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13 Exporters of services are identified by their TAU.
14 Information on exporters of goods is compiled from merchandise trade statistics and is usually consistent with balance of payments principles. In a small number of cases a non-resident may own the goods at the time of departure. Generally, there would have been a transaction occurring between an Australian resident and a non-resident prior to the goods physically leaving Australia. Therefore, it is assumed for the purpose of these statistics that all owners of goods at the time of export of the goods are Australian residents and are included in the counts of exporters.
15 There are a number of situations that impact on the interpretation of the count and characteristics of exporters:
16 Apart from the exclusions mentioned above, businesses which export goods or services in a particular year are counted as exporters regardless of the value or frequency of their exports. Tables 1 and 2 in this publication present the number of exporters by a range of export values. In addition, Table 2 presents counts of goods exporters by the frequency of export transactions. This information may be analysed when considering issues such as the identification of businesses with an export focus.
17 Estimates for the value of services exports are compiled according to the IMF's Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, Sixth Edition (BPM6). Aggregate services data published in Table 1.2 and all services data in Table 10.2 align with values released in Table 9 and Table 11a of the April 2016 issue of International Trade in Goods and Services, Australia (cat. no. 5368.0) released on 2 June, 2016. However, the item 'Manufacturing services on physical inputs owned by others' has been excluded from the estimate of total services exports to prevent double counting, as exports of goods include goods exported after they have been processed.
18 The ABSBR is a two population model. The two populations are known as the profiled population and the non-profiled population. The main distinction between businesses in the two populations relates to the complexity of the business structure and the degree of intervention required to reflect the business structure for statistical purposes.
19 The vast majority of businesses included on the ABSBR are in the non-profiled population. Most of these businesses are understood to have simple structures. After some system processes are applied to the unit registered for an ABN, the resulting statistical unit is a good approximation satisfying ABS statistical requirements. For these businesses, the ABS statistical units structure directly aligns with the ABN unit: One ABN equates to one business.
20 For a relatively small number of businesses, the ABN unit is not suitable for ABS economic statistics purposes and the ABS maintains its own units structure through direct contact with businesses. These businesses constitute the profiled population. This population consists typically of large, complex and diverse groups of businesses. In the profiled population, each in scope type of activity unit (TAU) equates to one exporting business.
21 The TAU is comprised of one or more business entities, sub-entities, or branches of a business entity within an enterprise group that can report production and employment data for similar economic activities. When a minimum set of data items is available, a TAU is created which covers all the operations within an industry subdivision. Where a business cannot supply adequate information for each industry, a TAU is formed which contains activity in more than one industry subdivision. These TAU units are classified according to the industry subdivision of the main activity. TAU units may have operations in one or more states / territories.
22 The statistical unit referred to as an exporting business thus consists of ABNs from the non-profiled population and TAU units from the profiled population. For exporters of goods it also includes CCIDs and ABNs that do match to the ABSBR. Further information on the ABS units model can be found in 'Appendix - ABS Business Register and the ABS units model' in Standard Economic Sector Classifications of Australia (SESCA), 2008 (Version 1.1) (cat. no. 1218.0).
23 Legislative requirements to ensure privacy and secrecy of these data have been followed. Only people authorised under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975 have been allowed to view data about any particular firm in conducting these analyses. Results have been confidentialised in accordance with the Census and Statistics Act 1905, to ensure that they do not enable identification of a particular person or organisation.
CHARACTERISTICS OBTAINED FROM THE ABSBR
24 To help readers interpret data on the number and characteristics of exporters, the TAU (which is mapped from ABN) is used to obtain selected information on businesses from the ABSBR.
25 The information obtained from the ABSBR includes:
26 The characteristics listed above cannot be obtained for exporting businesses that are not on the ABSBR (including CCIDs).
27 The following issues should be considered when interpreting information from the ABSBR about exporters:
CHARACTERISTICS OBTAINED FROM DIBP
28 The following information can be obtained or derived from export documentation for all goods exporters including those without an ABN:
29 The aggregated data for value of goods exports in this publication matches the aggregated data in the January 2016 issue of International Trade in Goods and Services, Australia (cat. no. 5368.0) released on 3 March 2016. Table 1.2, Table 2.2, Table 3, Table 4, Table 5.2, Table 5.4, and Table 6 in this publication matches Table 14a and Table 15a in publication 5368.0, January 2016.
30 The State of origin of the commodity recorded on export documentation can be used to identify the State from which the exported goods were sourced. State of origin is the State in which the final stage of production or manufacture occurs. Determining a single State of origin is difficult when there may be several stages in the manufacturing process, each of which may take place in a different State. For example, fruit may be grown in one State, canned in another, and exported from another.
31 The industry of origin of the commodity is derived by linking each statistical code in the Australian Harmonised Export Commodity Classification (AHECC) to an ANZSIC 2006 industry based on the primary activities of the industries with which they are most commonly associated. These are the industries most likely to have produced the exported goods. Industry of origin of the commodity is a different concept from the industry of business recorded on the ABSBR. While each AHECC statistical code is allocated to one primary industry of origin, commodities can be produced and/or exported by businesses classified to a number of industries.
32 Two different concepts are used to measure the State distribution of goods exporters in this article.
33 The first measure is counts of the number of businesses which export goods produced in a given State based on information supplied to DIBP with export documentation. The second measure is a count of the number of businesses engaged in exporting activities within a given State, which is the State of business location based on main business address obtained from the ABSBR.
34 Table 6 shows value of exports on a State of origin basis. Exports data that have the confidentiality restrictions 'No commodity details' or 'No value details' are now aggregated into a single confidential commodity code. The confidential data are published as 'Total goods exports'. Therefore, individual State totals may not represent the actual amount of trade in each state but only the trade in commodities without a 'No commodity details' or 'No value details' restriction.
35 Table 7 shows the distribution of goods exporting businesses, by industry of exporter and the exporter's main State of business location as listed on the ABSBR. Businesses can operate in more than one state or territory. Main state of business location is derived from the main business address.
36 In addition to the industry of origin of the commodity, a number of tables show the industry of the exporter. This is based on the ANZSIC 2006 industry of the exporting business as registered on the ABSBR. The exporting business as defined in this publication is the owner of the good at the time of export and not necessarily the producer of the exported commodity.
37 ANZSIC 2006 provides a more contemporary and internationally comparable industrial classification system than its predecessor, ANZSIC 1993. One of the impacts of the redevelopment of ANZSIC is an increase in the number of industries at each level of the classification. ANZSIC 2006 separately identifies 19 divisions compared with 17 in ANZSIC 1993. ANZSIC 2006 was introduced to International Trade in Goods data with the release of July 2009 data. For more information about ANZSIC 2006, see Information paper: Changes to International Trade in Goods Industry Statistics, July 2009 (cat. no. 5368.0.55.011).
38 Exporter counts are presented by business size. The ABS discussed the size classification to be used for counts of businesses in Information paper: A Statistical View of Counts of Businesses in Australia, June 2005 (cat. no. 8162.0). The size classification recommended in that information paper used the number of employees only. Additional criteria have been added for the purpose of this publication, to cover businesses with large value domestic and/or export sales, but relatively few employees. This definition has been used because it caters for exporters that do not have an ABN or have more complex structures; e.g. the ABN reported on the export documentation may not be the same as the ABN used for employment purposes.
39 For the purposes of this publication, the size of the business in Tables 5 and 8 has been determined in terms of three criteria - its number of employees, annual turnover (both from ABSBR) and the value of exports (reported to DIBP).
40 The criteria to determine business size used in this publication have changed in several ways. These criteria were changed:
41 The changes were:
42 For exporters who have number of employees and annual turnover reported, the criteria to define the size of the business are:
43 There are two types of business which do not have number of employees and/or annual turnover reported:
44 For CCID exporters, the criteria to define the size of the business are:
46 Table 9 shows country data by the number of goods exporters, number of transactions, and the value of exports. Data in the Total Value of Exports columns cells previously displayed with the text 'Less than $1m' now display either a '-' if they have exports of $0 to $499,999 or '1' if they have exports of $500,000 to $1,499,999. In the Number of Exporters columns values of 0 to 4 that previously would have been displayed as 'fewer than 5' are now displayed as 'np'. The value of exports for some commodities is suppressed to preserve exporter confidentiality, but total exports by country can be released for the majority of countries.
47 Exporter counts are suppressed for those countries with fewer than five exporters to preserve exporter confidentiality. In these instances the number of exporters cell is annotated 'np' and the corresponding number of export transactions cell is not available and is also annotated np.
48 Exports data that have the confidentiality restrictions 'No commodity details' or 'No value details' are now aggregated into a single confidential commodity code. The confidential data are published as 'No country details' in the country totals. Therefore, individual country totals from June 2013 and onwards may not represent the actual amount of trade in each country but only the trade in commodities without a 'No commodity details' or 'No value details' restriction.
49 Where figures have been rounded, discrepancies may occur between sums of the component items and totals. Percentage movements are calculated from data at the level of precision presented in this publication (i.e. $m).
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