
RELIABILITY OF THE ESTIMATES
30 Estimates provided in this publication are subject to non-sampling and sampling errors. The most common way of quantifying sampling error is to calculate the standard error for the published estimate. Details of standard errors are on pages 29 and 30 of this publication.
31 Non-sampling errors may arise as a result of errors in the reporting, recording or processing of the data and can occur even if there is a complete enumeration of the population. These errors can be introduced through inadequacies in the questionnaire, treatment of non-response, inaccurate reporting by respondents, errors in the application of survey procedures, incorrect recording of answers, and errors in data entry and processing.
32 Estimates for the latest quarter presented in this publication are considered preliminary and revised estimates will be released with the next issue. As discussed in Paragraphs 36, 38 and 39, below, seasonally adjusted and trend estimates are also subject to revision as data are revised and more data becomes available.
33 It is difficult to measure the size of non-sampling errors. However, every effort is made in the design of the survey and development of survey procedures to minimise their effects. In addition, respondents may have difficulties in allocating to the appropriate State(s) expenditure on some equipment items such as mobile assets (eg. aircraft, bulk oil carriers, satellites, off-shore drilling platforms and large computer installations supporting a national network). Where such difficulties exist expenditure is allocated to the State of the businesses' head office or, in the case of aircraft, is allocated across states in proportion to the likely use of the asset.
34 The quarterly original actual new capital expenditure series in this publication are affected in varying degrees by seasonal influences. The seasonal adjustment process estimates and removes the effects of normal seasonal variations from the original series so that the effects of other influences can be more easily recognised.
35 In the seasonal adjustment process, account has been taken of normal seasonal factors (e.g. increase in June quarter capital expenditure due to the impending end of the financial year) to produce the seasonally adjusted estimates. Particular care should be taken in interpreting quarterly movements in the seasonally adjusted estimates because seasonal adjustment does not remove the effect of irregular or non-seasonal influences (e.g. change in interest rates) and reflects the sampling and other errors to which the original estimates are subject.
36 At least once each year the seasonally adjusted series are revised to take account of the latest available data. The most recent reanalysis takes into account data collected up to and including the March quarter 2001 survey. Data for periods after March 2001 are seasonally adjusted on the basis of extrapolation of historical patterns. The nature of the seasonal adjustment process is such that the magnitude of some revisions resulting from reanalysis may be quite significant, especially for data for more recent quarters.
37 Seasonally adjusted estimates by asset type for Tasmania, Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory are not separately available because of the high sampling variability associated with them. They are included in totals for Australia and while a combined residual can be derived, the measure should not be considered reliable.
38 The trend estimates are derived by applying a 7-term Henderson moving average to the seasonally adjusted estimates. The 7-term Henderson moving average is symmetric, but as the end of a time series is approached, asymmetric forms of the moving average are applied. The asymmetric moving average has been tailored to suit the particular characteristics of individual series and enable trend estimates for recent quarters to be produced. Estimates of the trend will be improved at the current end of the time series as additional observations become available. This improvement is due to the application of different asymmetric moving averages for the most recent three quarters. As a result of the improvement, revisions to the trend estimates will generally be observed for the most recent three quarters.
39 There may also be revisions because of changes in the original estimates. As a result of these revisions, the seasonally adjusted and trend estimates will also be revised. For further information, see Information Paper: A Guide to Interpreting Time Series - Monitoring Trend, An Overview (Cat. no. 1348.0) or contact the Assistant Director, Time Series Analysis on Canberra 02 6252 6345 or email <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
DESCRIPTION OF TERMS
40 A description of the terms used in this publication is given below:
41 New capital expenditure refers to the acquisition of new tangible assets either on own account or under a finance lease and includes major improvements, alterations and additions. In general, this is expenditure charged to fixed tangible assets accounts excluding expenditure on second hand assets unless these are imported for the first time.
42 Some estimates are dissected by type of asset:
COMPARISON WITH NATIONAL ACCOUNTS AND OTHER ABS STATISTICS
43 The statistics for new capital expenditure shown in this publication differ from estimates of private gross fixed capital expenditure shown in the Australian National Accounts for the following reasons:
44 For a more detailed explanation of the concepts and methods used in compiling the National Accounts estimates see Australian National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods (Cat. no. 5216.0).
45 The estimates of capital expenditure on buildings and other structures will differ with estimates of Construction activity published in Construction Work Done, Australia, Preliminary (Cat. no. 8755.0). The latter publication presents estimates of building and engineering construction work collected by the Building Activity Survey and the Engineering Construction Survey. Estimates of construction activity are based on the value of actual work done during the quarter of individual building or construction jobs by builders, and do not necessarily equate to capitalisation of this work by the builders' eventual clients. Estimates of capital expenditure in this publication are based on data reported by businesses (that is, the builders' clients) from their financial or management accounts for purchases of buildings and structures.
46 Users may also wish to refer the following publications:
47 Current publications produced by the ABS are listed in the Catalogue of Publications and Products, Australia (Cat. no. 1101.0). The ABS also issues, on Tuesdays and Fridays, a Release Advice (Cat. no. 1105.0) which lists publications to be released in the next few days. The Catalogue and Release Advice are available from any ABS office.
ABS DATA AVAILABLE ON REQUEST
48 In addition to the data contained in this publication, more detailed industry and state information may be made available on request, the cost for such a service being dependent upon the amount of data requested. For example, data are generally available at the ANZSIC group (3 digit) level.
DATA AVAILABLE ON AUSSTATS
49 The ABS' time series service AusStats contains most of the data included in this publication but with a longer time series. In addition to the series in this publication, data for Manufacturing Subdivisions and State by Industry data are also available. A full list of available AusStats tables is in Appendix 2 on page 31.
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