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7 The businesses that contribute to the statistics in this publication are classified:
8 The scope of the Energy Water and Environment Survey is all Australian based activities of business entities with a non-cancelled Australian Business Number (ABN) and an active Income Tax Withholding or Goods and Service Tax role, except for those businesses classified to:
9 Note that government-owned or controlled Public Trading Enterprises are included.
10 This section discusses frame, statistical units, coverage issues and improvements to coverage.
11 Businesses contributing to the estimates in this publication were sourced from the ABS Business Register (ABSBR), which has two components as described below.
12 The ABS uses an economic statistics units model on the ABSBR to describe the characteristics of businesses, and the structural relationships between related businesses. Within large and diverse business groups, the units model is used to define reporting units that can provide data to the ABS at suitable levels of detail.
13 The current economic statistics units model was introduced in mid-2002, to better use the information available as a result of The New Tax System. This units model allocates businesses to one of two sub-populations. The vast majority of businesses are in what is called the ATO maintained population (ATOMP), while the remaining businesses are in the ABS maintained population (ABSMP). Together, these two sub-populations make up the ABSBR population.
ATO maintained population (ATOMP)
14 Most businesses and organisations in Australia need to obtain an Australian Business Number (ABN), and are then included on the ATO ABR. Most of these businesses have simple structures; therefore the unit registered for an ABN satisfies ABS statistical requirements. For these businesses, the ABS has aligned its statistical units structure with the ABN unit. The businesses with simple structures constitute the ATOMP, and the ABN unit is used as the statistical unit for all economic collections.
ABS maintained population (ABSMP)
15 For the population of businesses where the ABN unit is not suitable for ABS statistical requirements, the ABS maintains its own units structure through direct contact with the business. These businesses constitute the ABSMP. This population consists typically of large, complex and diverse businesses. The statistical units model described below caters for such businesses.
16 Enterprise group: This is a unit covering all the operations in Australia of one or more legal entities under common ownership and/or control. It covers all the operations in Australia of legal entities which are related in terms of the current Corporations Law (as amended by the Corporations Legislation Amendment Act 1991), including legal entities such as companies, trusts and partnerships. Majority ownership is not required for control to be exercised.
17 Enterprise: The enterprise is an institutional unit comprising:
18 Type of activity unit (TAU): The TAU is comprised of one or more business entities, sub-entities or branches of a business entity within an enterprise group that can report production and employment data for similar economic activities. When a minimum set of data items is available, a TAU is created which covers all the operations within an industry subdivision (and the TAU is classified to the relevant subdivision of the ANZSIC). Where a business cannot supply adequate data for each industry, a TAU is formed which contains activity in more than one industry subdivision.
Contribution of statistical units to the estimates
19 The following paragraphs outline the way in which categories of statistical units contribute to the estimates of financial and economic usage variables presented in this publication.
20 All units in the ABSMP (i.e. TAUs) were eligible to be selected for direct collection.
21 All units on the ABSBR not classified as TAUs were ABN units from the ATOMP.
22 The ANZSIC-based industry statistics presented in this publication are compiled differently from activity statistics. Each ABN unit or TAU on the ABSBR has been classified (by the ATO and the ABS respectively) to its single predominant industry class irrespective of any diversity of activities undertaken.
23 Some businesses engage, to a significant extent, in activities which are normally carried out by different industries. For example, a predominantly mining business may also undertake significant amounts of manufacturing. Similarly, a mining business may produce significant volumes of goods which are normally produced in different mining industries. Where a business makes a significant economic contribution to industries classified to different ANZSIC subdivisions, the ABS includes the business in the ABS maintained population, and 'splits' the TAU's reported data between the industries involved. Significance is determined using total income.
24 A TAU's reported data are split, if the inclusion of data relating to the secondary activity, in the statistics of the industry of the primary activity, distorts (by overstating or understating) either the primary or secondary industry statistics at the ANZSIC subdivision level by:
25 The ABS attempts to maintain a current understanding of the structure of the large, complex and diverse business groups that form the ABS maintained population on the ABSBR, through direct contact with those businesses. Resultant changes in their structures on the ABSBR can affect:
26 The ABS attempts to obtain data for those businesses selected for direct collection and which ceased operation during the year, but it is not possible to obtain data for all of them.
IMPROVEMENTS TO COVERAGE
27 Data in this publication have been adjusted to allow for lags in processing new businesses to the ABSBR, and the omission of some businesses from the register. The majority of businesses affected, and to which the adjustments apply, are small in size. As an example, the effect of these adjustments is generally 5% or less for most ANZSIC industry divisions.
28 Adjustments have been made to include new businesses in the estimates in the period in which they commenced operations, rather than when they were processed to the ABSBR. Adjustments of this type will continue to be applied in future periods.
29 For more information on these adjustments, please refer to the ABS publication Information Paper: Improvements to ABS Economic Statistics, 1997 (cat. no. 1357.0).
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
30 Energy derived from sources which are either practically infinite, or which are naturally replenishable. Sources include sunlight (solar energy), hydro energy, wind and biological matter.
31 Energy that can't be replaced once used. Most common examples of non-renewable energy resources are fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and oil.
SURVEY DESIGN AND ESTIMATION
32 The Energy Water and Environment Survey was conducted in conjunction with the annual Economic Activity Survey. The Energy Water and Environment Survey sample was drawn from the Economic Activity Survey sample which used synchronised stratified random sampling. Businesses identified as being employing businesses at the end of the reference period (based on ATO information), or with turnover exceeding a threshold level, were eligible for selection. Turnover threshold levels were set for each ANZSIC class so that the contribution of surveyed businesses accounted for at least 97.5% of total industry class turnover as determined by Business Activity Statement (BAS) data. A sample of 14,404 businesses/organisations was selected for the 2008-09 Energy, Water and Environment Survey. Each business was asked to provide data mainly by mail out questionnaires.
33 Businesses/organisations which met neither of these criteria are referred to as 'micro non-employing businesses/organisations'. These businesses/organisations did not contribute to the Energy Water and Environment Survey estimates.
34 Aggregate estimates are calculated from all data using the 'number raised' estimation technique.
EFFECTS OF ROUNDING
35 Where figures have been rounded, discrepancies may occur between totals and the sums of the component items.
36 Proportions, ratios and other calculated figures shown in this publication have been calculated using unrounded estimates and may be different from, but are more accurate than, calculations based on the rounded estimates.
37 A range of further information is available, as described below.
38 The following ABS publications present information on energy, water and environment:
39 In addition, the following publications present economy-wide industry data:
Other information available
40 More detailed estimates than those included in this publication are available free of charge online from the Statistics view on the ABS web site <www.abs.gov.au >. Select Statistics / By Catalogue Number / 46 Environment / 46 Environment / 4660.0 Energy, Water and Environment Management, Australia, 2008-09, then select the Downloads tab.
41 The ABS also issues a daily Release Advice on the web site which details products to be released in the week ahead.
42 As well as the statistics included in this and related publications, the ABS may have other relevant data available on request for a charge. Inquiries should be made to the National Information and Referral Service on 1300 135 070.
43 Further key references on energy and environmental management can be found through the web sites of the following government departments:
44 ABS surveys draw extensively on information provided by individuals, businesses, governments and other organisations. Their continued cooperation is very much appreciated; without it, the wide range of statistics published by the ABS would not be available. Information received by the ABS is treated in strict confidence as required by the Census and Statistics Act 1905.
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